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MT-ND3 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 47
GCID: GCMTP010061

Mitochondrially Encoded NADH Dehydrogenase 3

(Previous name: NADH dehydrogenase 3)
(Previous symbol: MTND3)
  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Mitochondrially Encoded NADH Dehydrogenase 31     Complex I ND3 Subunit1
MTND31 2 3     NADH Dehydrogenase 31
ND32 3     NADH-Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase Chain 31
NADH Dehydrogenase Subunit 32 3     NADH Dehydrogenase, Subunit 3 (Complex I)2
EC 1.6.5.33 8     NADH33

External Ids:    HGNC: 74581   Entrez Gene: 45372   Ensembl: ENSG000001988407   OMIM: 5160025   UniProtKB: P038973   

Export aliases for MT-ND3 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifer: GC00U921589


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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GeneCards Summary for MT-ND3 Gene:
MT-ND3 (mitochondrially encoded NADH dehydrogenase 3) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with MT-ND3 include renal oncocytoma, and porphyria cutanea tarda, type ii.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: NU3M_HUMAN, P03897
Function: Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is
believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of
electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be
ubiquinone (By similarity)

Gene Wiki entry for MT-ND3 Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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Regulatory elements:
   Search for regulatory transcription factor binding sites for MT-ND3
         Other transcription factors

Browse SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for MT-ND3

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat MT-ND3


Genomic Location:
Chromosome:MT   

Ensembl cytogenetic band:  MT   HGNC chromosome: mitochondria

GeneLoc information about chromosome MT         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GCMTP010061:       (about GC identifiers)

Start:
10,059 bp from pter      End:
10,404 bp from pter
Size:
346 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: NU3M_HUMAN, P03897 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 3  
Size: 115 amino acids; 13186 Da

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for MT-ND3: NX_P03897

Explore proteomics data for MT-ND3 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Modification sites at neXtProt
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • 4 DME Specific Peptides for MT-ND3 (P03897)
     FWLPQLN  YECGFDP  FLLFDLE  LAYEWLQKGL 


    See MT-ND3 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB


    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000355206  
    Reactome Protein details: P03897

    MT-ND3 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    Browse ELISAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    Browse CLIAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    comI: Mitochondrial respiratory chain complex / Complex I

    1 InterPro protein domain:
     IPR000440 NADH_UbQ/plastoQ_OxRdtase_su3

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P03897

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P03897

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB000440 NADH-ubiquinone/plastoquinone oxidoreductase

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: NU3M_HUMAN, P03897
    Similarity: Belongs to the complex I subunit 3 family


    MT-ND3 for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, and Vector BioLabs, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: NU3M_HUMAN, P03897
    Function: Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is
    believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of
    electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be
    ubiquinone (By similarity)
    Catalytic activity: NADH + ubiquinone + 5 H(+)(In) = NAD(+) + ubiquinol + 4 H(+)(Out)

         Enzyme Number (IUBMB): EC 1.6.5.31 2

         Gene Ontology (GO): 2 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005515protein binding ----
    GO:0008137NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity ----
         
    MT-ND3 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for MT-ND3:
     Increased gamma-H2AX phosphory 

    Animal Models:
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for MT-ND3
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       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for MT-ND3
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for MT-ND3

    miRNA
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    miRTarBase miRNAs that target MT-ND3:
    hsa-let-7e-5p (MIRT051471), hsa-mir-760 (MIRT036745), hsa-mir-99a-5p (MIRT048606)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat MT-ND3 using miScript Target Protectors
    Search for qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate MT-ND3
    Browse SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmids
    Inhib. RNA
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    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat MT-ND3

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    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    NU3M_HUMAN, P03897: Mitochondrion membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein (By similarity)
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    mitochondrion5
    plasma membrane2
    endoplasmic reticulum1
    extracellular1
    lysosome1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 4 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005739mitochondrion ----
    GO:0005743mitochondrial inner membrane ----
    GO:0005747mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I ----
    GO:0016021integral component of membrane ----

    MT-ND3 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for MT-ND3 About    
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Respiratory electron transport, ATP synthesis by chemiosmotic coupling, and heat production by uncoupling proteins.
    Respiratory electron transport, ATP synthesis by chemiosmotic coupling, and heat production by uncoupling proteins.0.81
    Oxidative phosphorylation0.64
    Respiratory electron transport0.81
    Parkinson's disease0.57
    Electron Transport Chain0.75
    Oxidative phosphorylation0.51
    The citric acid (TCA) cycle and respiratory electron transport0.71
    2Metabolism
    Metabolism0.38
    Metabolic pathways0.38

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways


    2 BioSystems Pathways for MT-ND3
        Oxidative phosphorylation
    Electron Transport Chain

    1 Reactome Pathway for MT-ND3
        Respiratory electron transport


    3 Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for MT-ND3):
        Oxidative phosphorylation
    Metabolic pathways
    Parkinson's disease


    MT-ND3 for pathways           About GeneDecksing

        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for MT-ND3
    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for MT-ND3

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for MT-ND3 (P038971 ENSP000003552064) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 58)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    APPP050671EBI-1246249,EBI-821758
    NDUFC1ENSP000003777704STRING: ENSP00000377770 STRING: ENSP00000265500
    CYC1ENSP000003171594STRING: ENSP00000317159
    MT-CYBENSP000003545544STRING: ENSP00000354554
    MT-ND1ENSP000003546874STRING: ENSP00000354687
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5 biological process terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006120mitochondrial electron transport, NADH to ubiquinone ----
    GO:0022904respiratory electron transport chain ----
    GO:0044237cellular metabolic process ----
    GO:0044281small molecule metabolic process ----
    GO:0055114oxidation-reduction process ----

    MT-ND3 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for MT-ND3 (NU3M)

    4 HMDB Compounds for MT-ND3    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    NAD3-Carbamoyl-1-D-ribofuranosylpyridinium hydroxide 5'-ester with adenosine 5'-pyrophosphate (see all 28)53-84-9--
    NADH1,4-Dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (see all 17)58-68-4--
    Ubiquinol 8ubiquinol-8 (see all 2)56275-39-9--
    Ubiquinone Q1Coenzyme Q (see all 9)727-81-1--

    1 DrugBank Compound for MT-ND3    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    NADHbeta-DPNH (see all 18)606-68-8targetbinder17139284 11752352 17016423

    6 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for MT-ND3 gene    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    nadh 81.7 18 9593315 (1), 10954045 (1), 8600309 (1), 12618962 (1) (see all 15)
    pyruvate 37.5 1 14519660 (1)
    proline 27.6 3 16023078 (1), 14764913 (1)
    threonine 22.1 3 12618962 (1), 17152068 (1)
    alanine 11.5 3 12618962 (1), 17152068 (1)
    serine 6.71 3 16023078 (1), 14764913 (1)



    MT-ND3 for compounds           About GeneDecksing



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN )
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    1 Ensembl transcript including schematic representation, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000361227(uc022bqu.1)
    miRNA
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    Primer
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    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    MT-ND3 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: --
    MT-ND3 Expression
    About this image

    MT-ND3 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    MT-ND3 Protein Expression
        Custom PCR Arrays for MT-ND3
    Primer
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    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for MT-ND3

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

    Orthologs for MT-ND3 gene from Selected species (see all 13)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia mt-Nd35
    ND31
    mitochondrially encoded NADH dehydrogenase 35
    ND31
    67.25(n)1
    66.96(a)1
      MT5
    177181  ND3_345386051  NP_904335.11 
     94595 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves ND31 ND3 61.52(n)
    55.45(a)
      807638  ND3_5834851  NP_006922.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia ND36
    NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3 (mitochondrion)
    55(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    MT(9386-9731)
    tropical clawed frog
    (Xenopus tropicalis)
    Amphibia ND31 ND3 61.01(n)
    54.46(a)
      3283499  ND3_58618672  YP_203377.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii ND31 ND3 60.77(n)
    58.41(a)
      140533  ND3_8395619  NP_059338.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta ND31 ND3 54.37(n)
    46.43(a)
      192475  ND3_5835240  NP_008283.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for MT-ND3 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for MT-ND3 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for MT-ND3 gene
    3 SIMAP similar genes for MT-ND3 using alignment to 1 protein entry:     NU3M_HUMAN:
    AD 1    NADH3    ND3

    MT-ND3 for paralogs           About GeneDecksing


    Selected Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for MT-ND3 (see all 16)
    PGOHUM00000242816 PGOHUM00000247125 PGOHUM00000248719 PGOHUM00000244489 PGOHUM00000240318


    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    7 SNPs for MT-ND3    About this table    
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr MT posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    VAR_0350914
    Mitochondrial complex I deficiency (MT-C1D)4--see VAR_0350912 S P mis40--------
    VAR_0645644
    Mitochondrial complex I deficiency (MT-C1D)4--see VAR_0645642 S P mis40--------
    VAR_0350924
    Mitochondrial complex I deficiency (MT-C1D)4--see VAR_0350922 A T mis40--------
    VAR_0085984
    ----see VAR_0085982 M V mis40--------
    rs28538261,2,4
    ----see VAR_0083922 mis40--------
    rs283582741,2,4
    ----see VAR_0083912 mis40--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for MT-ND3 (10059 - 10404 bp)

    Structural Variations
          Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) variations for MT-ND3: --
    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): MT-ND3
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    Search QIAGEN SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing MT-ND3
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for MT-ND3

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 516002    OMIM disorders: --

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: NU3M_HUMAN, P03897
  • Leigh syndrome (LS) [MIM:256000]: An early-onset progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by
    the presence of focal, bilateral lesions in one or more areas of the central nervous system including the
    brainstem, thalamus, basal ganglia, cerebellum and spinal cord. Clinical features depend on which areas of the
    central nervous system are involved and include subacute onset of psychomotor retardation, hypotonia, ataxia,
    weakness, vision loss, eye movement abnormalities, seizures, and dysphagia. Note=The disease is caused by
    mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry
  • Mitochondrial complex I deficiency (MT-C1D) [MIM:252010]: A disorder of the mitochondrial respiratory
    chain that causes a wide range of clinical manifestations from lethal neonatal disease to adult-onset
    neurodegenerative disorders. Phenotypes include macrocephaly with progressive leukodystrophy, non-specific
    encephalopathy, cardiomyopathy, myopathy, liver disease, Leigh syndrome, Leber hereditary optic neuropathy, and
    some forms of Parkinson disease. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this
    entry

  • Selected diseases for MT-ND3 (see all 30):    
    About MalaCards
    renal oncocytoma    porphyria cutanea tarda, type ii    sparganosis    leber hereditary optic neuropathy with dystonia
    mitochondrial dna-associated leigh syndrome and narp    leigh disease    acne    leber hereditary optic neuropathy
    esophageal cancer    mitochondrial complex i deficiency    sudden infant death syndrome    glucose intolerance
    leukodystrophy    spinocerebellar ataxia    bipolar disorder    neuropathy
    ataxia    myopathy    parkinson's disease    renal cell carcinoma

    2 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for MT-ND3:
    Sparganosis     Renal oncocytoma

    MT-ND3 for disorders           About GeneDecksing

    3 Novoseek inferred disease relationships for MT-ND3 gene    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    leigh syndrome 84.9 8 17152068 (2), 16023078 (1), 19349200 (1), 14764913 (1) (see all 5)
    mitochondrial diseases 77.6 1 19520270 (1)
    sterility male 74.1 2 1865874 (1), 10355121 (1)

    GeneTests: MT-ND3
    GeneReviews: MT-ND3
    Genetic Association Database (GAD): MT-ND3

    Export disorders for MT-ND3 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for MT-ND3 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 66):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with MT-ND3)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. A novel recurrent mitochondrial DNA mutation in ND3 gene is associated with isolated complex I deficiency causing Leigh syndrome and dystonia. (PubMed id 17152068)1, 2, 9 Sarzi E....Procaccio V. (Am. J. Med. Genet. A 2007)
    2. The possible role of 10398A and 16189C mtDNA variants in providing susceptibility to T2DM in two North Indian populations: a replicative study. (PubMed id 17066297)1, 4 Bhat A....Bamezai R.N. (Hum. Genet. 2007)
    3. Mitochondrial DNA G10398A polymorphism imparts maternal Haplogroup N a risk for breast and esophageal cancer. (PubMed id 17081685)1, 4 Darvishi K....Bamezai R.N. (Cancer Lett. 2007)
    4. Mitochondrial tRNA genes and flanking regions in sudden infant death syndrome. (PubMed id 17429907)1, 4 Opdal S.H....Rognum T.O. (Acta Paediatr. 2007)
    5. Mitochondrial complex I gene variant associated with early age at onset in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2. (PubMed id 17620498)1, 4 Simon D.K....Pulst S.M. (Arch. Neurol. 2007)
    6. Mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms and risk of Parkinson's disease in Spanish population. (PubMed id 15975594)1, 4 Huerta C....Alvarez V. (J. Neurol. Sci. 2005)
    7. Mitochondrial DNA G10398A polymorphism and invasive breast cancer in African-American women. (PubMed id 16140977)1, 4 Canter J.A....Millikan R.C. (Cancer Res. 2005)
    8. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup K is associated with a lower risk of Parkinson's disease in Italians. (PubMed id 15827561)1, 4 Ghezzi D....Zeviani M. (Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 2005)
    9. Mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms and extraversion. (PubMed id 15211636)1, 4 Kato C....Sasaki T. (Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 2004)
    10. Genotyping Parkinson disease-associated mitochondrial polymorphisms. (PubMed id 15931342)1, 4 Jiang Y....Greenlee A.R. (amp 2004)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 4537 HGNC: 7458 Ensembl:ENSG00000198840 euGenes: HUgn4537 ECgene: MT-ND3 Kegg: 4537
    H-InvDB: MT-ND3

    (According to HUGE)
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    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for MT-ND3 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    GeneReviewshttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1116/?term=MT-ND3[genesymbol]

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
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    Patent Information for MT-ND3 gene:
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