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Category   Symbol Source: HGNC EntrezGene Ensembl GeneCards RNA genes CroW21
GIFtS

MRPS31 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 50
GCID: GC13M041303

Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein S31

  See related disease
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
About This Section

Aliases
Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein S311 2
Imogen 382 3
IMOGN382 3
MRP-S312 3
S31mt2 3
28S Ribosomal Protein S31, Mitochondrial2

External Ids:    HGNC: 166321   Entrez Gene: 102402   Ensembl: ENSG000001027387   OMIM: 6119925   UniProtKB: Q926653   

Export aliases for MRPS31 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC13M039289 GC13M035289 GC13M040240 GC13M039101 GC13M040201 GC13M022104


(According to Entrez Gene, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

Entrez Gene summary for MRPS31 Gene:
Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the
mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit.
They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is
reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain
a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and
sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. The 28S subunit of the
mammalian mitoribosome may play a crucial and characteristic role in translation initiation. This gene encodes a
28S subunit protein that has also been associated with type 1 diabetes; however, its relationship to the etiology
of this disease remains to be clarified. Pseudogenes corresponding to this gene have been found on chromosomes 3
and 13. (provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for MRPS31 Gene: 
MRPS31 (mitochondrial ribosomal protein S31) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with MRPS31 include type 1 diabetes. GO annotations related to this gene include structural constituent of ribosome and protein domain specific binding.




(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 73), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, SABiosciences, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
About This Section
RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000013.10  NC_018924.2  NT_024524.14  
Regulatory elements:
   SABiosciences Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the MRPS31 gene promoter:
         STAT5B   STAT1   AML1a   STAT4   STAT6   STAT1beta   STAT5A   STAT1alpha   STAT2   STAT3   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidMRPS31 promoter sequence
   Search SABiosciences Chromatin IP Primers for MRPS31

Epigenetics:
QIAGEN PyroMark CpG Assay predesigned Pyrosequencing DNA Methylation assays in human, mouse, rat MRPS31


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 13q14.11   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  13q14.11   HGNC cytogenetic band: 13q14.11

MRPS31 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
MRPS31 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 13         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC13M041303:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
41,303,432 bp from pter      End:
41,345,347 bp from pter
Size:
41,916 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to UniProtKB, HORDE, neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MAXQB RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 and Entrez Gene, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
About This Section

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: RT31_HUMAN, Q92665 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: 28S ribosomal protein S31, mitochondrial precursor  
Size: 395 amino acids; 45318 Da
Subunit: Component of the mitochondrial ribosome small subunit (28S) which comprises a 12S rRNA and about 30
distinct proteins
Subcellular location: Mitochondrion
Secondary accessions: B2RCS3 Q5VYC8 Q8WTV8

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for MRPS31: NX_Q92665

Explore proteomics data for MRPS31 at MOPED 

Post-translational modifications:

  • View modification sites using PhosphoSitePlus
  • View neXtProt modification sites for NX_Q92665

  • MRPS31 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MAXQB3 :    About this image 

    MRPS31 Protein Expression
    REFSEQ proteins: NP_005821.2  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000315397  

    Human Recombinant Protein Products for MRPS31: 
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    Novus Biologicals MRPS31 Lysates
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    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates 
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for MRPS31 

    Gene Ontology (GO): 2 cellular component terms (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005739mitochondrion TAS8567980
    GO:0005763mitochondrial small ribosomal subunit IEA--

    MRPS31 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



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    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for MRPS31


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
    About This Section
    HGNC Gene Families: 
    MRPS: Mitochondrial ribosomal proteins / small subunits

    1 InterPro protein domain:
     IPR026299 MRP-S31

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q92665

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q92665


    MRPS31 for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    bound targets from SABiosciences, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, RNAi from EMD Millipore, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and Sirion Biotech, Cell Lines from GenScript, LifeMap BioReagents, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene.)
    About This Section

         Gene Ontology (GO): 3 molecular function terms (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0003735structural constituent of ribosome IEA--
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI--
    GO:0019904protein domain specific binding IPI11984006
         
    MRPS31 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         1 MGI phenotypic allele for Mrps31 (no phenotypes)

    MRPS31 for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated mouse model solutions for MRPS31 
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    miRNA
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    Inhib. RNA
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for MRPS31


    (Pathways according to EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to SABiosciences, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene).
    About This Section



    Interactions:

        Search SABiosciences Gene Network CentralTM Interacting Genes and Proteins Networks for MRPS31

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 11)

    5/113 Interacting proteins for MRPS31 (Q926651, 2, 3 ENSP000003153974) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 113)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    USP42Q9H9J43, ENSP000003019624I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000301962
    ESR1P033723, ENSP000002062494I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000206249
    ITGB3BPQ133523, ENSP000002710024I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000271002
    SLX4Q8IY923, ENSP000002940084I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000294008
    LYSTQ996983, ENSP000003744434I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000374443
    About this table

    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB, with drugs/clinical trials/news search links to CenterWatch)
    About This Section
    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
    Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences

    Browse Tocris compounds for MRPS31 (RT31)

    Search CenterWatch for drugs/clinical trials and news about MRPS31 / RT31

    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    RNAi Products from EMD Millipore,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN )
    About This Section

    REFSEQ mRNAs for MRPS31 gene: 
    NM_005830.3  

    Unigene Cluster for MRPS31:

    Mitochondrial ribosomal protein S31
    Hs.596607  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_005830
    4 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000498078 ENST00000323563(uc001uxm.4) ENST00000461675 ENST00000435009

    miRNA
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    hsa-miR-513a-3p
    Browse SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmids
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
         
    Browse for Gene Knock-down Tools from EMD Millipore
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for MRPS31
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    Primer
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      QIAGEN QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat MRPS31

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AK315248.1 BC010159.1 BC022045.1 Z68747.1 

    8 DOTS entries:

    DT.416752  DT.95282177  DT.97843684  DT.120761643  DT.100712654  DT.91754850  DT.120761653  DT.306115 

    24/288 AceView cDNA sequences (see all 288):

    AI828646 BM693777 AA010410 BP873452 BX106322 BG757894 AI749736 CR614348 
    BU071227 AI636212 AA737670 BG025463 CR610235 AA194618 BQ002789 BU607618 
    CK819878 AA393447 NM_005830 BG943051 BQ006817 AJ711560 BM715872 Z68747 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, plus additional links to Genevestigator, and/or SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

    MRPS31 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)      MRPS31 embryonic expression: see
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: GAGCTGGTGA
    MRPS31 Expression
    About this image


    MRPS31 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database 
     5/8 selected tissues (see all 8) fully expand
     
     Lung (Respiratory System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             visceral organ/lung/right lung   
     
     Gut Tube (Gastrointestinal Tract)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Midgut
     
     Umbilical Cord (Extraembryonic Tissues)
             Umbilical cord blood-derived hematopoietic stem cells
     
     Kidney (Urinary System)
             Metanephros
     
     Blood (Hematopoietic System)
             Umbilical cord blood-derived hematopoietic stem cells

    See MRPS31 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED and PaxDB
    Genevestigator expression for MRPS31

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.596607
        SABiosciences Custom PCR Arrays for MRPS31
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    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for MRPS31

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

    Orthologs for MRPS31 gene from 7/15 species (see all 15)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Mrps311 , 5 mitochondrial ribosomal protein S311, 5 77.46(n)1
    66.84(a)1
      8 (11.28 cM)5
    573121  NM_020560.21  NP_065585.11 
     224113405 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves MRPS311 mitochondrial ribosomal protein S31 62.72(n)
    52.34(a)
      418887  XM_417081.3  XP_417081.2 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia MRPS316
    Uncharacterized protein
    46(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    1(132548110-132567224)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia Xl.71622 Xenopus laevis transcribed sequence with weak similarity more 75.06(n)    BJ079568.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii mrps311 mitochondrial ribosomal protein S31 56.29(n)
    50.66(a)
      407642  NM_001128328.1  NP_001121800.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta mRpS311 , 3 protein biosynthesis structural
    constituent of more3
    mitochondrial ribosomal protein S311
    35(a)3
    47.12(n)1
    40.51(a)1
      72C23
    397491  NM_079376.21  NP_524100.11 
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea mrps-316
    Uncharacterized protein C32A3.2
    21(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    III(3628240-3630366)


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for MRPS31 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for MRPS31 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
    About This Section
    Paralogs for MRPS31 gene

    MRPS31 for paralogs           About GeneDecksing


    4 Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for MRPS31
    PGOHUM00000248310 PGOHUM00000248405 PGOHUM00000248517 PGOHUM00000238005


    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers from QIAGEN, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays and Copy Number PCR Arrays from SABiosciences)
    About This Section

    10/800 SNPs in MRPS31 are shown (see all 800)    About this table     
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 13 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1829131401,2
    --41304085(+) GGTCTC/TGAACT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1875937621,2
    --41304157(+) CACCAA/CGCCTG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1924474291,2
    --41304172(+) GGAGTA/TAGATC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1179810561,2
    C,F--41304174(+) AGTTAG/CATCTA 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- C:0.04NA 120
    rs1457427231,2
    C--41304183(+) TAACTG/TTGCCC 1 -- int10--------
    rs734573511,2
    C,F--41304216(+) TGGACT/CAATTA 1 -- int14Minor allele frequency- C:0.13WA CSA EA 242
    rs1856889381,2
    --41304237(+) CTGAGC/GAGCAG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1386860411,2
    --41304337(+) TTTACA/GATGCC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1411579041,2
    --41304466(+) AAGCCA/TGGCCA 1 -- int10--------
    rs780322511,2
    C--41304522(+) CAGGCA/GTGATG 1 -- int10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for MRPS31 (41303432 - 41345347 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 4 variations for MRPS31:    About this table     
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2747292CNV Deletion23290073
    esv2747293CNV Deletion23290073
    nsv900011CNV Loss21882294
    nsv900010CNV Loss21882294

    SABiosciences Cancer Mutation PCR Assays
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    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section
    OMIM gene information: 611992    OMIM disorders: --

    2 diseases for MRPS31:    About MalaCards
    type 1 diabetes    


    MRPS31 for disorders           About GeneDecksing

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): MRPS31
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: MRPS31 (1 document)

    Export disorders for MRPS31 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
    About This Section

    PubMed articles for MRPS31 gene, integrated from 9 sources (see all 20):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with MRPS31)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. The small subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome: identification of the full complement of ribosomal proteins present. (PubMed id 11279123)1, 2, 3 Koc E.C.... Spremulli L.L. (2001)
    2. Imogen 38: a novel 38-kD islet mitochondrial autoantigen recognized by T cells from a newly diagnosed type 1 diabetic patient. (PubMed id 8567980)1, 2, 3 Arden S.D....Hutton J.C. (1996)
    3. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial gen es influence AIDS progression. (PubMed id 20877624)1, 4 Hendrickson S.L....O'Brien S.J. (2010)
    4. The DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 13. (PubMed id 15057823)1, 2 Dunham A.... Ross M.T. (2004)
    5. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S....Malek J. (2004)
    6. Interlaboratory reproducibility of large-scale human p rotein-complex analysis by standardized AP-MS. (PubMed id 23455922)1 Varjosalo M....Superti-Furga G. (2013)
    7. A census of human soluble protein complexes. (PubMed id 22939629)1 Havugimana P.C....Emili A. (2012)
    8. A large set of estrogen receptor b-interacting protein s identified by tandem affinity purification in hormone-responsive human breast cancer cell nuclei. (PubMed id 21182203)1 Nassa G....Weisz A. (2011)
    9. Initial characterization of the human central proteome. (PubMed id 21269460)2 Burkard T.R.... Colinge J. (2011)
    10. A proteome-wide, quantitative survey of in vivo ubiqui tylation sites reveals widespread regulatory roles. (PubMed id 21890473)1 Wagner S.A....Choudhary C. (2011)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
    About This Section
     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
    About This Section
    Entrez Gene: 10240 HGNC: 16632 AceView: MRPS31 Ensembl:ENSG00000102738 euGenes: HUgn10240
    ECgene: MRPS31 H-InvDB: MRPS31

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section
      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL,
    Wikipedia and/or GeneReviews via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section
    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for MRPS31 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
    About This Section
    Patent Information for MRPS31 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving MRPS31

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, SABiosciences, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Gene Editing from DNA2.0 and Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Cell lines from GenScript, and LifeMap BioReagents, PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, and/or Enzo Life Sciences, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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    About This Section

     
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    GeneCards Homepage - Last full update: 23 Oct 2013 - Incrementals: 4 Nov 2013 , 7 Nov 2013 , 23 Jan 2014

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