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Category   Symbol Source: HGNC EntrezGene Ensembl GeneCards RNA genes CroW21
GIFtS

MT-ND4L Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 42
GCID: GCMTP010472

Mitochondrially Encoded NADH Dehydrogenase 4L

(Previous name: NADH dehydrogenase 4L)
(Previous symbol: MTND4L)
Alzheimer's & Parkinson's Diseases Congress
  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
About This Section

Aliases
Mitochondrially Encoded NADH Dehydrogenase 4L1     Complex I ND4L Subunit1
MTND4L1 2 3     NADH Dehydrogenase 4L1
ND4L2 3     NADH-Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase Chain 4L1
NADH Dehydrogenase Subunit 4L2 3     NADH Dehydrogenase, Subunit 4L (Complex I)2
EC 1.6.5.33 8     NADH4L3

External Ids:    HGNC: 74601   Entrez Gene: 45392   Ensembl: ENSG000002129077   OMIM: 5160045   UniProtKB: P039013   

Export aliases for MT-ND4L gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifer: GC00U921591


(According to Entrez Gene, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

GeneCards Summary for MT-ND4L Gene: 
MT-ND4L (mitochondrially encoded NADH dehydrogenase 4L) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with MT-ND4L include cardiac conduction defect, and leber hereditary optic neuropathy, and among its related super-pathways are Electron Transport Chain and Metabolic pathways. GO annotations related to this gene include NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: NU4LM_HUMAN, P03901
Function: Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is
believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of
electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be
ubiquinone (By similarity)

Gene Wiki entry for MT-ND4L Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 73), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, SABiosciences, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
About This Section
Regulatory elements:
   Search SABiosciences Regulatory transcription factor binding sites for MT-ND4L
         Other transcription factors

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Epigenetics:
QIAGEN PyroMark CpG Assay predesigned Pyrosequencing DNA Methylation assays in human, mouse, rat MT-ND4L


Genomic Location:
Chromosome:MT   

Ensembl cytogenetic band:  MT   HGNC chromosome: mitochondria

GeneLoc information about chromosome MT         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GCMTP010472:       (about GC identifiers)

Start:
10,470 bp from pter      End:
10,766 bp from pter
Size:
297 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to UniProtKB, HORDE, neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MAXQB RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 and Entrez Gene, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
About This Section

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: NU4LM_HUMAN, P03901 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 4L  
Size: 98 amino acids; 10741 Da
Subcellular location: Mitochondrion membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein (By similarity)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for MT-ND4L: NX_P03901

4/11 DME Specific Peptides for MT-ND4L (P03901) (see all 11)
 VGLALLV  LLCLEGM  ISLLGML  LANIVPI 

MT-ND4L Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MAXQB3 : --

ENSEMBL proteins: 
 ENSP00000354728  
Reactome Protein details: P03901
Human Recombinant Protein Products for MT-ND4L: 
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Browse Proteins at Cloud-Clone Corp. 

Gene Ontology (GO): 3 cellular component terms (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
GO:0005743mitochondrial inner membrane ----
GO:0005747mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I ----
GO:0016021integral to membrane ----

MT-ND4L for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



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Browse CLIAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.


(According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
About This Section
HGNC Gene Families: 
comI: Mitochondrial respiratory chain complex / Complex I

1 InterPro protein domain:
 IPR001133 NADH_UbQ_OxRdtase_chain4L/K

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P03901

ProtoNet protein and cluster: P03901

1 Blocks protein domain: IPB003214 Mitochodrial NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: NU4LM_HUMAN, P03901
Similarity: Belongs to the complex I subunit 4L family


MT-ND4L for domains           About GeneDecksing


(According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
bound targets from SABiosciences, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, RNAi from EMD Millipore, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and Sirion Biotech, Cell Lines from GenScript, LifeMap BioReagents, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene.)
About This Section

Molecular Function:

     UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: NU4LM_HUMAN, P03901
Function: Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is
believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of
electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be
ubiquinone (By similarity)
Catalytic activity: NADH + ubiquinone + 5 H(+)(In) = NAD(+) + ubiquinol + 4 H(+)(Out)

     Enzyme Number (IUBMB): EC 1.6.5.31 2

     Gene Ontology (GO): 2 molecular function terms (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
GO:0008137NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity ----
GO:0016651oxidoreductase activity, acting on NAD(P)H ----
     
MT-ND4L for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


Phenotypes:
     1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for MT-ND4L:
 Increased viability after born 

Animal Models:
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miRNA
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In Situ Assay
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(Pathways according to EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to SABiosciences, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene).
About This Section

SuperPaths for MT-ND4L About                                                                                                See pathways by source

SuperPathContained pathways About
1Respiratory electron transport, ATP synthesis by chemiosmotic coupling, and heat production by uncoupling proteins.
Respiratory electron transport, ATP synthesis by chemiosmotic coupling, and heat production by uncoupling proteins.0.81
Oxidative phosphorylation0.64
Respiratory electron transport0.81
Parkinson's disease0.61
Electron Transport Chain0.75
Oxidative phosphorylation0.51
The citric acid (TCA) cycle and respiratory electron transport0.72
2Metabolism
Metabolism0.40
Metabolic pathways0.40

Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
Show all pathways


2 BioSystems Pathways for MT-ND4L
    Electron Transport Chain
Oxidative phosphorylation


4        Reactome Pathways for MT-ND4L
    Respiratory electron transport
Metabolism
Respiratory electron transport, ATP synthesis by chemiosmotic coupling, and heat production by uncoupling proteins.
The citric acid (TCA) cycle and respiratory electron transport


3         Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for MT-ND4L):
    Oxidative phosphorylation
Metabolic pathways
Parkinson's disease


MT-ND4L for pathways           About GeneDecksing

Interactions:

    Search SABiosciences Gene Network CentralTM Interacting Genes and Proteins Networks for MT-ND4L

STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

5/63 Interacting proteins for MT-ND4L (P039013 ENSP000003547284) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 63)
InteractantInteraction Details
GeneCardExternal ID(s)
ENSG00000236063O958703, ENSP000004069654I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000406965
ABHD16AO958703I2D: score=1 
ENSG00000206403O958703I2D: score=1 
ENSG00000224552O958703I2D: score=1 
ENSG00000230475O958703I2D: score=1 
About this table

Gene Ontology (GO): 5/6 biological process terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 6):    About this table

GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
GO:0006120mitochondrial electron transport, NADH to ubiquinone ----
GO:0022904respiratory electron transport chain ----
GO:0042773ATP synthesis coupled electron transport ----
GO:0044237cellular metabolic process ----
GO:0044281small molecule metabolic process ----

MT-ND4L for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



(Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB, with drugs/clinical trials/news search links to CenterWatch)
About This Section

MT-ND4L for compounds           About GeneDecksing

Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences

Browse Tocris compounds for MT-ND4L (NU4LM)

9 HMDB Compounds for MT-ND4L    About this table
CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
FAD1H-Purin-6-amine flavin dinucleotide (see all 21)146-14-5--
IronArmco iron (see all 19)7439-89-6--
NAD3-Carbamoyl-1-D-ribofuranosylpyridinium hydroxide 5'-ester with adenosine 5'-pyrophosphate (see all 28)53-84-9--
NADH1,4-Dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (see all 17)58-68-4--
QH2CoQH2 (see all 5)56275-39-9--
SulfideSulfide (see all 4)18496-25-8--
Ubiquinol 8ubiquinol-8 (see all 2)56275-39-9--
Ubiquinone Q1Coenzyme Q (see all 9)727-81-1--
Ubiquinone Q22-(3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienyl)-5,6-dimethoxy-3-methyl-2,5-Cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione (see all 7)606-06-4--

1 DrugBank Compound for MT-ND4L    About this table
CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
NADHbeta-DPNH (see all 18)606-68-8target--17139284 17016423

1 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationship for MT-ND4L gene    About this table
Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
nadh 61.4 1 7628554 (1)

Search CenterWatch for drugs/clinical trials and news about MT-ND4L / NU4LM

(Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
RNAi Products from EMD Millipore,
siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN,
Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN )
About This Section

1 Ensembl transcript including schematic representation, and UCSC links where relevant:
ENST00000361335

miRNA
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Inhib. RNA
Products:
     
Browse for Gene Knock-down Tools from EMD Millipore
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Clone
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                     Customized lentivirus expression plasmids for stable overexpression of MT-ND4L 
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  Search QIAGEN QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat MT-ND4L

GeneLoc Exon Structure


(RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, plus additional links to Genevestigator, and/or SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
About This Section

MT-ND4L expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
CGAP TAG: --
MT-ND4L Expression
About this image

    SABiosciences Custom PCR Arrays for MT-ND4L
Primer
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In Situ
Assay Products:
 

 
Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for MT-ND4L

(Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
About This Section

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for MT-ND4L gene from 5/11 species (see all 11)    About this table
Organism Taxonomic
classification
Gene Description Human
Similarity
Orthology
Type
Details
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia mt-Nd4l5
ND4L1
mitochondrially encoded NADH dehydrogenase 4L5
NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4L1
69.05(n)1
67.35(a)1
  MT5
177201  ND4L_345386061  NP_904336.11 
 98775 
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves ND4L6
NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 4L
49(a)
1 ↔ 1
MT(11196-11492)
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia ND4L6
ND4L6
Uncharacterized protein
46(a)
45(a)
many → 1
many → 1
MT(9800-10096)
GL343313.1(1189119-1189415)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii mt-nd4l6
NADH dehydrogenase 4L, mitochondrial
51(a)
1 ↔ 1
MT(11009-11305)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta mt:ND4L6
mitochondrial NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain...
31(a)
1 ↔ 1
dmel_mitochondrion_genome(9544-9834)


ENSEMBL Gene Tree for MT-ND4L (if available)
TreeFam Gene Tree for MT-ND4L (if available)

(Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
About This Section
Paralogs for MT-ND4L gene
2 SIMAP similar genes for MT-ND4L using alignment to 1 protein entry:     NU4LM_HUMAN:
NADH4L    ND4L

MT-ND4L for paralogs           About GeneDecksing


5/31 Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for MT-ND4L (see all 31)
PGOHUM00000238399 PGOHUM00000242817 PGOHUM00000247126 PGOHUM00000248718 PGOHUM00000248889


(SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers from QIAGEN, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays and Copy Number PCR Arrays from SABiosciences)
About This Section

5 SNPs in MT-ND4L are shown    About this table     
Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
SNP IDValidClinical
significance
Chr MT posSequence#AA
Chg
TypeMore#Allele
freq
PopTotal
sample
More
----------
VAR_0083974
Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON)4--see VAR_0083972 V A mis40--------
VAR_0084964
Colorectal cancer4--see VAR_0084962 C R mis40--------
VAR_0086054
----see VAR_0086052 M I mis40--------
VAR_0086074
----see VAR_0086072 I T mis40--------
VAR_0086064
----see VAR_0086062 N S mis40--------

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for MT-ND4L (10470 - 10766 bp)

Structural Variations
      Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) variations for MT-ND4L: --

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): MT-ND4L
SABiosciences Cancer Mutation PCR Assays
Search QIAGEN SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing MT-ND4L
DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for MT-ND4L

(in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
About This Section
OMIM gene information: 516004    OMIM disorders: --

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: NU4LM_HUMAN, P03901
  • Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) [MIM:535000]: A maternally inherited disease resulting in acute
    or subacute loss of central vision, due to optic nerve dysfunction. Cardiac conduction defects and neurological
    defects have also been described in some patients. LHON results from primary mitochondrial DNA mutations
    affecting the respiratory chain complexes. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented
    in this entry

  • 9 diseases for MT-ND4L:    About MalaCards
    cardiac conduction defect    leber hereditary optic neuropathy    mitochondrial disorders    acne
    neuropathy    myopathy    parkinson's disease    colorectal cancer
    hepatitis

    2 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for MT-ND4L:
    Leber hereditary optic neuropathy     Mitochondrial myopathy

    MT-ND4L for disorders           About GeneDecksing


    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:  
    Alzheimer's & Parkinson's Diseases Congress (ADPD) 18 - 22 March 2015
    GeneTests: MT-ND4L
    GeneReviews: MT-ND4L

    Export disorders for MT-ND4L gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
    About This Section

    PubMed articles for MT-ND4L gene, integrated from 9 sources (see all 24):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with MT-ND4L)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Sequence and organization of the human mitochondrial genome. (PubMed id 7219534)1, 2 Anderson S.... Young I.G. (1981)
    2. Phylogenetic analysis of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy mitochondrial DNA's indicates multiple independent occurrences of the common mutations. (PubMed id 8680405)2, 9 Brown M.D.... Wallace D.C. (1995)
    3. Toward an understanding of the protein interaction net work of the human liver. (PubMed id 21988832)1 Wang J....Yang X. (2011)
    4. MtSNPscore: a combined evidence approach for assessin g cumulative impact of mitochondrial variations in disease. (PubMed id 19758471)1 Bhardwaj A....Tiwari S. (2009)
    5. Comprehensive analysis of common mitochondrial DNA variants and colorectal cancer risk. (PubMed id 19050702)1 Webb E....Houlston R.S. (2008)
    6. A novel PCLN-1 gene mutation in familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and atypical phenotype. (PubMed id 17123117)1 Sanjad S.A....Lifton R.P. (2007)
    7. Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of dru g targets. (PubMed id 17016423)7 Imming P....Meyer A. (2006)
    8. How many drug targets are there? (PubMed id 17139284)7 Overington J.P....Hopkins A.L. (2006)
    9. Single nucleotide polymorphisms over the entire mtDNA genome that increase the power of forensic testing in Caucasians. (PubMed id 14760490)2 Coble M.D.... Parsons T.J. (2004)
    10. Lineage-specific selection in human mtDNA: lack of polymorphisms in a segment of MTND5 gene in haplogroup J. (PubMed id 12949126)2 Moilanen J.S.... Majamaa K. (2003)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
    About This Section
     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
    About This Section
    Entrez Gene: 4539 HGNC: 7460 Ensembl:ENSG00000212907 euGenes: HUgn4539 ECgene: MT-ND4L Kegg: 4539
    H-InvDB: MT-ND4L

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section
      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL,
    Wikipedia and/or GeneReviews via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section
    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for MT-ND4L Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    GeneReviewshttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/GeneTests/lab/gene/MT-ND4L

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
    About This Section
    Patent Information for MT-ND4L gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving MT-ND4L

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, SABiosciences, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Gene Editing from DNA2.0 and Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Cell lines from GenScript, and LifeMap BioReagents, PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, and/or Enzo Life Sciences, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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    About This Section

     
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    GeneCards Homepage - Last full update: 23 Oct 2013 - Incrementals: 4 Nov 2013 , 7 Nov 2013 , 23 Jan 2014

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