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MRPS31 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 51
GCID: GC13M041303

Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein S31

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(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein S311 2
Imogen 382 3
IMOGN382 3
MRP-S312 3
S31mt2 3
28S Ribosomal Protein S31, Mitochondrial2

External Ids:    HGNC: 166321   Entrez Gene: 102402   Ensembl: ENSG000001027387   OMIM: 6119925   UniProtKB: Q926653   

Export aliases for MRPS31 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC13M039289 GC13M035289 GC13M040240 GC13M039101 GC13M040201 GC13M022104


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for MRPS31 Gene:
Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the
mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit.
They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is
reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain
a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and
sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. The 28S subunit of the
mammalian mitoribosome may play a crucial and characteristic role in translation initiation. This gene encodes a
28S subunit protein that has also been associated with type 1 diabetes; however, its relationship to the etiology
of this disease remains to be clarified. Pseudogenes corresponding to this gene have been found on chromosomes 3
and 13. (provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for MRPS31 Gene:
MRPS31 (mitochondrial ribosomal protein S31) is a protein-coding gene. GO annotations related to this gene include structural constituent of ribosome and protein domain specific binding.




(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000013.10  NC_018924.2  NT_024524.15  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the MRPS31 gene promoter:
         STAT5B   STAT1   AML1a   STAT4   STAT6   STAT1beta   STAT5A   STAT1alpha   STAT2   STAT3   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidMRPS31 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for MRPS31

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat MRPS31


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 13q14.11   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  13q14.11   HGNC cytogenetic band: 13q14.11

MRPS31 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
MRPS31 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 13         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC13M041303:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
41,303,432 bp from pter      End:
41,345,347 bp from pter
Size:
41,916 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, antibodies-online, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: RT31_HUMAN, Q92665 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: 28S ribosomal protein S31, mitochondrial precursor  
Size: 395 amino acids; 45318 Da
Subunit: Component of the mitochondrial ribosome small subunit (28S) which comprises a 12S rRNA and about 30
distinct proteins
Secondary accessions: B2RCS3 Q5VYC8 Q8WTV8

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for MRPS31: NX_Q92665

Explore proteomics data for MRPS31 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Ubiquitination2 at Lys174
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See MRPS31 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_005821.2  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000315397  

    MRPS31 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for MRPS31

     
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    antibodies-online proteins for MRPS31 (3 products) 

     
    antibodies-online peptides for MRPS31

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    antibodies-online antibodies for MRPS31 (16 products) 

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    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for MRPS31
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    antibodies-online kits for MRPS31 (16 products) 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    MRPS: Mitochondrial ribosomal proteins / small subunits

    1 InterPro protein domain:
     IPR026299 MRP-S31

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q92665

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q92665


    Find genes that share domains with MRPS31           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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         Gene Ontology (GO): 4 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0003735structural constituent of ribosome IEA--
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI--
    GO:0019904protein domain specific binding IPI11984006
    GO:0044822poly(A) RNA binding IDA--
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with MRPS31           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         1 MGI phenotypic allele for Mrps31 (no phenotypes)

    Find genes that share phenotypes with MRPS31           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
       genOway: Develop your customized and physiologically relevant rodent model for MRPS31

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target MRPS31:
    hsa-mir-16-5p (MIRT031399)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat MRPS31 using miScript Target Protectors
    1 qRT-PCR Assays for microRNA that regulate MRPS31:
    hsa-miR-513a-3p
    Browse SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmids
    Inhib. RNA
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    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    RT31_HUMAN, Q92665: Mitochondrion
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    mitochondrion5
    nucleus3

    Gene Ontology (GO): 3 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005730nucleolus IDA--
    GO:0005739mitochondrion IDA--
    GO:0005763mitochondrial small ribosomal subunit IEA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with MRPS31           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for MRPS31
    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for MRPS31

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 12)

    Selected Interacting proteins for MRPS31 (Q926651, 2, 3 ENSP000003153974) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 114)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    USP42Q9H9J43, ENSP000003019624I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000301962
    ESR1P033723, ENSP000002062494I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000206249
    ITGB3BPQ133523, ENSP000002710024I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000271002
    SLX4Q8IY923, ENSP000002940084I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000294008
    LYSTQ996983, ENSP000003744434I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000374443
    About this table

    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for MRPS31 (RT31)



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for MRPS31 gene: 
    NM_005830.3  

    Unigene Cluster for MRPS31:

    Mitochondrial ribosomal protein S31
    Hs.596607  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_005830
    4 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000498078 ENST00000323563(uc001uxm.4) ENST00000461675 ENST00000435009

    miRNA
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    1 qRT-PCR Assays for microRNA that regulate MRPS31:
    hsa-miR-513a-3p
    Browse SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmids
    Inhib. RNA
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    Primer
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    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for MRPS31
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      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat MRPS31
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat MRPS31

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AK315248.1 BC010159.1 BC022045.1 Z68747.1 

    8 DOTS entries:

    DT.416752  DT.95282177  DT.97843684  DT.120761643  DT.100712654  DT.91754850  DT.120761653  DT.306115 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 288):

    AA960964 CK724998 CA415439 Z68747 BU621944 BI821428 F10242 BG943051 
    AJ711560 BU608889 AA971808 CR610235 BG757894 BP372520 AA358244 BU607618 
    BM715872 BM980164 AA393447 AI749736 AA377022 CK819878 AA737670 BQ002789 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    MRPS31 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: GAGCTGGTGA
    MRPS31 Expression
    About this image


    MRPS31 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 8) fully expand
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 4 entries
             Cerebral Cortex
     
     Gut Tube (Gastrointestinal Tract)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Foregut
     
     Kidney (Urinary System)
             Metanephros
     
     Trophoblast (Extraembryonic Tissues)
             Trophoblast Cells Trophoblast
     
     Testis (Reproductive System)
             Leydig Cells Testis Interstitium
    MRPS31 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    MRPS31 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.596607
        Custom PCR Arrays for MRPS31
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    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for MRPS31

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

    Orthologs for MRPS31 gene from Selected species (see all 14)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Mrps311 , 5 mitochondrial ribosomal protein S311, 5 77.46(n)1
    66.84(a)1
      8 (11.28 cM)5
    573121  NM_020560.21  NP_065585.11 
     224113405 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves MRPS311 mitochondrial ribosomal protein S31 63.23(n)
    53.75(a)
      418887  XM_417081.4  XP_417081.3 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia MRPS316
    mitochondrial ribosomal protein S31
    45(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    1(132548110-132567224)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia Xl.71622 Xenopus laevis transcribed sequence with weak similarity more 75.06(n)    BJ079568.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii mrps311 mitochondrial ribosomal protein S31 57.59(n)
    53.1(a)
      407642  NM_001128328.1  NP_001121800.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta mRpS313 protein biosynthesis structural
    constituent of more
    35(a)   72C2   --
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea mrps-316
    Protein MRPS-31 (mrps-31) mRNA, complete cds
    22(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    III(3628240-3630366) WBGene00007859


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for MRPS31 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for MRPS31 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for MRPS31 gene

    Find genes that share paralogs with MRPS31           About GenesLikeMe


    4 Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for MRPS31
    PGOHUM00000248310 PGOHUM00000248405 PGOHUM00000248517 PGOHUM00000238005


    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for MRPS31 (see all 800)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 13 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1829131401,2
    --41304085(+) GGTCTC/TGAACT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1875937621,2
    --41304157(+) CACCAA/CGCCTG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1924474291,2
    --41304172(+) GGAGTA/TAGATC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1179810561,2
    C,F--41304174(+) AGTTAG/CATCTA 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- C:0.04NA 120
    rs1457427231,2
    C--41304183(+) TAACTG/TTGCCC 1 -- int10--------
    rs734573511,2
    C,F--41304216(+) TGGACT/CAATTA 1 -- int14Minor allele frequency- C:0.13WA CSA EA 242
    rs1856889381,2
    --41304237(+) CTGAGC/GAGCAG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1386860411,2
    --41304337(+) TTTACA/GATGCC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1411579041,2
    --41304466(+) AAGCCA/TGGCCA 1 -- int10--------
    rs780322511,2
    C--41304522(+) CAGGCA/GTGATG 1 -- int10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for MRPS31 (41303432 - 41345347 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 4 variations for MRPS31:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2747292CNV Deletion23290073
    esv2747293CNV Deletion23290073
    nsv900011CNV Loss21882294
    nsv900010CNV Loss21882294

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
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    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 611992    OMIM disorders: --


    Find genes that share disorders with MRPS31           About GenesLikeMe

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): MRPS31
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: MRPS31 (1 document)

    Export disorders for MRPS31 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for MRPS31 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 21):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with MRPS31)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. The small subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome: identification of the full complement of ribosomal proteins present. (PubMed id 11279123)1, 2, 3 Koc E.C.... Spremulli L.L. (J. Biol. Chem. 2001)
    2. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression. (PubMed id 20877624)1, 4 Hendrickson S.L....O'Brien S.J. (PLoS ONE 2010)
    3. The DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 13. (PubMed id 15057823)1, 2 Dunham A.... Ross M.T. (Nature 2004)
    4. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    5. Imogen 38: a novel 38-kD islet mitochondrial autoantigen recognized by T cells from a newly diagnosed type 1 diabetic patient. (PubMed id 8567980)2, 3 Arden S.D.... Hutton J.C. (J. Clin. Invest. 1996)
    6. Interlaboratory reproducibility of large-scale human protein-complex analysis by standardized AP-MS. (PubMed id 23455922)1 Varjosalo M....Superti-Furga G. (Nat. Methods 2013)
    7. Profiling of Parkin-binding partners using tandem affinity purification. (PubMed id 24244333)1 Zanon A....Pichler I. (PLoS ONE 2013)
    8. A census of human soluble protein complexes. (PubMed id 22939629)1 Havugimana P.C....Emili A. (Cell 2012)
    9. A large set of estrogen receptor I^-interacting proteins identified by tandem affinity purification in hormone-responsive human breast cancer cell nuclei. (PubMed id 21182203)1 Nassa G....Weisz A. (Proteomics 2011)
    10. Initial characterization of the human central proteome. (PubMed id 21269460)2 Burkard T.R.... Colinge J. (BMC Syst. Biol. 2011)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 10240 HGNC: 16632 AceView: MRPS31 Ensembl:ENSG00000102738 euGenes: HUgn10240
    ECgene: MRPS31 H-InvDB: MRPS31

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for MRPS31 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for MRPS31 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving MRPS31

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, eBioscience, antibodies-online, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Animal models from genOway)
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