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MRPL23 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 53
GCID: GC11P001972

Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein L23


(Previous symbol: RPL23L)
  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein L231 2     L23 Mitochondrial-Related Protein2 3
RPL23L1 2 3 5     39S Ribosomal Protein L23, Mitochondrial2
L23MRP2 3 5     RPL232
L23mt2 3     Ribosomal Protein Related To L23 (Mitochondrial)2
MRP-L232 3     Ribosomal Protein L23-Like3

External Ids:    HGNC: 103221   Entrez Gene: 61502   Ensembl: ENSG000002140267   OMIM: 6007895   UniProtKB: Q165403   

Export aliases for MRPL23 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC11P000628 GC11P002056 GC11P001927 GC11P001932 GC11P001897 GC11P001925 GC11P001961 GC11P001763 GC11P001971


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for MRPL23 Gene:
Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the
mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit.
They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is
reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain
a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and
sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a
39S subunit protein. The gene is biallelically expressed, despite its location within a region of imprinted genes
on chromosome 11. (provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for MRPL23 Gene:
MRPL23 (mitochondrial ribosomal protein L23) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with MRPL23 include beckwith-wiedemann syndrome, and chronic fatigue syndrome. GO annotations related to this gene include structural constituent of ribosome and RNA binding. An important paralog of this gene is LOC102724828.

Gene Wiki entry for MRPL23 Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000011.10  NT_009237.19  NC_018922.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the MRPL23 gene promoter:
         AML1a   Pax-2   Pax-2a   CUTL1   Gfi-1   POU2F1   GCNF-1   POU2F1a   GCNF-2   Pax-4a   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidMRPL23 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for MRPL23

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat MRPL23


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 11p15.5   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  11p15.5   HGNC cytogenetic band: 11p15.5

MRPL23 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
MRPL23 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 11         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC11P001972:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
1,968,502 bp from pter      End:
2,005,752 bp from pter
Size:
37,251 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: RM23_HUMAN, Q16540 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: 39S ribosomal protein L23, mitochondrial  
Size: 153 amino acids; 17781 Da
Secondary accessions: A8MT29 Q96Q71

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for MRPL23: NX_Q16540

Explore proteomics data for MRPL23 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Modification sites at neXtProt
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See MRPL23 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_066957.3  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000380466   ENSP00000370930   ENSP00000380465   ENSP00000370925   ENSP00000380462  
     ENSP00000407156  

    MRPL23 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for MRPL23

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    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for MRPL23

    MRPL23 Assay Products:

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    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for MRPL23
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for MRPL23


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    MRPL: Mitochondrial ribosomal proteins / large subunits

    3 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR012677 Nucleotide-bd_a/b_plait
     IPR012678 Ribosomal_L23/L15e_core_dom
     IPR013025 Ribosomal_L25/23

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q16540

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q16540

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB001014 Ribosomal L23 protein

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: RM23_HUMAN, Q16540
    Similarity: Belongs to the ribosomal protein L23P family


    MRPL23 for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, and Vector BioLabs, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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         Gene Ontology (GO): 3 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000166nucleotide binding IEA--
    GO:0003723RNA binding TAS8541832
    GO:0003735structural constituent of ribosome IEA--
         
    MRPL23 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for MRPL23:
     Synthetic lethal with Ras 

    Animal Models:
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for MRPL23
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    miRNA
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    miRTarBase miRNAs that target MRPL23:
    hsa-mir-615-3p (MIRT039883)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat MRPL23 using miScript Target Protectors
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    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidMRPL23 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat MRPL23

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    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    RM23_HUMAN, Q16540: Mitochondrion
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    mitochondrion5
    nucleus1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005622intracellular ----
    GO:0005730nucleolus IDA--
    GO:0005739mitochondrion IDA--
    GO:0005762mitochondrial large ribosomal subunit TAS8541832
    GO:0005840ribosome ----

    MRPL23 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for MRPL23 About    
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1CFTR translational fidelity class I mutations
    Ribosome0.54

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways



    1 Kegg Pathway  (Kegg details for MRPL23):
        Ribosome


    MRPL23 for pathways           About GeneDecksing

        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for MRPL23
    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for MRPL23

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for MRPL23 (Q165403 ENSP000003709304) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 56)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    ATG12O948173, ENSP000002744594I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000274459
    C20orf24Q9BUV83, ENSP000003412134I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000341213
    USP44Q9H0E73, ENSP000002584994I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000258499
    ICT1Q141973, ENSP000003015854I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000301585
    DVL2O146413I2D: score=1 
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 1 biological process term:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006412translation IEA--

    MRPL23 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for MRPL23 (RM23)



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for MRPL23 gene: 
    NM_021134.3  

    Unigene Cluster for MRPL23:

    Mitochondrial ribosomal protein L23
    Hs.3254  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: AL833465
    10 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000397298(uc001lux.3) ENST00000381519 ENST00000397297 ENST00000381514
    ENST00000397294 ENST00000462288 ENST00000486931 ENST00000429295 ENST00000466346
    ENST00000484918
    miRNA
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    Inhib. RNA
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    Primer
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      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat MRPL23
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat MRPL23

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AK313805.1 AL833465.1 BC027710.2 U26596.1 Z49254.1 

    10 DOTS entries:

    DT.214381  DT.95170575  DT.120741493  DT.92028640  DT.100844646  DT.95170573  DT.95170576  DT.120741519 
    DT.120741508  DT.40207377 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 210):

    AA568910 AI335714 BM674355 AA702124 AW002894 AA514658 CB136308 BM693715 
    CD675974 AA720816 BP357650 AA470725 BC027710 AI656749 AI917288 BF446340 
    BX282374 AI401733 AI929573 BM911756 AI953234 BM670857 AA618590 CK906132 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    MRPL23 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: CTCGAGGAGG
    MRPL23 Expression
    About this image

    MRPL23 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    MRPL23 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.3254
        Custom PCR Arrays for MRPL23
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    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for MRPL23

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

    Orthologs for MRPL23 gene from Selected species (see all 16)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Mrpl231 , 5 mitochondrial ribosomal protein L231, 5 80.46(n)1
    88.97(a)1
      7 (87.95 cM)5
    199351  NM_011288.11  NP_035418.11 
     1425327995 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves MRPL231 mitochondrial ribosomal protein L23 71.93(n)
    68.42(a)
      374255  NM_001199385.1  NP_001186314.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia MRPL236
    mitochondrial ribosomal protein L23
    76(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    1(70487817-70494027)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia Xl.64642 Xenopus laevis transcribed sequence with weak similarity more 72.59(n)    48052719 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii Dr.110812 Transcribed sequence with weak similarity to protein more 68.29(n)    BM861035.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta mRpL231 mitochondrial ribosomal protein L23 51.28(n)
    45.45(a)
      38302  NM_001144401.2  NP_001137873.1 
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea mrpl-236
    Protein MRPL-23 (mrpl-23) mRNA, complete cds
    33(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    I(6211267-6211885) WBGene00020348


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for MRPL23 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for MRPL23 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for MRPL23 gene
    LOC102724828  

    MRPL23 for paralogs           About GeneDecksing


    1 Pseudogenes.org Pseudogene for MRPL23
    PGOHUM00000242551


    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for MRPL23 (see all 342)    About this table    
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 11 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1120202351,2
    C--1966597(+) GCCGCG/ACTGGC 1 -- us2k12Minor allele frequency- A:0.05CSA WA 119
    rs740498651,2
    C,F--1966814(+) CTCAAC/GCGCCG 1 -- us2k13Minor allele frequency- G:0.06WA CSA 122
    rs1152357371,2
    C,F--1966851(+) CAGCAC/GCCACC 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- G:0.09WA 118
    rs1843705611,2
    --1966982(+) GGCAGC/GATTGC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1382883571,2
    --1967104(+) GCAAAA/GGCCTG 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1901919551,2
    --1967201(+) GCCACC/GACCTT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs38091011,2
    C,F,H--1967271(-) TCCAGG/AGGGTC 1 -- us2k122Minor allele frequency- A:0.25NS EA NA 2646
    rs791653241,2
    C,F--1967313(+) GAACTC/TCAGCC 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- T:0.01NA 120
    rs16351491,2
    C--1967365(+) TCCTCC/TTGAAT 1 -- us2k14Minor allele frequency- T:0.15NA EA 244
    rs1428366931,2
    --1967496(+) CTCTTA/GCTCTG 1 -- us2k10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for MRPL23 (1968502 - 2005752 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) Selected variations for MRPL23 (see all 24):    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv1696864CNV Deletion17803354
    esv2743985CNV Deletion23290073
    esv1010623CNV Deletion20482838
    esv2041292CNV Deletion18987734
    esv2743987CNV Deletion23290073
    esv2677244CNV Deletion23128226
    dgv991n71CNV Loss21882294
    dgv989n71CNV Loss21882294
    nsv896760CNV Loss21882294
    nsv522320CNV Loss19592680

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing MRPL23
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for MRPL23

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 600789    OMIM disorders: --

    5 diseases for MRPL23:    
    About MalaCards
    beckwith-wiedemann syndrome    chronic fatigue syndrome    ovarian cancer    malaria
    breast cancer


    MRPL23 for disorders           About GeneDecksing

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): MRPL23
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: MRPL23 (2 documents)

    Export disorders for MRPL23 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for MRPL23 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 26):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with MRPL23)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. A novel L23-related gene 40 kb downstream of the imprinted H19 gene is biallelically expressed in mid-fetal and adult human tissues. (PubMed id 8541832)1, 2, 3, 9 Tsang P.... Tycko B. (Hum. Mol. Genet. 1995)
    2. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression. (PubMed id 20877624)1, 4 Hendrickson S.L....O'Brien S.J. (PLoS ONE 2010)
    3. Association between invasive ovarian cancer susceptibility and 11 best candidate SNPs from breast cancer genome-wide association study. (PubMed id 19304784)1, 4 Song H....Pharoah P.D. (Hum. Mol. Genet. 2009)
    4. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    5. The human mitochondrial ribosomal protein genes: mapping of 54 genes to the chromosomes and implications for human disorders. (PubMed id 11543634)1, 2 Kenmochi N.... Tanaka T. (Genomics 2001)
    6. A possible mechanism behind autoimmune disorders discovered by genome-wide linkage and association analysis in celiac disease. (PubMed id 23936387)1 A9stensson M....Torinsson-Naluai A.8. (PLoS ONE 2013)
    7. GWAS of DNA methylation variation within imprinting control regions suggests parent-of-origin association. (PubMed id 23725790)1 RenterA-a M.E....Medland S.E. (Twin Res Hum Genet 2013)
    8. A census of human soluble protein complexes. (PubMed id 22939629)1 Havugimana P.C....Emili A. (Cell 2012)
    9. A yeast two-hybrid screen reveals that osteopontin associates with MAP1A and MAP1B in addition to other proteins linked to microtubule stability, apoptosis and protein degradation in the human brain. (PubMed id 22779921)1 Long P....Rose S. (Eur. J. Neurosci. 2012)
    10. Biochemical and phosphoproteomic analysis of the helix-loop-helix protein E47. (PubMed id 22354994)1 Teachenor R....Murre C. (Mol. Cell. Biol. 2012)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 6150 HGNC: 10322 AceView: MRPL23 Ensembl:ENSG00000214026 euGenes: HUgn6150
    ECgene: MRPL23 Kegg: 6150 H-InvDB: MRPL23

    (According to HUGE)
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    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for MRPL23 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for MRPL23 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving MRPL23

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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