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Aliases for MYL4 Gene

Aliases for MYL4 Gene

  • Myosin, Light Chain 4, Alkali; Atrial, Embryonic 2 3
  • Myosin, Light Polypeptide 4, Alkali; Atrial, Embryonic 2 3
  • Myosin Light Chain 1, Embryonic Muscle/Atrial Isoform 3 4
  • Myosin Light Chain Alkali GT-1 Isoform 3 4
  • Myosin, Atrial/Fetal Muscle, Light Chain 3
  • Myosin Light Chain 4 3
  • Atrial/Fetal Muscle 2
  • Light Chain 2
  • Embryonic 6
  • PRO1957 3
  • Myosin 2
  • Atrial 6
  • ALC1 3
  • AMLC 3
  • MLC1 4
  • GT1 3

External Ids for MYL4 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for MYL4 Gene

  • GC17P044784
  • GC17P047685
  • GC17P045619
  • GC17P045761
  • GC17P042641
  • GC17P045286
  • GC17P040664

Summaries for MYL4 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for MYL4 Gene

  • Myosin is a hexameric ATPase cellular motor protein. It is composed of two myosin heavy chains, two nonphosphorylatable myosin alkali light chains, and two phosphorylatable myosin regulatory light chains. This gene encodes a myosin alkali light chain that is found in embryonic muscle and adult atria. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for MYL4 Gene

MYL4 (Myosin, Light Chain 4, Alkali; Atrial, Embryonic) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with MYL4 include herpes gestationis and myocardial infarction. Among its related pathways are RhoGDI Pathway and RhoGDI Pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include calcium ion binding and structural constituent of muscle. An important paralog of this gene is MYL1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MYL4 Gene

  • Regulatory light chain of myosin. Does not bind calcium

Tocris Summary for MYL4 Gene

  • Myosins are a large family of motor proteins that share the common features of ATP hydrolysis, actin binding and potential for kinetic energy transduction. Originally isolated from muscle cells (hence the name), almost all eukaryotic cells are now known to contain myosins. Structurally, mysoins contain a head domain that binds to actin filaments (microfilaments) and is the site of ATP hydrolysis. The tail domain interacts with cargo molecules, and the neck acts as a linker between the head and tail and is the site of regulatory myosin light chain binding. There are 17 myosin families and the most well characterized is myosin II. Myosin II is found predominantly in myocytes and mediates plus-ended movement along microfilaments. It is involved in muscle contraction through cyclic interactions with actin-rich thin filaments, creating a contractile force. It is regulated by phosphorylation via myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and by intracellular Ca2+ concentrations.

Gene Wiki entry for MYL4 Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for MYL4 Gene

Genomics for MYL4 Gene

Regulatory Elements for MYL4 Gene

Genomic Location for MYL4 Gene

47,189,362 bp from pter
47,223,679 bp from pter
34,318 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for MYL4 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for MYL4 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for MYL4 Gene

Proteins for MYL4 Gene

  • Protein details for MYL4 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Myosin light chain 4
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • D3DXJ7
    • P11783

    Protein attributes for MYL4 Gene

    197 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    21565 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Myosin is a hexamer of 2 heavy chains and 4 light chains

neXtProt entry for MYL4 Gene

Proteomics data for MYL4 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for MYL4 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for MYL4 Gene

Domains for MYL4 Gene

Gene Families for MYL4 Gene

Protein Domains for MYL4 Gene


Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for MYL4 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Contains 3 EF-hand domains.
  • Contains 3 EF-hand domains.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with MYL4: view

Function for MYL4 Gene

Molecular function for MYL4 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
myosin,light polypeptide 4,alkali,atrial,skeletal,embryonic,same as MLC1-A & MLC1-EMB
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Regulatory light chain of myosin. Does not bind calcium

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for MYL4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003785 actin monomer binding IDA 9180271
GO:0005509 calcium ion binding IEA --
GO:0032038 myosin II heavy chain binding NAS 16675844
GO:0051015 actin filament binding IMP 9738905
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MYL4: view

Phenotypes for MYL4 Gene

GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for MYL4:
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with MYL4: view

Animal Model Products

miRNA for MYL4 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target MYL4

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for MYL4

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for MYL4 Gene

Localization for MYL4 Gene

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for MYL4 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for MYL4 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytoskeleton 5
cytosol 4
nucleus 2
extracellular 1
mitochondrion 1
peroxisome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for MYL4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0016459 myosin complex IEA --
GO:0031672 A band IMP 14985854
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MYL4: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MYL4 Gene

Pathways for MYL4 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with MYL4: view

Interacting Proteins for MYL4 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for MYL4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002026 regulation of the force of heart contraction IMP 16675844
GO:0030049 muscle filament sliding TAS --
GO:0032781 positive regulation of ATPase activity IMP 9738905
GO:0060048 cardiac muscle contraction IMP 14985854
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MYL4: view

Drugs for MYL4 Gene

(4) Tocris Compounds for MYL4 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
(�)-Blebbistatin Selective inhibitor of myosin II ATPase activity [674289-55-5]
(R)-(+)-Blebbistatin Selective inhibitor of myosin II ATPase activity. Inactive enantiomer of (�)-blebbistatin (Cat. No. 1760) [1177356-70-5]
(S)-(-)-Blebbistatin Selective inhibitor of myosin II ATPase activity. Active enantiomer of (�)-blebbistatin (Cat. No. 1760) [856925-71-8]
BTS Selective inhibitor of skeletal muscle myosin II ATPase activity [1576-37-0]

(1) HMDB Compounds for MYL4 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
  • Ca

(1) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for MYL4 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
creatinine 11.1 3
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with MYL4: view

Transcripts for MYL4 Gene

Unigene Clusters for MYL4 Gene

Myosin, light chain 4, alkali; atrial, embryonic:
Representative Sequences:

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for MYL4

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for MYL4 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b · 6c ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9
SP1: - - -
SP2: - -
SP3: -
SP4: - -
SP6: - - - -
SP7: -

Relevant External Links for MYL4 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for MYL4 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for MYL4 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for MYL4 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Heart - Atrial Appendage (49.6).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues for MYL4 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Fetal heart (39.6), Prostate (15.3), and Heart (9.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for MYL4 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for MYL4 Gene Hs.463300

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with MYL4: view

Primer Products

  • QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human,mouse,rat
  • Pre-validated RT² qPCR Primer Assay in human,mouse,rat
  • QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human,mouse,rat

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Expression partners for MYL4 Gene

Orthologs for MYL4 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for MYL4 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia MYL4 35
  • 93.05 (n)
  • 97.55 (a)
MYL4 36
  • 90 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia MYL4 35
  • 92.45 (n)
  • 99.37 (a)
MYL4 36
  • 63 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Myl4 35
  • 89.94 (n)
  • 95.6 (a)
Myl4 16
Myl4 36
  • 91 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia MYL4 35
  • 99.58 (n)
  • 99.37 (a)
MYL4 36
  • 99 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Myl4 35
  • 89.52 (n)
  • 95.6 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia MYL4 36
  • 95 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia MYL4 36
  • 74 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves MYL4 35
  • 80.92 (n)
  • 88.05 (a)
MYL4 36
  • 85 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia MYL4 36
  • 85 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia myl4 35
  • 75.89 (n)
  • 86.79 (a)
Str.7898 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii myl4 35
  • 73.17 (n)
  • 83.02 (a)
cmlc1 36
  • 77 (a)
myl4 36
  • 83 (a)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.7231 35
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Mlc-c 37
  • 53 (a)
Mlc-c 36
  • 52 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea T12D8.6 37
  • 46 (a)
mlc-5 36
  • 48 (a)
mlc-6 36
  • 47 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes MLC1 36
  • 36 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.211 36
  • 60 (a)
CSA.4806 36
  • 46 (a)
CSA.6288 36
  • 47 (a)
CSA.6678 36
  • 46 (a)
Species with no ortholog for MYL4:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for MYL4 Gene

Gene Tree for MYL4 (if available)
Gene Tree for MYL4 (if available)

Paralogs for MYL4 Gene

Paralogs for MYL4 Gene

(11) SIMAP similar genes for MYL4 Gene using alignment to 6 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with MYL4: view

Variants for MYL4 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for MYL4 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 17 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs4784 -- 47,222,440(+) CAATG(G/T)CTGCA reference, missense
rs739571 -- 47,198,420(+) TATAG(C/T)ATCTG intron-variant
rs858673 -- 47,191,563(-) AACCC(C/T)GGAGG intron-variant
rs908359 -- 47,203,958(-) GACAC(A/G)GTGGC intron-variant
rs1106950 -- 47,204,039(-) CTTTA(G/T)ACAAA intron-variant

Relevant External Links for MYL4 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for MYL4 Gene

Disorders for MYL4 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

MalaCards: The human disease database.

Search for MYL4 Gene in MalaCards »

(2) Diseases for MYL4 Gene

(1) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for MYL4 Gene

(6) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for MYL4 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
ventricular aneurysm 77.9 2
aortic stenosis 48 2
congenital heart disease 40.4 3
acute myocardial infarction 23.3 1
myocardial infarction 10.8 3

Relevant External Links for MYL4

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with MYL4: view

No data available for OMIM , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for MYL4 Gene

Publications for MYL4 Gene

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of human atrial and ventricular myosin alkali light chain cDNA clones. (PMID: 3417683) Kurabayashi M. … Yazaki Y. (J. Biol. Chem. 1988) 2 3 4
  2. Tuning the human heart molecular motors by myosin light chains. (PMID: 10494800) Morano I. (J. Mol. Med. 1999) 3 23
  3. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard D.S. … Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004) 3 4
  4. Human embryonic/atrial myosin alkali light chain gene: characterization, sequence, and chromosomal location. (PMID: 2129532) Seharaseyon J. … Vanin E.F. (Genomics 1990) 3 4
  5. Heterogenic mRNAs with an identical protein-coding region of the human embryonic myosin alkali light chain in skeletal muscle cells. (PMID: 2308163) Zimmermann K. … Starzinski-Powitz A. (J. Mol. Biol. 1990) 3 4

Products for MYL4 Gene

Sources for MYL4 Gene

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