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Aliases for MRPL28 Gene

Aliases for MRPL28 Gene

  • Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein L28 2 3 5
  • Melanoma-Associated Antigen Recognised By Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes 2 3
  • Melanoma-Associated Antigen Recognized By T-Lymphocytes 3 4
  • Melanoma Antigen P15 3 4
  • MRP-L28 3 4
  • MAAT1 3 4
  • L28mt 3 4
  • 39S Ribosomal Protein L28, Mitochondrial 3
  • P15 3

External Ids for MRPL28 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for MRPL28 Gene

  • MAAT1

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for MRPL28 Gene

  • GC00U990874
  • GC16M000438

Summaries for MRPL28 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for MRPL28 Gene

  • Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein, a part of which was originally isolated by its ability to recognize tyrosinase in an HLA-A24-restricted fashion. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for MRPL28 Gene

MRPL28 (Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein L28) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Mitochondrial translation and Organelle biogenesis and maintenance. GO annotations related to this gene include poly(A) RNA binding and structural constituent of ribosome.

Gene Wiki entry for MRPL28 Gene

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for MRPL28 Gene

Genomics for MRPL28 Gene

Regulatory Elements for MRPL28 Gene

Enhancers for MRPL28 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
- Elite enhancer/Elite enhancer-gene association

Enhancers around MRPL28 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for MRPL28 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the MRPL28 gene promoter:

Genomic Location for MRPL28 Gene

367,384 bp from pter
370,569 bp from pter
3,186 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for MRPL28 Gene

Genes around MRPL28 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
MRPL28 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for MRPL28 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for MRPL28 Gene

Proteins for MRPL28 Gene

  • Protein details for MRPL28 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    39S ribosomal protein L28, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2RCM4
    • D3DU46
    • Q4TT39
    • Q96S26
    • Q9BQD8
    • Q9BR04

    Protein attributes for MRPL28 Gene

    256 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    30157 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with OXA1L.
    • Potentially represents an important therapeutic reagent for HLA-A24 patients. This antigen is recognized by tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) 1290 in the context of HLA-A24.
    • Sequence=AAC50181.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=AAK61226.1; Type=Erroneous gene model prediction; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for MRPL28 Gene

neXtProt entry for MRPL28 Gene

Post-translational modifications for MRPL28 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys 106
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for MRPL28 Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for MRPL28 Gene

Domains & Families for MRPL28 Gene

Gene Families for MRPL28 Gene

Protein Domains for MRPL28 Gene


Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for MRPL28 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the ribosomal protein L28P family.
  • Belongs to the ribosomal protein L28P family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with MRPL28: view

Function for MRPL28 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for MRPL28 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003735 structural constituent of ribosome NAS 11543634
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 20601428
GO:0044822 poly(A) RNA binding IDA 22658674
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MRPL28: view

Phenotypes for MRPL28 Gene

GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for MRPL28:
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with MRPL28: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for MRPL28 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target MRPL28

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Molecular function , Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for MRPL28 Gene

Localization for MRPL28 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MRPL28 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for MRPL28 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for MRPL28 gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
cytosol 3
nucleus 2

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for MRPL28 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IDA --
GO:0005743 mitochondrial inner membrane TAS --
GO:0005761 mitochondrial ribosome NAS 11543634
GO:0005762 mitochondrial large ribosomal subunit IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MRPL28: view

Pathways & Interactions for MRPL28 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with MRPL28: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for MRPL28 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006412 translation NAS 11543634
GO:0070125 mitochondrial translational elongation TAS --
GO:0070126 mitochondrial translational termination TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MRPL28: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for MRPL28 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for MRPL28 Gene

(2) Drugs for MRPL28 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials

(2) Additional Compounds for MRPL28 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with MRPL28: view

Transcripts for MRPL28 Gene

Unigene Clusters for MRPL28 Gene

Mitochondrial ribosomal protein L28:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for MRPL28 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for MRPL28 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for MRPL28 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for MRPL28 Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for MRPL28 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (25.1), Bone marrow stromal cell (8.0), and Bone (7.6).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for MRPL28 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for MRPL28 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of MRPL28 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for MRPL28 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for MRPL28 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Found in a variety of normal tissues including spleen, testes, thymus, liver, kidney, brain, adrenal, lung and retinal tissue.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with MRPL28: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery and mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for MRPL28 Gene

Orthologs for MRPL28 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for MRPL28 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia MRPL28 34
  • 85.04 (n)
  • 86.61 (a)
MRPL28 35
  • 86 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia MRPL28 34
  • 78.61 (n)
  • 76.77 (a)
MRPL28 35
  • 77 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Mrpl28 34
  • 83.46 (n)
  • 85.04 (a)
Mrpl28 16
Mrpl28 35
  • 84 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia MRPL28 34
  • 93.31 (n)
  • 91.34 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Mrpl28 34
  • 83.07 (n)
  • 84.65 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia MRPL28 35
  • 81 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia MRPL28 35
  • 56 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves -- 35
  • 68 (a)
-- 35
  • 62 (a)
MRPL28 35
  • 67 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia MRPL28 35
  • 64 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia mrpl28 34
  • 62.98 (n)
  • 69.17 (a)
Str.15480 34
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii mrpl28 34
  • 68.65 (n)
  • 67.06 (a)
wufa96b11 34
mrpl28 35
  • 67 (a)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.10905 34
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta mRpL28 35
  • 28 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea mrpl-28 34
  • 47.67 (n)
  • 44.93 (a)
mrpl-28 35
  • 34 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.3134 35
  • 40 (a)
Species where no ortholog for MRPL28 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for MRPL28 Gene

Gene Tree for MRPL28 (if available)
Gene Tree for MRPL28 (if available)

Paralogs for MRPL28 Gene

No data available for Paralogs for MRPL28 Gene

Variants for MRPL28 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for MRPL28 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 16 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs11557302 - 368,597(-) ATGGA(C/G)CTGAA reference, missense
rs3194151 - 370,140(-) CCGGC(C/T)ACTAC reference, missense
rs13226 - 367,757(-) GATCT(A/G)TGTGG reference, missense
rs3830160 -- 369,092(+) AGCCC(A/G)TAAGC reference, synonymous-codon
rs394991 -- 367,183(+) CTGGG(C/T)GACTG downstream-variant-500B

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for MRPL28 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv32n68 CNV loss 17160897
dgv4809n54 CNV loss 21841781
esv1353875 CNV insertion 17803354
esv2422427 CNV duplication 17116639
esv3637563 CNV gain 21293372
esv3637564 CNV gain 21293372
esv3637569 CNV loss 21293372
esv3637570 CNV gain 21293372
nsv513440 CNV insertion 21212237
nsv517471 CNV loss 19592680
nsv570954 CNV loss 21841781
nsv827478 CNV gain 20364138
nsv952897 CNV deletion 24416366

Variation tolerance for MRPL28 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 65.1% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 7.09; 80.44% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for MRPL28 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MRPL28 Gene

Disorders for MRPL28 Gene

Relevant External Links for MRPL28

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:

No disorders were found for MRPL28 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for MRPL28 Gene

Publications for MRPL28 Gene

  1. Oxygen consumption can regulate the growth of tumors, a new perspective on the Warburg effect. (PMID: 19753307) Chen Y. … Denko N.C. (PLoS ONE 2009) 2 3 22 65
  2. The large subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome. Analysis of the complement of ribosomal proteins present. (PMID: 11551941) Koc E.C. … Spremulli L.L. (J. Biol. Chem. 2001) 2 3 4 65
  3. Cloning of a new gene encoding an antigen recognized by melanoma- specific HLA-A24-restricted tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. (PMID: 7751637) Robbins P.F. … Rosenberg S.A. (J. Immunol. 1995) 3 4 22 65
  4. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression. (PMID: 20877624) Hendrickson S.L. … O'Brien S.J. (PLoS ONE 2010) 3 46 65
  5. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PMID: 14702039) Ota T. … Sugano S. (Nat. Genet. 2004) 3 4 65

Products for MRPL28 Gene

Sources for MRPL28 Gene

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