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Aliases for MRPS31 Gene

Aliases for MRPS31 Gene

  • Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein S31 2 3 5
  • Mitochondrial Small Ribosomal Subunit Protein MS31 3 4
  • Imogen 38 3 4
  • IMOGN38 3 4
  • MRP-S31 3 4
  • S31mt 3 4
  • 28S Ribosomal Protein S31, Mitochondrial 3

External Ids for MRPS31 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for MRPS31 Gene

  • GC13M039289
  • GC13M035289
  • GC13M040240
  • GC13M039101
  • GC13M040201
  • GC13M041303
  • GC13M022104

Summaries for MRPS31 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for MRPS31 Gene

  • Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. The 28S subunit of the mammalian mitoribosome may play a crucial and characteristic role in translation initiation. This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein that has also been associated with type 1 diabetes; however, its relationship to the etiology of this disease remains to be clarified. Pseudogenes corresponding to this gene have been found on chromosomes 3 and 13. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for MRPS31 Gene

MRPS31 (Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein S31) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Mitochondrial translation and Organelle biogenesis and maintenance. GO annotations related to this gene include poly(A) RNA binding and structural constituent of ribosome.

Additional gene information for MRPS31 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for MRPS31 Gene

Genomics for MRPS31 Gene

Regulatory Elements for MRPS31 Gene

Enhancers for MRPS31 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH13H041193 1.1 ENCODE 9.7 -423.2 -423174 1 HDGF FOXA2 ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 ZBTB7B YY1 NAA16 MRPS31 KBTBD7 CALM2P3
GH13H041178 0.6 ENCODE 11.6 -407.5 -407511 0 RFX1 RFX3 CEBPA CEBPB CEBPG FOXJ2 ZNF507 NAA16 MRPS31 CALM2P3 KBTBD7
GH13H040788 1 ENCODE 5.1 -18.6 -18639 2 PKNOX1 FOXA2 ARNT ZFP64 SIN3A ETS1 ELK1 ZNF143 ZNF207 ATF7 SLC25A15 KBTBD6 MRPS31 PIR45478
GH13H040894 0.8 ENCODE 5.2 -124.6 -124627 2 ELF3 SOX13 TBP DRAP1 TFAP4 FOXA2 SAP130 CEBPG RARA TEAD3 TPTE2P5 SUGT1P3 MRPS31 GC13P040904 PIR47174
GH13H040793 0.7 ENCODE 5.2 -23.4 -23422 2 TAF1 CEBPB REST RAD21 NR2F2 YY1 JUND ATF3 HNF4G HNF4A SLC25A15 WBP4 MRPS31 PIR45478
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around MRPS31 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for MRPS31 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00000061708 23 1601 ZFP64 FEZF1 DMAP1 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF143 SP3 NFYC ZC3H11A SSRP1

Genomic Location for MRPS31 Gene

40,729,135 bp from pter
40,771,223 bp from pter
42,089 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for MRPS31 Gene

Genes around MRPS31 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
MRPS31 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for MRPS31 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for MRPS31 Gene

Proteins for MRPS31 Gene

  • Protein details for MRPS31 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    28S ribosomal protein S31, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2RCS3
    • Q5VYC8
    • Q8WTV8

    Protein attributes for MRPS31 Gene

    395 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    45318 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Component of the mitochondrial small ribosomal subunit (mt-SSU). Mature mammalian 55S mitochondrial ribosomes consist of a small (28S) and a large (39S) subunit. The 28S small subunit contains a 12S ribosomal RNA (12S mt-rRNA) and 30 different proteins. The 39S large subunit contains a 16S rRNA (16S mt-rRNA), a copy of mitochondrial valine transfer RNA (mt-tRNA(Val)), which plays an integral structural role, and 52 different proteins.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for MRPS31 Gene

neXtProt entry for MRPS31 Gene

Post-translational modifications for MRPS31 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at posLast=174174
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for MRPS31 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for MRPS31 Gene

Domains & Families for MRPS31 Gene

Gene Families for MRPS31 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Protein Domains for MRPS31 Gene


Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for MRPS31 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the mitochondrion-specific ribosomal protein mS31 family.
  • Belongs to the mitochondrion-specific ribosomal protein mS31 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with MRPS31: view

Function for MRPS31 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for MRPS31 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for MRPS31 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003723 RNA binding IDA 22658674
GO:0003735 structural constituent of ribosome IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 21988832
GO:0019904 protein domain specific binding IPI 11984006
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MRPS31: view

Phenotypes for MRPS31 Gene

GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for MRPS31:
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with MRPS31: view

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for MRPS31

CRISPR Products

miRNA for MRPS31 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target MRPS31

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Applied Biological Materials Clones for MRPS31
  • Vectors and viruses for ORF, Lenti, Retro, Adenovirus, AAV, and more

No data available for Molecular function , Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for MRPS31 Gene

Localization for MRPS31 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MRPS31 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for MRPS31 gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
nucleus 5

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Mitochondria (3)
  • Nucleoli (1)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for MRPS31 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005730 nucleolus IDA --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion TAS,IDA --
GO:0005743 mitochondrial inner membrane TAS --
GO:0005763 mitochondrial small ribosomal subunit IEA --
GO:0005840 ribosome IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MRPS31: view

Pathways & Interactions for MRPS31 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with MRPS31: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for MRPS31 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0070125 mitochondrial translational elongation TAS --
GO:0070126 mitochondrial translational termination TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MRPS31: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for MRPS31 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for MRPS31 Gene

No Compound Related Data Available

Transcripts for MRPS31 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for MRPS31 Gene

Unigene Clusters for MRPS31 Gene

Mitochondrial ribosomal protein S31:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Applied Biological Materials Clones for MRPS31
  • Vectors and viruses for ORF, Lenti, Retro, Adenovirus, AAV, and more

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for MRPS31 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for MRPS31 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for MRPS31 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for MRPS31 Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for MRPS31 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Lung (25.1) and Pancreas (6.8).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for MRPS31 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for MRPS31 Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of MRPS31 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for MRPS31 Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for MRPS31 Gene

  • Heart(4.3)
  • Liver(4.3)
  • Skin(4.2)
  • Nervous system(3.2)
  • Lung(2.2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with MRPS31: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for MRPS31 Gene

Orthologs for MRPS31 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for MRPS31 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia MRPS31 33 34
  • 99.32 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia MRPS31 33 34
  • 83.85 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia MRPS31 33 34
  • 82.53 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Mrps31 33 16 34
  • 77.46 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Mrps31 33
  • 76.36 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia MRPS31 34
  • 58 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia MRPS31 34
  • 57 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves MRPS31 33 34
  • 63.23 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia MRPS31 34
  • 45 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia mrps31 33
  • 58.28 (n)
Str.15830 33
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.7162 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii mrps31 33 34
  • 57.59 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta mRpS31 35 34
  • 35 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea mrps-31 34
  • 22 (a)
Species where no ortholog for MRPS31 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for MRPS31 Gene

Gene Tree for MRPS31 (if available)
Gene Tree for MRPS31 (if available)

Paralogs for MRPS31 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with MRPS31: view

No data available for Paralogs for MRPS31 Gene

Variants for MRPS31 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for MRPS31 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 13 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1000013067 -- 40,729,792(+) GGCAC(A/G)ATCTC intron-variant, upstream-variant-2KB
rs1000028686 -- 40,755,321(+) AGCAA(A/G)TCACA intron-variant
rs1000063242 -- 40,729,206(+) CTCCA(C/T)GCAAG downstream-variant-500B, upstream-variant-2KB
rs1000190471 -- 40,741,738(+) GATCT(A/G)CTATA intron-variant
rs1000200297 -- 40,741,939(+) CTGCA(C/G)GACAA intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for MRPS31 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2747292 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2747293 CNV deletion 23290073
esv3550361 CNV deletion 23714750
esv3892332 CNV gain 25118596
nsv1134304 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv974239 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv976107 CNV duplication 23825009

Variation tolerance for MRPS31 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 26.2% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 9.07; 87.61% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for MRPS31 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MRPS31 Gene

Disorders for MRPS31 Gene

Relevant External Links for MRPS31

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:

No disorders were found for MRPS31 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for MRPS31 Gene

Publications for MRPS31 Gene

  1. The small subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome. Identification of the full complement of ribosomal proteins present. (PMID: 11279123) Cavdar Koc E … Spremulli LL (The Journal of biological chemistry 2001) 2 3 4 60
  2. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression. (PMID: 20877624) Hendrickson SL … O'Brien SJ (PloS one 2010) 3 45 60
  3. The DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 13. (PMID: 15057823) Dunham A … Ross MT (Nature 2004) 3 4 60
  4. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard DS … MGC Project Team (Genome research 2004) 3 4 60
  5. Imogen 38: a novel 38-kD islet mitochondrial autoantigen recognized by T cells from a newly diagnosed type 1 diabetic patient. (PMID: 8567980) Arden SD … Hutton JC (The Journal of clinical investigation 1996) 2 4 60

Products for MRPS31 Gene

Sources for MRPS31 Gene

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