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MRPL43 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 50
GCID: GC10M102737

Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein L43

  See MRPL43-related disease
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein L431 2
Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein BMRP36a2 3
L43mt2 3
MRP-L432 3
39S Ribosomal Protein L43, Mitochondrial2
bMRP36a2

External Ids:    HGNC: 145171   Entrez Gene: 845452   Ensembl: ENSG000000559507   OMIM: 6118485   UniProtKB: Q8N9833   

Export aliases for MRPL43 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC10M101639 GC10M101971 GC10M102860 GC10M102402 GC10M102727 GC10M096366


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for MRPL43 Gene:
Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the
mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit.
They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is
reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain
a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and
sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a
39S subunit protein. This gene and the gene for a semaphorin class 4 protein (SEMA4G) overlap at map location
10q24.31 and are transcribed in opposite directions. Sequence analysis identified multiple transcript variants
encoding at least four different protein isoforms. (provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for MRPL43 Gene:
MRPL43 (mitochondrial ribosomal protein L43) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with MRPL43 include chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia. GO annotations related to this gene include structural constituent of ribosome.




(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000010.10  NT_030059.14  NC_018921.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the MRPL43 gene promoter:
         COUP-TF1   Sp1   Pax-5   COUP   HNF-4alpha2   HNF-4alpha1   COUP-TF   NF-kappaB1   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidMRPL43 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for MRPL43

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat MRPL43


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 10q24.31   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  10q24.31   HGNC cytogenetic band: 10q24.31

MRPL43 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
MRPL43 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 10         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC10M102737:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
102,729,215 bp from pter      End:
102,747,272 bp from pter
Size:
18,058 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, antibodies-online, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: RM43_HUMAN, Q8N983 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: 39S ribosomal protein L43, mitochondrial precursor  
Size: 215 amino acids; 23431 Da
Secondary accessions: B1AL07 B1AL09 B1AL10 D3DR71 Q5JW06 Q7Z719 Q7Z7H6 Q86XN1 Q9BYC7
Alternative splicing: 4 isoforms:  Q8N983-1   Q8N983-2   Q8N983-3   Q8N983-4   (Ref.1 (BAB40861) sequence differs from that shown due to frameshifts in positions 131 and 210)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for MRPL43: NX_Q8N983

Explore proteomics data for MRPL43 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Modification sites at neXtProt
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See MRPL43 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (4 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_115488.2  NP_789762.1  NP_789763.1  NP_789764.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000430369   ENSP00000315364   ENSP00000359261   ENSP00000359262   ENSP00000408806  
     ENSP00000299179   ENSP00000359256   ENSP00000315948   ENSP00000471004   ENSP00000359254  
     ENSP00000339844  

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    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    MRPL: Mitochondrial ribosomal proteins / large subunits

    2 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR012336 Thioredoxin-like_fold
     IPR007741 Ribosome/NADH_DH

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q8N983

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q8N983

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB007741 Mitochondrial ribosome

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: RM43_HUMAN, Q8N983
    Similarity: Belongs to the ribosomal protein S25/L51 family


    Find genes that share domains with MRPL43           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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         Gene Ontology (GO): 2 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0003735structural constituent of ribosome NAS11543634
    GO:0044822poly(A) RNA binding IDA--
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with MRPL43           About GenesLikeMe


    Animal Models:
       genOway: Develop your customized and physiologically relevant rodent model for MRPL43

    miRNA
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    miRTarBase miRNAs that target MRPL43:
    hsa-mir-192-5p (MIRT026434), hsa-mir-215-5p (MIRT024695)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat MRPL43 using miScript Target Protectors
    2 qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate MRPL43:
    hsa-miR-2355-5p hsa-miR-125a-3p
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    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    RM43_HUMAN, Q8N983: Mitochondrion
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    mitochondrion5
    cytosol2
    nucleus1
    peroxisome1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 3 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005739mitochondrion ----
    GO:0005761mitochondrial ribosome NAS11543634
    GO:0005840ribosome ----

    Find genes that share ontologies with MRPL43           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for MRPL43
    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for MRPL43

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for MRPL43 (Q8N9832, 3 ENSP000003398444) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 264)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    ICT1Q141972, 3, ENSP000003015854MINT-8079030 I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000301585
    ARRB2P321213, ENSP000002692604I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000269260
    EIF1BO607393, ENSP000002329054I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000232905
    MRPL16Q9NX202, ENSP000003001514MINT-8079030 STRING: ENSP00000300151
    MRPL19P494062, ENSP000003774864MINT-8079030 STRING: ENSP00000377486
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 1 biological process term:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006412translation NAS11543634

    Find genes that share ontologies with MRPL43           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for MRPL43 (RM43)



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for MRPL43 gene (4 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_032112.2  NM_176792.2  NM_176793.1  NM_176794.1  

    Unigene Cluster for MRPL43:

    Mitochondrial ribosomal protein L43
    Hs.421848  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_176792
    14 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000523148 ENST00000318325(uc001kry.1 uc010qpu.1) ENST00000370241
    ENST00000370242 ENST00000476012(uc001krz.1) ENST00000448244 ENST00000299179
    ENST00000370236 ENST00000493646 ENST00000318364(uc001ksc.3 uc001ksd.1)
    ENST00000477279 ENST00000370234 ENST00000487059 ENST00000342071(uc001ksa.1 uc001ksb.1)

    miRNA
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    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat MRPL43 using miScript Target Protectors
    2 qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate MRPL43:
    hsa-miR-2355-5p hsa-miR-125a-3p
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidMRPL43 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat MRPL43

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AB049656.1 AF086122.1 AK095556.1 AK291069.1 AK300237.1 BC015905.1 BC031287.1 BC041165.1 
    BC052639.1 BC053373.1 

    23 DOTS entries:

    DT.100826449  DT.455116  DT.97846893  DT.95158436  DT.97846895  DT.87016066  DT.92454514  DT.447369 
    DT.121293602  DT.95158431  DT.100826456  DT.121293595  DT.100712338  DT.102843359  DT.95212746  DT.92454517 
    DT.95158442  DT.95258822  DT.100712337  DT.100826453  DT.100826455  DT.99937075  DT.95098189 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 388):

    F27590 CA942279 BQ286786 AI014795 BU507377 AA627500 CA415379 AA513371 
    AI867984 BU581601 BU689143 BQ013414 BU580612 BU615564 CR616314 BX341409 
    BC041165 AA987570 AI184400 BE297778 BU689273 AI471958 T34337 CA426960 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    Selected Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for MRPL43 (see all 6)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3a · 3b · 3c · 3d ^ 4a · 4b · 4c · 4d
    SP1:                          -                       -     -                           
    SP2:                          -                 -     -     -                           
    SP3:                          -                                                         
    SP4:                          -                                                         
    SP5:                          -     -                                                   


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for MRPL43

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    MRPL43 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: CTGTCCAGGG
    MRPL43 Expression
    About this image

    MRPL43 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    MRPL43 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.421848

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: RM43_HUMAN, Q8N983
    Tissue specificity: High relative levels in skeletal muscle and testis. Lower levels of expression in the heart,
    brain, placenta, lung, liver, kidney, pancreas, spleen, thymus, prostate, ovary, small intestine, colon and
    leukocytes. Expression is coregulated with PEO1

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    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

    Orthologs for MRPL43 gene from Selected species (see all 14)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Mrpl431 , 5 mitochondrial ribosomal protein L431, 5 83.98(n)1
    83.12(a)1
      19 (38.19 cM)5
    940671  NM_053164.31  NP_444394.11 
     450050145 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia MRPL436
    mitochondrial ribosomal protein L43
    61(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    3(39293908-39301299)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia MGC540022 similar to mitochondrial ribosomal protein L43 73.99(n)    BC044005.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii Dr.180762 Transcribed sequence with weak similarity to protein refNP_444394.1 (M.musculus) mitochondrial ribosomal protein L43 [Mus musculus] less 79.01(n)    BQ614690.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta mRpL431 mitochondrial ribosomal protein L43 51.85(n)
    46.83(a)
      37750  NM_079104.2  NP_523828.1 
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea mrpl-341 mrpl-34 39.19(n)
    35.88(a)
      182876  NM_060285.1  NP_492686.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for MRPL43 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for MRPL43 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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      --

    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 4 variations for MRPL43:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv517698CNV Loss19592680
    nsv467443CNV Loss19166990
    nsv895961CNV Loss21882294
    nsv831965CNV Loss17160897

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
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    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 611848    OMIM disorders: --

    1 disease for MRPL43:    
    About MalaCards
    chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia

    1 disease from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for MRPL43:
    Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia

    Find genes that share disorders with MRPL43           About GenesLikeMe

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): MRPL43
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: MRPL43 (2 documents)

    Export disorders for MRPL43 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for MRPL43 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 22):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with MRPL43)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression. (PubMed id 20877624)1, 4 Hendrickson S.L....O'Brien S.J. (PLoS ONE 2010)
    2. A scan of chromosome 10 identifies a novel locus showing strong association with late-onset Alzheimer disease. (PubMed id 16385451)1, 4 Grupe A....Goate A. (Am. J. Hum. Genet. 2006)
    3. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    4. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PubMed id 14702039)1, 2 Ota T.... Sugano S. (Nat. Genet. 2004)
    5. Twinkle helicase is essential for mtDNA maintenance and regulates mtDNA copy number. (PubMed id 15509589)1, 2 Tyynismaa H.... Suomalainen A. (Hum. Mol. Genet. 2004)
    6. Structural compensation for the deficit of rRNA with proteins in the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome. Systematic analysis of protein components of the large ribosomal subunit from mammalian mitochondria. (PubMed id 11279069)1, 2 Suzuki T....Watanabe K. (J. Biol. Chem. 2001)
    7. Quantitative study of the interactome of PKCIP involved in the EGF-induced tumor cell chemotaxis. (PubMed id 23402259)1 Chen R....Zhang N. (J. Proteome Res. 2013)
    8. The protein interaction landscape of the human CMGC kinase group. (PubMed id 23602568)1 Varjosalo M....Gstaiger M. (Cell Rep 2013)
    9. A census of human soluble protein complexes. (PubMed id 22939629)1 Havugimana P.C....Emili A. (Cell 2012)
    10. Proteomic analysis of I+4I^1 integrin adhesion complexes reveals I+-subunit-dependent protein recruitment. (PubMed id 22623428)1 Byron A....Humphries M.J. (Proteomics 2012)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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      Query String
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      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 84545 HGNC: 14517 AceView: MRPL43 Ensembl:ENSG00000055950 euGenes: HUgn84545
    ECgene: MRPL43 H-InvDB: MRPL43

    (According to HUGE)
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    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for MRPL43 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for MRPL43 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving MRPL43

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, eBioscience, antibodies-online, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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