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Category   Symbol Source: HGNC EntrezGene Ensembl GeneCards RNA genes CroW21
GIFtS

MTOR Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 69
GCID: GC01M011166

Mechanistic Target Of Rapamycin (Serine/Threonine Kinase)

(Previous name: FK506 binding protein 12-rapamycin associated protein 1)
(Previous symbols: FRAP, FRAP2, FRAP1)
Microbiology & Infectious Diseases Congress
  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
About This Section

Aliases
Mechanistic Target Of Rapamycin (Serine/Threonine Kinase)1 2     RAFT12 3
FRAP11 2 3 5     RAPT12 3
FRAP1 2 3     FK506-Binding Protein 12-Rapamycin Complex-Associated Protein 12 3
FRAP21 2 3     DJ576K7.1 (FK506 Binding Protein 12-Rapamycin Associated Protein 1)1
Mammalian Target Of Rapamycin1 2 3     FK506 Binding Protein 12-Rapamycin Associated Protein 11
Rapamycin And FKBP12 Target 11 2 3     Rapamycin Target Protein1
FK506 Binding Protein 12-Rapamycin Associated Protein 21 2     Serine/Threonine-Protein Kinase MTOR2
FKBP-Rapamycin Associated Protein1 2     EC 2.7.11.13
FKBP12-Rapamycin Complex-Associated Protein 11 2     FKBP12-Rapamycin Complex-Associated Protein3
Rapamycin Associated Protein FRAP21 2     mTOR3
Rapamycin Target Protein 12 3     Mechanistic Target Of Rapamycin3

External Ids:    HGNC: 39421   Entrez Gene: 24752   Ensembl: ENSG000001987937   OMIM: 6012315   UniProtKB: P423453   

Export aliases for MTOR gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC01M011089 GC01M010317


(According to Entrez Gene, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

Entrez Gene summary for MTOR Gene:
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to a family of phosphatidylinositol kinase-related kinases. These kinases
mediate cellular responses to stresses such as DNA damage and nutrient deprivation. This protein acts as the
target for the cell-cycle arrest and immunosuppressive effects of the FKBP12-rapamycin complex. The ANGPTL7 gene
is located in an intron of this gene. (provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008)

GeneCards Summary for MTOR Gene: 
MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin (serine/threonine kinase)) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with MTOR include paronychia, and kidney angiomyolipoma, and among its related super-pathways are Translation Insulin regulation of translation and Signal transduction AKT signaling. GO annotations related to this gene include drug binding and protein serine/threonine kinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is ENSG00000261740.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: MTOR_HUMAN, P42345
Function: Serine/threonine protein kinase which is a central regulator of cellular metabolism, growth and survival
in response to hormones, growth factors, nutrients, energy and stress signals. Functions as part of 2
structurally and functionally distinct signaling complexes mTORC1 and mTORC2 (mTOR complex 1 and 2). Activated
mTORC1 up-regulates protein synthesis by phosphorylating key regulators of mRNA translation and ribosome
synthesis. This includes phosphorylation of EIF4EBP1 and release of its inhibition toward the elongation
initiation factor 4E (eiF4E). Moreover, phosphorylates and activates RPS6KB1 and RPS6KB2 that promote protein
synthesis by modulating the activity of their downstream targets including ribosomal protein S6, eukaryotic
translation initiation factor EIF4B and the inhibitor of translation initiation PDCD4. Regulates ribosome
synthesis by activating RNA polymerase III-dependent transcription through phosphorylation and inhibition of MAF1
a RNA polymerase III-repressor. In parallel to protein synthesis, also regulates lipid synthesis through
SREBF1/SREBP1 and LPIN1. To maintain energy homeostasis mTORC1 may also regulate mitochondrial biogenesis through
regulation of PPARGC1A. mTORC1 also negatively regulates autophagy through phosphorylation of ULK1. Under
nutrient sufficiency, phosphorylates ULK1 at 'Ser-758', disrupting the interaction with AMPK and preventing
activation of ULK1. Also prevents autophagy through phosphorylation of the autophagy inhibitor DAP. mTORC1 exerts
a feedback control on upstream growth factor signaling that includes phosphorylation and activation of GRB10 a
INSR-dependent signaling suppressor. Among other potential targets mTORC1 may phosphorylate CLIP1 and regulate
microtubules. As part of the mTORC2 complex MTOR may regulate other cellular processes including survival and
organization of the cytoskeleton. Plays a critical role in the phosphorylation at 'Ser-473' of AKT1, a
pro-survival effector of phosphoinositide 3-kinase, facilitating its activation by PDK1. mTORC2 may regulate the
actin cytoskeleton, through phosphorylation of PRKCA, PXN and activation of the Rho-type guanine nucleotide
exchange factors RHOA and RAC1A or RAC1B. mTORC2 also regulates the phosphorylation of SGK1 at 'Ser-422'

Gene Wiki entry for MTOR (Mammalian target of rapamycin) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 73), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, SABiosciences, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
About This Section
RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000001.10  NT_021937.19  NC_018912.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Search SABiosciences Regulatory transcription factor binding sites for MTOR
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidMTOR promoter sequence
   Search SABiosciences Chromatin IP Primers for MTOR

Epigenetics:
QIAGEN PyroMark CpG Assay predesigned Pyrosequencing DNA Methylation assays in human, mouse, rat MTOR


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 1p36.2   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  1p36.22   HGNC cytogenetic band: 1p36

MTOR Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
MTOR gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 1         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC01M011166:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
11,166,588 bp from pter      End:
11,322,608 bp from pter
Size:
156,021 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to UniProtKB, HORDE, neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MAXQB RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 and Entrez Gene, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
About This Section

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: MTOR_HUMAN, P42345 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Serine/threonine-protein kinase mTOR  
Size: 2549 amino acids; 288892 Da
Subunit: Part of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) which contains MTOR, MLST8, RPTOR,
AKT1S1/PRAS40 and DEPTOR. Part of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) which contains MTOR,
MLST8, PRR5, RICTOR, MAPKAP1 and DEPTOR. Interacts with PPAPDC3 and PML (By similarity). Interacts with PRR5 and
RICTOR; the interaction is direct within the mTORC2 complex (By similarity). Interacts with UBQLN1 (By
similarity). Interacts with TTI1 and TELO2 (By similarity). Interacts with CLIP1; phosphorylates and regulates
CLIP1 (By similarity)
Subcellular location: Endoplasmic reticulum membrane; Peripheral membrane protein; Cytoplasmic side. Golgi
apparatus membrane; Peripheral membrane protein; Cytoplasmic side. Mitochondrion outer membrane; Peripheral
membrane protein; Cytoplasmic side. Lysosome. Cytoplasm (By similarity). Nucleus, PML body (By similarity).
Note=Shuttles between cytoplasm and nucleus. Accumulates in the nucleus in response to hypoxia (By similarity).
Targeting to lysosomes depends on amino acid availability and RRAGA and RRAGB
Sequence caution: Sequence=AAC39933.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=956, 999; Sequence=BAE06077.1; Type=Erroneous
initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally shortened;
6/18 PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for MTOR (see all 18):
1AUE (3D)        1FAP (3D)        1NSG (3D)        2FAP (3D)        2GAQ (3D)        2NPU (3D)    
Secondary accessions: Q4LE76 Q5TER1 Q6LE87 Q96QG3 Q9Y4I3

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for MTOR: NX_P42345

Explore proteomics data for MTOR at MOPED 

Post-translational modifications:

  • UniProtKB: Phosphorylated. Autophosphorylates when part of mTORC1 or mTORC2. Phosphorylation at Ser-1261 promotes
    autophosphorylation
  • View modification sites using PhosphoSitePlus
  • View neXtProt modification sites for NX_P42345

  • MTOR Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MAXQB3 :    About this image 

    MTOR Protein Expression
    REFSEQ proteins: NP_004949.1  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000366034   ENSP00000354558   ENSP00000398745  
    Reactome Protein details: P42345
    Human Recombinant Protein Products for MTOR: 
    EMD Millipore Purified and/or Recombinant MTOR Protein
    Browse R&D Systems for human recombinant proteins
    Browse recombinant and purified proteins available from Enzo Life Sciences
    OriGene Purified Protein for MTOR
    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for MTOR
    OriGene MassSpec for MTOR 
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for MTOR
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for MTOR
    Novus Biologicals MTOR Protein
    Novus Biologicals MTOR Lysate
    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates 
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Proteins at Cloud-Clone Corp. 

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5/15 cellular component terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 15):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000139Golgi membrane IEA--
    GO:0005634nucleus ----
    GO:0005737cytoplasm IDA11853878
    GO:0005741mitochondrial outer membrane IEA--
    GO:0005764lysosome IDA--

    MTOR for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    MTOR Antibody Products: 
    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of MTOR
    R&D Systems Antibodies for MTOR (TOR)
    Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for MTOR 
    OriGene Antibodies for MTOR
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for MTOR
    GenScript Custom Superior Antibodies Services for MTOR
    Novus Biologicals MTOR Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for MTOR
    Browse Antibodies at Cloud-Clone Corp. 
    ThermoFisher Antibody for MTOR
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for MTOR 

    Assay Products for MTOR: 
    EMD Millipore Kits and Assays for the Analysis of MTOR
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for MTOR
    R&D Systems ELISAs for MTOR (TOR)         (see all)
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for MTOR
    Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Sandwich ELISA Kits for MTOR
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Browse ELISAs at Cloud-Clone Corp. 
    Browse CLIAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
    About This Section
    IUPHAR Guide to PHARMACOLOGY protein family classification: mechanistic target of rapamycin (serine/threonine kinase) 
    FRAP subfamily

    5/12 InterPro protein domains (see all 12):
     IPR011990 TPR-like_helical
     IPR011989 ARM-like
     IPR009076 Rapamycin-bd_dom
     IPR024585 DUF3385_TOR
     IPR011009 Kinase-like_dom

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P42345

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P42345

    3 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB000357 HEAT repeat
    IPB000403 Phosphatidylinositol 3- and 4-kinase
    IPB003151 PIK-related kinase


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: MTOR_HUMAN, P42345
    Similarity: Belongs to the PI3/PI4-kinase family
    Similarity: Contains 1 FAT domain
    Similarity: Contains 1 FATC domain
    Similarity: Contains 7 HEAT repeats
    Similarity: Contains 1 PI3K/PI4K domain


    MTOR for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    bound targets from SABiosciences, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, RNAi from EMD Millipore, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and Sirion Biotech, Cell Lines from GenScript, LifeMap BioReagents, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene.)
    About This Section

    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: MTOR_HUMAN, P42345
    Function: Serine/threonine protein kinase which is a central regulator of cellular metabolism, growth and survival
    in response to hormones, growth factors, nutrients, energy and stress signals. Functions as part of 2
    structurally and functionally distinct signaling complexes mTORC1 and mTORC2 (mTOR complex 1 and 2). Activated
    mTORC1 up-regulates protein synthesis by phosphorylating key regulators of mRNA translation and ribosome
    synthesis. This includes phosphorylation of EIF4EBP1 and release of its inhibition toward the elongation
    initiation factor 4E (eiF4E). Moreover, phosphorylates and activates RPS6KB1 and RPS6KB2 that promote protein
    synthesis by modulating the activity of their downstream targets including ribosomal protein S6, eukaryotic
    translation initiation factor EIF4B and the inhibitor of translation initiation PDCD4. Regulates ribosome
    synthesis by activating RNA polymerase III-dependent transcription through phosphorylation and inhibition of MAF1
    a RNA polymerase III-repressor. In parallel to protein synthesis, also regulates lipid synthesis through
    SREBF1/SREBP1 and LPIN1. To maintain energy homeostasis mTORC1 may also regulate mitochondrial biogenesis through
    regulation of PPARGC1A. mTORC1 also negatively regulates autophagy through phosphorylation of ULK1. Under
    nutrient sufficiency, phosphorylates ULK1 at 'Ser-758', disrupting the interaction with AMPK and preventing
    activation of ULK1. Also prevents autophagy through phosphorylation of the autophagy inhibitor DAP. mTORC1 exerts
    a feedback control on upstream growth factor signaling that includes phosphorylation and activation of GRB10 a
    INSR-dependent signaling suppressor. Among other potential targets mTORC1 may phosphorylate CLIP1 and regulate
    microtubules. As part of the mTORC2 complex MTOR may regulate other cellular processes including survival and
    organization of the cytoskeleton. Plays a critical role in the phosphorylation at 'Ser-473' of AKT1, a
    pro-survival effector of phosphoinositide 3-kinase, facilitating its activation by PDK1. mTORC2 may regulate the
    actin cytoskeleton, through phosphorylation of PRKCA, PXN and activation of the Rho-type guanine nucleotide
    exchange factors RHOA and RAC1A or RAC1B. mTORC2 also regulates the phosphorylation of SGK1 at 'Ser-422'
    Catalytic activity: ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein
    Enzyme regulation: Activation of mTORC1 by growth factors such as insulin involves AKT1-mediated phosphorylation
    of TSC1-TSC2, which leads to the activation of the RHEB GTPase a potent activator of the protein kinase activity
    of mTORC1. Insulin-stimulated and amino acid-dependent phosphorylation at Ser-1261 promotes autophosphorylation
    and the activation of mTORC1. Activation by amino acids requires relocalization of the mTORC1 complex to
    lysosomes that is mediated by the Ragulator complex and the Rag GTPases RRAGA, RRAGB, RRAGC and RRAGD. On the
    other hand, low cellular energy levels can inhibit mTORC1 through activation of PRKAA1 while hypoxia inhibits
    mTORC1 through a REDD1-dependent mechanism which may also require PRKAA1. The kinase activity of MTOR within the
    mTORC1 complex is positively regulated by MLST8 and negatively regulated by DEPTOR and AKT1S1. MTOR
    phosphorylates RPTOR which in turn inhibits mTORC1. mTORC1 binds and is inhibited by the FKBP1A-rapamycin
    complex. mTORC2 is also activated by growth factors, but seems to be nutrient-insensitive. It may be regulated by
    RHEB but in an indirect manner through the PI3K signaling pathway

         Enzyme Number (IUBMB): EC 2.7.11.11

         Gene Ontology (GO): 5/15 molecular function terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 15):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001030RNA polymerase III type 1 promoter DNA binding IDA--
    GO:0001031RNA polymerase III type 2 promoter DNA binding IDA--
    GO:0001032RNA polymerase III type 3 promoter DNA binding IDA--
    GO:0001156TFIIIC-class transcription factor binding IDA--
    GO:0004674protein serine/threonine kinase activity TAS--
         
    MTOR for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         7 GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for MTOR:
     Decreased focal adhesion (FA)   Decreased substrate adherent c  Decreased viability with pacli  Increased circadian period len 
     Increased colony dispersion (i  Synthetic lethal with Ras  Synthetic lethal with c-Myc af 

         15/16 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 14 alleles(MGI details for Mtor) (see all 16):
     adipose tissue  behavior/neurological  cellular  embryogenesis  growth/size 
     hematopoietic system  homeostasis/metabolism  immune system  mortality/aging  muscle 
     nervous system  no phenotypic analysis  normal  renal/urinary system  respiratory system 

    MTOR for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-outs for MTOR: Mtortm1Yam Mtortm1.1Koz Mtortm1.2Seq Mtortm1.1Clyn

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated mouse model solutions for MTOR 
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated inducible mouse model solutions for MTOR

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for MTOR 
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for MTOR 

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    QIAGEN Custom miScript Target Protector blocks miRNA-binding site of human, mouse, rat MTOR
    8/25 QIAGEN miScript miRNA Assays for microRNAs that regulate MTOR (see all 25):
    hsa-miR-579 hsa-miR-148b* hsa-miR-199b-3p hsa-miR-199a-3p hsa-miR-1271 hsa-miR-4305 hsa-miR-3129-5p hsa-miR-3190
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidMTOR 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    Browse for Gene Knock-down Tools from EMD Millipore
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for MTOR
    QIAGEN FlexiTube/FlexiPlate siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat MTOR

    Gene Editing
    Products:
    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for MTOR
    Sirion Biotech Validated adenovirus to knockdown MTOR (mTOR) in human, mouse 


    Clone
    Products:
         
    Browse Clones for the Expression of Recombinant Proteins Available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for MTOR (see all 5)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for MTOR
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: MTOR (NM_004958)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for MTOR
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for MTOR
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat MTOR

    Cell Line
    Products:
         
    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for MTOR
    Search LifeMap BioReagents cell lines for MTOR
    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for MTOR


    (Pathways according to EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to SABiosciences, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene).
    About This Section

    SuperPaths for MTOR About   (see all 67)                                                                                              See pathways by source

    SuperPathSelected contained pathways About (see all per SuperPath)
    1Translation Insulin regulation of translation
    Translation Insulin regulation of translation0.59
    Development Growth hormone signaling via PI3K/AKT and MAPK cascades0.34
    Regulation of lipid metabolism Insulin signaling:generic cascades0.59
    mTOR signaling pathway0.34
    Transcription Receptor-mediated HIF regulation0.51
    Insulin signaling pathway0.31
    Translation Regulation activity of EIF4F0.44
    ErbB2/ErbB3 signaling events0.31
    2Development IGF-RI signaling
    Development IGF-RI signaling0.49
    Development IGF-1 receptor signaling0.48
    Signal transduction AKT signaling0.49
    3Energy dependent regulation of mTOR by LKB1-AMPK
    mTOR signalling0.63
    TOR signaling0.33
    PKB-mediated events0.61
    4ErbB signaling pathway
    ErbB signaling pathway0.52
    ErbB signaling pathway0.52
    5Endometrial cancer
    Signal transduction PTEN pathway0.45
    Acute myeloid leukemia0.40

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    5/14 EMD Millipore Pathways for MTOR (see all 14)
        Translation Translation regulation by Alpha-1 adrenergic receptors
    Signal transduction PTEN pathway
    Translation Insulin regulation of translation
    Immune response IL-4 signaling pathway
    Translation Non-genomic (rapid) action of Androgen Receptor

    4 R&D Systems Pathways for MTOR
        Adipocytokines & Insulin Signaling
    Akt Signaling Pathway
    Notch Signaling Pathways
    TGF-beta Signaling Pathways


    1 Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Pathway for MTOR
        Translational Control

    4 Tocris Bioscience Pathways for MTOR
        Akt Pathway
    Insulin Pathway
    TGF-beta Pathway
    mTOR Pathway

    5/14 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathways for MTOR (see all 14)
        Development Endothelin-1/EDNRA transactivation of EGFR
    Development Role of HDAC and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase (CaMK) in control of skeletal myogenesis
    Development CNTF receptor signaling
    Signal transduction AKT signaling
    Signal transduction PTEN pathway

    5/35 BioSystems Pathways for MTOR (see all 35)
        TOR signaling
    MicroRNAs in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy
    Senescence and Autophagy
    Insulin Signaling
    ErbB signaling pathway

    2 Sino Biological Pathways for MTOR 
        EGFR Signaling Pathway
    TGF-beta Signaling Pathway

    5/47        Reactome Pathways for MTOR (see all 47)
        Costimulation by the CD28 family
    Signaling by EGFR in Cancer
    Downstream signal transduction
    mTORC1-mediated signalling
    IRS-mediated signalling


    5/13         Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for MTOR) (see all 13):
        ErbB signaling pathway
    HIF-1 signaling pathway
    mTOR signaling pathway
    PI3K-Akt signaling pathway
    Insulin signaling pathway


    MTOR for pathways           About GeneDecksing

    Interactions:

        SABiosciences Gene Network CentralTM Interacting Genes and Proteins Network for MTOR

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    5/308 Interacting proteins for MTOR (P423451, 2, 3 ENSP000003545584) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 308)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    RICTORQ6R3271, 2, 3, ENSP000003499594EBI-359260,EBI-1387196 MINT-7556061 MINT-6948596 MINT-7556024 MINT-8088269 MINT-8088291 MINT-6948610 MINT-7556076 MINT-8150419 I2D: score=9 STRING: ENSP00000349959
    MAPKAP1Q9BPZ72, 3, ENSP000002659604MINT-7556061 MINT-6948596 MINT-7556024 MINT-8088269 MINT-8088291 MINT-6948610 MINT-7556076 MINT-8150419 I2D: score=4 STRING: ENSP00000265960
    ENSG00000212866P081073I2D: score=1 
    ENSG00000215328P081073I2D: score=1 
    ENSG00000224501P081073I2D: score=1 
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5/51 biological process terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 51):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001934positive regulation of protein phosphorylation IDA--
    GO:0001938positive regulation of endothelial cell proliferation IEA--
    GO:0005979regulation of glycogen biosynthetic process IEA--
    GO:0006109regulation of carbohydrate metabolic process ----
    GO:0006468protein phosphorylation IMP17028174

    MTOR for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB, with drugs/clinical trials/news search links to CenterWatch)
    About This Section

    MTOR for compounds           About GeneDecksing

    EMD Millipore small molecules for MTOR:
    Small Molecule - inhibitor
    Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences

    Browse Tocris compounds for MTOR

    4 DrugBank Compounds for MTOR    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    EverolimusAfinitor (see all 6)159351-69-6targetinhibitor20569080 18466433 19774211 11752352 20531964 20155724 19344392
    Sirolimus(-)-Rapamycin (see all 2)53123-88-9targetinhibitor19620795 11752352 20005306 12742462
    Temsirolimus-- 162635-04-3targetinhibitor18265991 17935273 11752352
    PimecrolimusASM 981 (see all 2)137071-32-0targetpotentiator12113647

    10/58 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for MTOR gene (see all 58)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    rapamycin 95.4 609 20177775 (4), 14592809 (4), 16452206 (4), 19414357 (4) (see all 99)
    everolimus 81.9 37 20204306 (6), 16856892 (3), 17634556 (2), 20061787 (2) (see all 18)
    temsirolimus 78.9 13 17987219 (2), 19620795 (2), 15955899 (1), 17092282 (1) (see all 9)
    ap 23573 78.5 4 16205124 (1), 19012509 (1), 17720651 (1)
    ly294002 77 26 10623881 (2), 10749120 (1), 18773906 (1), 12193593 (1) (see all 21)
    phosphatidylinositol 70.6 37 10749120 (1), 16099944 (1), 9891068 (1), 15563472 (1) (see all 28)
    farnesylthiosalicylic acid 69.2 4 19838215 (1)
    sunitinib 65 2 17092282 (1), 19467916 (1)
    wortmannin 65 20 9249059 (2), 12569580 (1), 15227545 (1), 16372478 (1) (see all 15)
    aicar 62.2 6 17215282 (1), 19625624 (1), 19639604 (1), 19225536 (1) (see all 6)

    Search CenterWatch for drugs/clinical trials and news about MTOR

    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    RNAi Products from EMD Millipore,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN )
    About This Section

    REFSEQ mRNAs for MTOR gene: 
    NM_004958.3  

    Unigene Cluster for MTOR:

    Mechanistic target of rapamycin (serine/threonine kinase)
    Hs.338207  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: U88966
    7 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000376838(uc001asc.3) ENST00000361445(uc001asd.3) ENST00000473471
    ENST00000490931 ENST00000455339 ENST00000495435 ENST00000476768
    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:  
    European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID) 10 - 13 May 2014

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    hsa-miR-579 hsa-miR-148b* hsa-miR-199b-3p hsa-miR-199a-3p hsa-miR-1271 hsa-miR-4305 hsa-miR-3129-5p hsa-miR-3190
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidMTOR 3' UTR sequence
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    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AB209995.1 AK024393.1 AK126762.1 AK302863.1 AK304273.1 BC113820.1 BC117166.1 BC127611.1 
    L34075.1 L35478.1 U88966.1 

    15 DOTS entries:

    DT.445446  DT.101980524  DT.86839085  DT.100793492  DT.102828329  DT.95085956  DT.121344265  DT.121344277 
    DT.75113724  DT.87015511  DT.91704383  DT.92430127  DT.95085957  DT.95179023  DT.206234 

    24/260 AceView cDNA sequences (see all 260):

    BM825377 CA944864 CA429532 BG677234 AI287525 AA255664 AA262510 BU741628 
    H65888 AL120924 AA975907 AI423563 AA662936 BF508672 AA723985 CB119445 
    AW006106 CA427353 CD367026 BM717612 AL079589 AI090968 AL079590 AI624685 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    5 Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for MTOR    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15a · 15b · 15c ^ 16a · 16b ^ 17a · 17b ^ 18 ^ 19 ^ 20 ^ 21 ^ 22
    SP1:                                                                                      -     -                 -                                             
    SP2:                                                                                                              -                                             
    SP3:                                                                                                                                                            
    SP4:                                                                                                                                                            
    SP5:                                                                                                                                                            


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for MTOR

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, plus additional links to Genevestigator, and/or SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

    MTOR expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: TTGTATCAGA
    MTOR Expression
    About this image


    See MTOR Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED and PaxDB
    Genevestigator expression for MTOR

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.338207

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: MTOR_HUMAN, P42345
    Tissue specificity: Expressed in numerous tissues, with highest levels in testis

        SABiosciences Expression via Pathway-Focused PCR Arrays including MTOR (see all 10): 
              mTOR Signaling in human mouse rat
              Insulin Signaling Pathway in human mouse rat
              Leukemia in human mouse rat
              Lymphoma in human mouse rat
              Autophagy in human mouse rat

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

    This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

    Orthologs for MTOR gene from 9/26 species (see all 26)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Mtor1 , 5 mechanistic target of rapamycin (serine/threonine kinase)1, 5 90.38(n)1
    98.94(a)1
      4 (78.76 cM)5
    567171  NM_020009.21  NP_064393.21 
     1484486115 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves MTOR1 mechanistic target of rapamycin (serine/threonine kinase) 82.3(n)
    97.22(a)
      419455  XM_417614.3  XP_417614.3 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia MTOR6
    mechanistic target of rapamycin (serine/threonine ...
    94(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    GL343615.1(133163-276011)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia Xl.97312 Xenopus laevis transcribed sequence with strong similarity more 79.72(n)    BJ072996.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii wufc22h082 wufc22h08 81.32(n)   324254  AI658150.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta Tor1 Target of rapamycin 57.84(n)
    56.62(a)
      47396  NM_080152.2  NP_524891.1 
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes TOR2(YKL203C)4
    TOR21
    PIK-related protein kinase and rapamycin target; subunit more4
    Tor2p1
    50.35(n)1
    45.79(a)1
      11(63359-55935)4
    8536321, 4  NP_012719.21, 4 
    thale cress
    (Arabidopsis thaliana)
    eudicotyledons TOR1 FKBP12-rapamycin complex-associated protein 51.39(n)
    45.23(a)
      841427  NM_103891.3  NP_175425.2 
    rice
    (Oryza sativa)
    Liliopsida Os.177562 Oryza sativa (japonica cultivar-group) cDNA cloneJ more 73.21(n)    AK120473.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for MTOR (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for MTOR (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
    About This Section
    Paralogs for MTOR gene
    ENSG000002617402  SMG12  
    4 SIMAP similar genes for MTOR using alignment to 3 protein entries:     MTOR_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    FRAP1    SMG1    ATR    ATM

    MTOR for paralogs           About GeneDecksing



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers from QIAGEN, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays and Copy Number PCR Arrays from SABiosciences)
    About This Section

    10/3438 SNPs in MTOR are shown (see all 3438)    About this table     
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 1 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    VAR_0415424
    An ovarian mucinous carcinoma sample4--see VAR_0415422 M V mis40--------
    VAR_0415384
    A metastatic melanoma sample4--see VAR_0415382 M T mis40--------
    VAR_0415374
    A lung large cell carcinoma sample4--see VAR_0415372 A S mis40--------
    VAR_0415434
    A colorectal adenocarcinoma sample4--see VAR_0415432 S Y mis40--------
    VAR_0415444
    A glioblastoma multiforme sample4--see VAR_0415442 P L mis40--------
    VAR_0647344
    ----see VAR_0647342 V A mis40--------
    VAR_0647334
    ----see VAR_0647332 L F mis40--------
    rs347982591,2
    C--10344882(+) TGACA-/GTTGTTGA 1 -- cds10--------
    rs1113070991,2
    C--10360280(+) AATTATG/-TGTGT 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- -:0.50CSA 2
    rs348203451,2
    C--10389375(+) TCACT-/AAACAC 1 -- int10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for MTOR (11166588 - 11322608 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 2 variations for MTOR:    About this table     
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2658000CNV Deletion23128226
    esv267860CNV Insertion20981092


    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): MTOR
    5/15 SABiosciences Cancer Mutation PCR Assays for MTOR (see all 15):
    Cosmic IdAA Change
    12847p.A8S
    20407p.Q1866*
    71710p.F370Y
    51889p.L2220F
    20417p.S2215Y
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing MTOR
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for MTOR

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section
    OMIM gene information: 601231    OMIM disorders: --

    20/145 diseases for MTOR (see all 145):    About MalaCards
    paronychia    kidney angiomyolipoma    birt-hogg-dube syndrome    translocation renal cell carcinoma
    tuberous sclerosis complex    plasmablastic lymphoma    hepatitic c virus    alexander disease
    angiomyolipoma    lymphangioleiomyomatosis    tuberous sclerosis    subependymal giant cell astrocytoma
    hemimegalencephaly    perivascular epithelioid cell tumor    brain malformations    pyogenic granuloma
    skeletal muscle regeneration    ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma    clear cell adenocarcinoma    placental choriocarcinoma

    20/23 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for MTOR (see all 23):
    Renal cell carcinoma     Tuberous sclerosis     Lymphangioleiomyomatosis     Breast cancer
    Stomatitis     Malignant glioma     Polycystic kidney disease     Lymphoma
    Carcinoma     Lung cancer     Leukemia     Hepatocellular carcinoma
    Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma     Diabetes mellitus     Prostate cancer     Kidney disease
    Sarcoma     Peutz-Jeghers syndrome     Kidney angiomyolipoma     Endometrial cancer

    MTOR for disorders           About GeneDecksing


    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:  
    Alzheimer's & Parkinson's Diseases Congress (ADPD) 18 - 22 March 2015

    10/58 Novoseek inferred disease relationships for MTOR gene (see all 58)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    tuberous sclerosis 80 22 18695678 (3), 19143643 (3), 14614311 (1), 16545079 (1) (see all 17)
    cancer 61.9 116 19166931 (5), 17041628 (4), 16404421 (4), 19738050 (4) (see all 56)
    tumors 59.9 149 18511708 (5), 14634209 (4), 16452206 (4), 15937108 (4) (see all 78)
    lymphangioleiomyomatosis 59.6 1 19143643 (1)
    carcinoma renal cell 53.4 8 19379082 (2), 18279068 (2), 17162089 (1), 17987219 (1) (see all 5)
    renal cancer 51.6 2 20364382 (1), 19165638 (1)
    angiomyolipoma 48.4 4 18085521 (1), 17521703 (1), 16575396 (1), 19265534 (1)
    polycystic kidney diseases 46.2 7 17102641 (2), 20460933 (2), 16567633 (1), 20133481 (1)
    adpkd 46.1 9 16567633 (2), 17102641 (2), 18845692 (1), 19421190 (1)
    breast cancer 43.5 29 15501954 (4), 16648488 (2), 16288304 (2), 19077306 (2) (see all 18)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): MTOR
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: MTOR (19 documents)

    Export disorders for MTOR gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
    About This Section

    PubMed articles for MTOR gene, integrated from 9 sources (see all 1401):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with MTOR)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. A mammalian protein targeted by G1-arresting rapamycin-receptor complex. (PubMed id 8008069)1, 2, 3, 9 Brown E.J.... Schreiber S.L. (1994)
    2. GbetaL, a positive regulator of the rapamycin-sensitive pathway required for the nutrient-sensitive interaction between raptor and mTOR. (PubMed id 12718876)1, 2, 9 Kim D.-H.... Sabatini D.M. (2003)
    3. Dissecting the role of mTOR: lessons from mTOR inhibi tors. (PubMed id 20005306)1, 7, 9 Dowling R.J....Sonenberg N. (2010)
    4. FKBP12-rapamycin-associated protein associates with mitochondria and senses osmotic stress via mitochondrial dysfunction. (PubMed id 11930000)1, 2, 9 Desai B.N.... Schreiber S.L. (2002)
    5. mTOR interacts with raptor to form a nutrient-sensitive complex that signals to the growth machinery. (PubMed id 12150925)1, 2, 9 Kim D.-H.... Sabatini D.M. (2002)
    6. Genetic variations in the PI3K/PTEN/AKT/mTOR pathway are associated with clinical outcomes in esophageal cancer patients treated with chemoradiotherapy. (PubMed id 19164214)1, 4, 9 Hildebrandt M.A....Wu X. (2009)
    7. Site-specific mTOR phosphorylation promotes mTORC1-me diated signaling and cell growth. (PubMed id 19487463)1, 2, 9 Acosta-Jaquez H.A....Fingar D.C. (2009)
    8. The FKBP12-rapamycin-associated protein (FRAP) is a CLIP-170 kinase. (PubMed id 12231510)1, 2, 9 Choi J.H....Zheng X.F. (2002)
    9. Structure of the FKBP12-rapamycin complex interacting with the binding domain of human FRAP. (PubMed id 8662507)1, 2, 9 Choi J.... Clardy J. (1996)
    10. mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) controls hydrophobic motif phosphorylation and activation of serum- and glucocorticoid-induced protein kinase 1 (SGK1). (PubMed id 18925875)1, 2, 9 Garcia-Martinez J.M. and Alessi D.R. (2008)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
    About This Section
     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
    About This Section
    Entrez Gene: 2475 HGNC: 3942 AceView: FRAP1 Ensembl:ENSG00000198793 euGenes: HUgn2475
    ECgene: MTOR Kegg: 2475 H-InvDB: MTOR

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section
      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL,
    Wikipedia and/or GeneReviews via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section
    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for MTOR Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for MTOR Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
    Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mammalian_target_of_rapamycin
    Target mTORhttp://www.targetmtor.com/index.jsp

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
    About This Section
    Patent Information for MTOR gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving MTOR

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, SABiosciences, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Gene Editing from DNA2.0 and Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Cell lines from GenScript, and LifeMap BioReagents, PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, and/or Enzo Life Sciences, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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    About This Section

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    Customized:
     lentivirus for stable overexpression
     lentivirus expression plasmids for stable overexpression
     adenovirus for overexpression
     LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for MTOR
    Customized transgenic rodents for:
     Humanization
     Biomarker expression
     Off-target effect monitoring
     Translational medicine
     Tissue-specific gene expresssion
     Time-controlled gene expresssion
           
    GeneCards Homepage - Last full update: 23 Oct 2013 - Incrementals: 4 Nov 2013 , 7 Nov 2013 , 23 Jan 2014

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    (GIFtS: 73)
    transforming growth factor, beta 1
    GIFtS Group
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    Developed at the Crown Human Genome Center, Department of Molecular Genetics, the Weizmann Institute of Science

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