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Aliases for MYL4 Gene

Aliases for MYL4 Gene

  • Myosin Light Chain 4 2 3 5
  • Myosin, Light Polypeptide 4, Alkali; Atrial, Embryonic 2 3
  • Myosin Light Chain 1, Embryonic Muscle/Atrial Isoform 3 4
  • Myosin, Light Chain 4, Alkali; Atrial, Embryonic 2 3
  • Myosin Light Chain Alkali GT-1 Isoform 3 4
  • Myosin, Atrial/Fetal Muscle, Light Chain 3
  • Atrial/Fetal Muscle 2
  • Light Chain 2
  • PRO1957 3
  • Myosin 2
  • ALC1 3
  • AMLC 3
  • MLC1 4
  • GT1 3

External Ids for MYL4 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for MYL4 Gene

  • GC17P044784
  • GC17P047685
  • GC17P045619
  • GC17P045761
  • GC17P042641
  • GC17P045286
  • GC17P040664

Summaries for MYL4 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for MYL4 Gene

  • Myosin is a hexameric ATPase cellular motor protein. It is composed of two myosin heavy chains, two nonphosphorylatable myosin alkali light chains, and two phosphorylatable myosin regulatory light chains. This gene encodes a myosin alkali light chain that is found in embryonic muscle and adult atria. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for MYL4 Gene

MYL4 (Myosin Light Chain 4) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with MYL4 include Congenital Disorder Of Glycosylation, Type Iid and Aortic Valve Disease 2. Among its related pathways are ERK Signaling and Activation of cAMP-Dependent PKA. GO annotations related to this gene include calcium ion binding and actin monomer binding. An important paralog of this gene is MYL3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MYL4 Gene

  • Regulatory light chain of myosin. Does not bind calcium.

Tocris Summary for MYL4 Gene

  • Myosins are a large family of motor proteins that share the common features of ATP hydrolysis (ATPase enzyme activity), actin binding and potential for kinetic energy transduction. Originally isolated from muscle cells, almost all eukaryotic cells are known to contain myosins.

Gene Wiki entry for MYL4 Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for MYL4 Gene

Genomics for MYL4 Gene

Regulatory Elements for MYL4 Gene

Enhancers for MYL4 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around MYL4 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for MYL4 Gene

47,200,446 bp from pter
47,227,697 bp from pter
27,252 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for MYL4 Gene

Genes around MYL4 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
MYL4 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for MYL4 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for MYL4 Gene

Proteins for MYL4 Gene

  • Protein details for MYL4 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Myosin light chain 4
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • D3DXJ7
    • P11783

    Protein attributes for MYL4 Gene

    197 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    21565 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Myosin is a hexamer of 2 heavy chains and 4 light chains.

neXtProt entry for MYL4 Gene

Proteomics data for MYL4 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for MYL4 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for MYL4 Gene

Domains & Families for MYL4 Gene

Protein Domains for MYL4 Gene


Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for MYL4 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Contains 3 EF-hand domains.
  • Contains 3 EF-hand domains.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with MYL4: view

Function for MYL4 Gene

Molecular function for MYL4 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
myosin,light polypeptide 4,alkali,atrial,skeletal,embryonic,same as MLC1-A & MLC1-EMB
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Regulatory light chain of myosin. Does not bind calcium.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for MYL4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0051015 actin filament binding IMP 9738905
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MYL4: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with MYL4: view

Animal Model Products

miRNA for MYL4 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target MYL4

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for MYL4 Gene

Localization for MYL4 Gene

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for MYL4 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for MYL4 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
cytoskeleton 4
nucleus 2
chloroplast 1
extracellular 1
mitochondrion 1
peroxisome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for MYL4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0016459 myosin complex IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MYL4: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MYL4 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for MYL4 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with MYL4: view

Interacting Proteins for MYL4 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for MYL4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0060048 cardiac muscle contraction IMP 14985854
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MYL4: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for MYL4 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for MYL4 Gene

(1) Drugs for MYL4 Gene - From: HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
calcium Nutra 0

(6) Additional Compounds for MYL4 Gene - From: Novoseek and Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
ML 9 hydrochloride
W-7 hydrochloride

(5) Tocris Compounds for MYL4 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
(+-)-Blebbistatin Selective inhibitor of myosin II ATPase activity 674289-55-5
(R)-(+)-Blebbistatin Selective inhibitor of myosin II ATPase activity. Inactive enantiomer of (+-)-blebbistatin (Cat. No. 1760) 1177356-70-5
(S)-(-)-Blebbistatin Selective inhibitor of myosin II ATPase activity. Active enantiomer of (+-)-blebbistatin (Cat. No. 1760) 856925-71-8
ML 9 hydrochloride Myosin light chain kinase inhibitor 105637-50-1
W-7 hydrochloride Calmodulin antagonist. Inhibits myosin light chain kinase 61714-27-0
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with MYL4: view

Transcripts for MYL4 Gene

Unigene Clusters for MYL4 Gene

Myosin, light chain 4, alkali; atrial, embryonic:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for MYL4 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b · 6c ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9
SP1: - - -
SP2: - -
SP3: -
SP4: - -
SP6: - - - -
SP7: -

Relevant External Links for MYL4 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for MYL4 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for MYL4 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for MYL4 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Heart - Atrial Appendage (x49.6).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for MYL4 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Fetal heart (39.6), Prostate (15.3), and Heart (9.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for MYL4 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for MYL4 Gene Hs.463300

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with MYL4: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Protein tissue co-expression partners for MYL4 Gene

Orthologs for MYL4 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for MYL4 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia MYL4 35
  • 93.05 (n)
  • 97.55 (a)
MYL4 36
  • 90 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia MYL4 35
  • 92.45 (n)
  • 99.37 (a)
MYL4 36
  • 63 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Myl4 35
  • 89.94 (n)
  • 95.6 (a)
Myl4 16
Myl4 36
  • 91 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia MYL4 35
  • 99.58 (n)
  • 99.37 (a)
MYL4 36
  • 99 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Myl4 35
  • 89.52 (n)
  • 95.6 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia MYL4 36
  • 95 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia MYL4 36
  • 74 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves MYL4 35
  • 80.92 (n)
  • 88.05 (a)
MYL4 36
  • 85 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia MYL4 36
  • 85 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia myl4 35
  • 75.89 (n)
  • 86.79 (a)
Str.7898 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii myl4 35
  • 73.17 (n)
  • 83.02 (a)
cmlc1 36
  • 77 (a)
myl4 36
  • 83 (a)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.7231 35
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Mlc-c 37
  • 53 (a)
Mlc-c 36
  • 52 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea T12D8.6 37
  • 46 (a)
mlc-5 36
  • 48 (a)
mlc-6 36
  • 47 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes MLC1 36
  • 36 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.211 36
  • 60 (a)
CSA.4806 36
  • 46 (a)
CSA.6288 36
  • 47 (a)
CSA.6678 36
  • 46 (a)
Species with no ortholog for MYL4:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for MYL4 Gene

Gene Tree for MYL4 (if available)
Gene Tree for MYL4 (if available)

Paralogs for MYL4 Gene

Paralogs for MYL4 Gene

(11) SIMAP similar genes for MYL4 Gene using alignment to 6 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with MYL4: view

Variants for MYL4 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for MYL4 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 17 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs16941677 - 47,222,448(+) GCATC(A/T)ATTAT reference, missense
rs4784 -- 47,222,440(+) CAATG(G/T)CTGCA reference, missense
rs10930 -- 47,223,523(+) CCTTG(G/T)CTTTA intron-variant, utr-variant-3-prime
rs13589 -- 47,221,782(+) GAGGG(C/T)CTGCG reference, synonymous-codon
rs14793 -- 47,209,486(+) ctcca(G/T)cccct reference, missense

Variation tolerance for MYL4 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 66.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.63; 31.30% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for MYL4 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for MYL4 Gene

Disorders for MYL4 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(4) MalaCards diseases for MYL4 Gene - From: OMIM, DISEASES, and Novoseek

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
congenital disorder of glycosylation, type iid
  • congenital disorder of glycosylation 2d
aortic valve disease 2
  • aortic valve stenosis
familial atrial fibrillation
  • atrial fibrillation, familial, 1
conotruncal heart malformations
  • double-outlet right ventricle
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search MYL4 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for MYL4

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with MYL4: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for MYL4 Gene

Publications for MYL4 Gene

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of human atrial and ventricular myosin alkali light chain cDNA clones. (PMID: 3417683) Kurabayashi M. … Yazaki Y. (J. Biol. Chem. 1988) 2 3 4 67
  2. Human atrial myosin light chain 1 expression attenuates heart failure. (PMID: 16106982) Abdelaziz A.I. … Morano I. (Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 2005) 3 23
  3. Functional characterization of the human atrial essential myosin light chain (hALC-1) in a transgenic rat model. (PMID: 14985854) Abdelaziz A.I. … Morano I. (J. Mol. Med. 2004) 3 23
  4. Proteomic analysis of pharmacologically preconditioned cardiomyocytes reveals novel phosphorylation of myosin light chain 1. (PMID: 11557734) Arrell D.K. … Van Eyk J.E. (Circ. Res. 2001) 3 23
  5. Tuning the human heart molecular motors by myosin light chains. (PMID: 10494800) Morano I. (J. Mol. Med. 1999) 3 23

Products for MYL4 Gene

Sources for MYL4 Gene