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MRPL45 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 49
GCID: GC17P036363

Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein L45

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(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein L451 2
L45mt2 3
MRP-L452 3
39S Ribosomal Protein L45, Mitochondrial2

External Ids:    HGNC: 166511   Entrez Gene: 843112   Ensembl: ENSG000001741007   OMIM: 6118505   UniProtKB: Q9BRJ23   

Export aliases for MRPL45 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC17M035907 GC17P038369 GC17P036827 GC17P033706 GC17P032251


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for MRPL45 Gene:
Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the
mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit.
They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is
reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain
a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and
sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a
39S subunit protein. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Pseudogenes corresponding to
this gene are found on chromosomes 2p and 17q. (provided by RefSeq, May 2013)

GeneCards Summary for MRPL45 Gene:
MRPL45 (mitochondrial ribosomal protein L45) is a protein-coding gene. GO annotations related to this gene include structural constituent of ribosome.




(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the MRPL45 gene promoter:
         AhR   Nkx3-1 v4   STAT1   Bach2   STAT1beta   FOXD1   Lmo2   STAT1alpha   Arnt   STAT3   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidMRPL45 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for MRPL45

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat MRPL45


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 17q21.2   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  17q12   HGNC cytogenetic band: 17q21.2

MRPL45 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
MRPL45 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 17         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC17P036363:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
36,452,989 bp from pter      End:
36,479,101 bp from pter
Size:
26,113 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

1 alternative location:
Chr17+,NW_003315948 80,373-106,485     

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, antibodies-online, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: RM45_HUMAN, Q9BRJ2 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: 39S ribosomal protein L45, mitochondrial precursor  
Size: 306 amino acids; 35351 Da
Sequence caution: Sequence=BC006235; Type=Frameshift; Positions=40;
Secondary accessions: A1L436 Q6ZMJ5

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for MRPL45: NX_Q9BRJ2

Explore proteomics data for MRPL45 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Ubiquitination2 at Lys49, Lys54, Lys62, Lys71, Lys102, Lys177, Lys240, Lys273
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See MRPL45 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001265208.1  NP_115727.4  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000308901   ENSP00000464686   ENSP00000462622   ENSP00000462875  

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    antibodies-online peptides for MRPL45

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    antibodies-online antibodies for MRPL45 (26 products) 

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    antibodies-online kits for MRPL45 (3 products) 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    MRPL: Mitochondrial ribosomal proteins / large subunits

    1 InterPro protein domain:
     IPR007379 Tim44-like_dom

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q9BRJ2

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q9BRJ2

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: RM45_HUMAN, Q9BRJ2
    Similarity: Belongs to the ribosomal protein L45 family


    Find genes that share domains with MRPL45           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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         Gene Ontology (GO): 2 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0003735structural constituent of ribosome ----
    GO:0044822poly(A) RNA binding IDA--
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with MRPL45           About GenesLikeMe


    Animal Models:
       genOway: Develop your customized and physiologically relevant rodent model for MRPL45

    miRNA
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    miRTarBase miRNAs that target MRPL45:
    hsa-mir-186-5p (MIRT044951), hsa-mir-148a-3p (MIRT048023)

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    3 qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate MRPL45:
    hsa-miR-146a* hsa-miR-2117 hsa-miR-944
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidMRPL45 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    RM45_HUMAN, Q9BRJ2: Mitochondrion
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    mitochondrion5
    cytosol1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 2 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005739mitochondrion IDA--
    GO:0005840ribosome IEA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with MRPL45           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for MRPL45
    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for MRPL45

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for MRPL45 (Q9BRJ23 ENSP000003089014) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 28)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    KBTBD7Q8WVZ93, ENSP000003687974I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000368797
    ESR2Q927313, ENSP000003439254I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000343925
    ICT1Q141973, ENSP000003015854I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000301585
    G3BP1Q132833, ENSP000003485784I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000348578
    LYPLAL1Q5VWZ23I2D: score=5 
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 1 biological process term:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006412translation ----

    Find genes that share ontologies with MRPL45           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for MRPL45 (RM45)



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for MRPL45 gene (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001278279.1  NM_032351.4  

    5 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000312513(uc002hpy.3) ENST00000582535 ENST00000580762 ENST00000581817
    ENST00000579911
    miRNA
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    3 qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate MRPL45:
    hsa-miR-146a* hsa-miR-2117 hsa-miR-944
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidMRPL45 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for MRPL45
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat MRPL45
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    Primer
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    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for MRPL45
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      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat MRPL45
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat MRPL45

    24 AceView cDNA sequences:

    BC067758 BI459352 BX642763 BF033913 BQ889294 BG719833 CB132789 AW118467 
    BU597225 CD389339 CB117780 BI909541 AW391997 BI458516 BQ307162 BE080771 
    BI044775 H69151 BM830008 BQ345978 BF816808 BF210921 BE077412 BU589152 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    5 Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for MRPL45    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d · 1e ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b · 7c · 7d ^ 8 ^ 9
    SP1:                          -                 -                                                   
    SP2:                          -                 -                                                   
    SP3:                                            -                                                   
    SP4:                                                                                                
    SP5:                          -                 -     -                                             


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for MRPL45

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    MRPL45 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: GACCAGCCTT
    MRPL45 Expression
    About this image


    MRPL45 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 6) fully expand
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 4 entries
             Cerebral Cortex
     
     Trophoblast (Extraembryonic Tissues)
             Trophoblast Cells Trophoblast
     
     Ovary (Reproductive System)
             Oviduct
     
     Pancreas (Endocrine System)
             Islets of Langerhans
     
     Testis (Reproductive System)
             Leydig Cells Testis Interstitium
    MRPL45 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    MRPL45 Protein Expression
        Custom PCR Arrays for MRPL45
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for MRPL45

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

    Orthologs for MRPL45 gene from Selected species (see all 18)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Mrpl451 , 5 mitochondrial ribosomal protein L451, 5 82.24(n)1
    79.41(a)1
      11 (60.95 cM)5
    670361  NM_025927.41  NP_080203.11 
     973157165 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves MRPL451 mitochondrial ribosomal protein L45 60.82(n)
    59.65(a)
      426233  NM_001193585.1  NP_001180514.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia MRPL456
    mitochondrial ribosomal protein L45
    50(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    6(74047232-74057337)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia MGC537722 similar to mitochondrial ribosomal protein L45 71.11(n)    BC043883.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii zgc564802 similar to mitochondrial ribosomal protein L45 72.49(n)   393277  BC050166.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta mRpL451 , 3 structural constituent of ribosome3
    mitochondrial ribosomal protein L451
    43(a)3
    54.22(n)1
    45.92(a)1
      94B63
    426711  NM_142815.31  NP_651072.11 
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea mrpl-456
    Protein MRPL-45 (mrpl-45) mRNA, complete cds
    28(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    III(1197446-1202008) WBGene00022493


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for MRPL45 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for MRPL45 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for MRPL45 gene
    Selected SIMAP similar genes for MRPL45 using alignment to 4 protein entries:     RM45_HUMAN (see all proteins) (see all similar genes):
    RHBG    NLN    RBP7    SNRPF    C12orf76    NDC80
    SMYD4    TNNT1    KIAA1651    PFKFB3    ZNF257    RRM2B
    TUBA1C    VPS33A    ZNF114    ACTR10    DOCK8    FLJ00047

    Find genes that share paralogs with MRPL45           About GenesLikeMe


    2 Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for MRPL45
    PGOHUM00000262958 PGOHUM00000240139


    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for MRPL45 (see all 542)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 17 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1397574531,2
    --36451206(+) CCACCA/GCACCC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1511448161,2
    --36451494(+) TCAAGC/GTTTAA 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs285232821,2
    C--36451595(+) AACCTC/TGTCTC 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- T:0.00NA 2
    rs285758131,2
    C--36451703(+) CAGAGG/ATTGCA 1 -- us2k1 tfbs31Minor allele frequency- A:0.00NA 2
    rs1871877621,2
    --36451707(+) GGTTGC/TAGTGA 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs713842111,2
    C,F--36451856(+) TTGTAG/TCAATT 1 -- us2k14Minor allele frequency- T:0.17NA CSA WA 123
    rs1916446701,2
    --36451939(+) ACTCTA/GTAAGC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs72169531,2
    C,H--36451962(+) AATAAA/C/TCACCA 1 -- us2k13WA NA 6
    rs72169541,2
    C,F,H--36451963(+) ATAACA/CACCAA 1 -- us2k15Minor allele frequency- C:0.00NS NA CSA 389
    rs1823492401,2
    --36451970(+) CCAACA/GGCTAA 1 -- us2k10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for MRPL45 (36452989 - 36479101 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 2 variations for MRPL45:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv33106CNV Gain17666407
    dgv957e1CNV Complex17122850

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing MRPL45
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    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 611850    OMIM disorders: --


    Find genes that share disorders with MRPL45           About GenesLikeMe

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): MRPL45
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: MRPL45 (1 document)

    Export disorders for MRPL45 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for MRPL45 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 24):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with MRPL45)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. The large subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome. Analysis of the complement of ribosomal proteins present. (PubMed id 11551941)1, 2, 3 Koc E.C.... Spremulli L.L. (J. Biol. Chem. 2001)
    2. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression. (PubMed id 20877624)1, 4 Hendrickson S.L....O'Brien S.J. (PLoS ONE 2010)
    3. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    4. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PubMed id 14702039)1, 2 Ota T.... Sugano S. (Nat. Genet. 2004)
    5. Identification and characterization of over 100 mitochondrial ribosomal protein pseudogenes in the human genome. (PubMed id 12706105)1, 3 Zhang Z. and Gerstein M. (Genomics 2003)
    6. GWAS meta-analysis and replication identifies three new susceptibility loci for ovarian cancer. (PubMed id 23535730)1 Pharoah P.D....Sellers T.A. (Nat. Genet. 2013)
    7. Pathway Analysis of ChIP-Seq-Based NRF1 Target Genes Suggests a Logical Hypothesis of their Involvement in the Pathogenesis of Neurodegenerative Diseases. (PubMed id 24250222)1 Satoh J....Yamamoto Y. (Gene Regul Syst Bio 2013)
    8. p32/gC1qR is indispensable for fetal development and mitochondrial translation: importance of its RNA-binding ability. (PubMed id 22904065)1 Yagi M....Kang D. (Nucleic Acids Res. 2012)
    9. A census of human soluble protein complexes. (PubMed id 22939629)1 Havugimana P.C....Emili A. (Cell 2012)
    10. Systems-wide analysis of ubiquitylation dynamics reveals a key role for PAF15 ubiquitylation in DNA-damage bypass. (PubMed id 23000965)1 Povlsen L.K....Choudhary C. (Nat. Cell Biol. 2012)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 84311 HGNC: 16651 AceView: MRPL45.1 Ensembl:ENSG00000174100 euGenes: HUgn84311
    ECgene: MRPL45 H-InvDB: MRPL45

    (According to HUGE)
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    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for MRPL45 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for MRPL45 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving MRPL45

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, eBioscience, antibodies-online, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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