Aliases for MYH16 Gene
Previous HGNC Symbols for MYH16 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for MYH16 Gene
The MYH16 gene, encoding a sarcomeric myosin heavy chain expressed in nonhuman primate masticatory muscles, is inactivated in humans. Stedman et al. (2004) [PubMed 15042088] hypothesized that the decrement in masticatory muscle size caused by the inactivation of MYH16 removed an evolutionary constraint on encephalization in early man.[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
GeneCards Summary for MYH16 Gene
Myosins are a large family of motor proteins that share the common features of ATP hydrolysis, actin binding and potential for kinetic energy transduction. Originally isolated from muscle cells (hence the name), almost all eukaryotic cells are now known to contain myosins. Structurally, mysoins contain a head domain that binds to actin filaments (microfilaments) and is the site of ATP hydrolysis. The tail domain interacts with cargo molecules, and the neck acts as a linker between the head and tail and is the site of regulatory myosin light chain binding. There are 17 myosin families and the most well characterized is myosin II. Myosin II is found predominantly in myocytes and mediates plus-ended movement along microfilaments. It is involved in muscle contraction through cyclic interactions with actin-rich thin filaments, creating a contractile force. It is regulated by phosphorylation via myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and by intracellular Ca2+ concentrations.