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MRPL21 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 52
GCID: GC11M068658

Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein L21

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(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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This gene clusters with an RNA gene
Subcategory (RNA class): lncRNA

Quality score for the ORGUL clustered with this gene is 3

Aliases
Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein L211 2
L21mt2 3
MRP-L212 3
39S Ribosomal Protein L21, Mitochondrial2

External Ids:    HGNC: 144791   Entrez Gene: 2199272   Ensembl: ENSG000001973457   OMIM: 6118345   UniProtKB: Q7Z2W93   
ORGUL members:         

Export aliases for MRPL21 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC00U990877 GC11M068908 GC11M068434 GC11M068415 GC11M064998


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for MRPL21 Gene:
Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the
mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit.
They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is
reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain
a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and
sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a
39S subunit protein. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms were identified through sequence
analysis although some may be subject to nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). (provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for MRPL21 Gene:
MRPL21 (mitochondrial ribosomal protein L21) is a protein-coding gene. GO annotations related to this gene include structural constituent of ribosome and RNA binding.




(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000011.9  NT_167190.2  NC_018922.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the MRPL21 gene promoter:
         AhR   STAT1   Pax-5   AML1a   STAT1beta   STAT1alpha   Arnt   c-Ets-1   HNF-4alpha1   GATA-1   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidMRPL21 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for MRPL21

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat MRPL21


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 11q13.3   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  11q13.3   HGNC cytogenetic band: 11q13.3

MRPL21 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
MRPL21 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 11         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC11M068658:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
68,658,744 bp from pter      End:
68,671,303 bp from pter
Size:
12,560 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: RM21_HUMAN, Q7Z2W9 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: 39S ribosomal protein L21, mitochondrial precursor  
Size: 205 amino acids; 22815 Da
Sequence caution: Sequence=AAH55088.1; Type=Erroneous initiation;
Secondary accessions: A6NKU0 C9JPR2
Alternative splicing: 2 isoforms:  Q7Z2W9-1   Q7Z2W9-2   (No experimental confirmation available)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for MRPL21: NX_Q7Z2W9

Explore proteomics data for MRPL21 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Modification sites at neXtProt
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See MRPL21 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_852615.1  NP_852616.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000389400   ENSP00000354580   ENSP00000456520   ENSP00000442243   ENSP00000457859  
     ENSP00000438837   ENSP00000445009  

    MRPL21 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for MRPL21

     
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    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    MRPL: Mitochondrial ribosomal proteins / large subunits

    1 InterPro protein domain:
     IPR001787 Ribosomal_L21

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q7Z2W9

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q7Z2W9

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB001787 Ribosomal protein L21

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: RM21_HUMAN, Q7Z2W9
    Similarity: Belongs to the ribosomal protein L21P family


    Find genes that share domains with MRPL21           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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         Gene Ontology (GO): 3 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0003723RNA binding ----
    GO:0003735structural constituent of ribosome IEA--
    GO:0044822poly(A) RNA binding IDA--
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with MRPL21           About GenesLikeMe


    Animal Models:
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for MRPL21
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    miRNA
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    miRTarBase miRNAs that target MRPL21:
    hsa-mir-615-3p (MIRT039707), hsa-mir-16-5p (MIRT032023)

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    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    RM21_HUMAN, Q7Z2W9: Mitochondrion (By similarity)
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    mitochondrion3
    cytosol2
    nucleus2
    peroxisome2

    Gene Ontology (GO): 3 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005622intracellular ----
    GO:0005739mitochondrion IEA--
    GO:0005840ribosome IEA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with MRPL21           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for MRPL21 About    
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1CFTR translational fidelity class I mutations
    Ribosome0.54


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with MRPL21           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways



    1 Kegg Pathway  (Kegg details for MRPL21):
        Ribosome

        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for MRPL21
    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for MRPL21

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 2 interactants - click image to see more details)

    Selected Interacting proteins for MRPL21 (Q7Z2W92 ENSP000003545804) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 244)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    ICT1Q141972, ENSP000003015854MINT-8079030 STRING: ENSP00000301585
    AARS2Q5JTZ92MINT-8079030
    AASSQ9UDR52MINT-8079030
    ABCB7O750272MINT-8079030
    ACAD9Q9H8452MINT-8079030
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 1 biological process term:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006412translation IEA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with MRPL21           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for MRPL21 (RM21)



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for MRPL21 gene (4 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_181514.1  NM_181515.1  NM_181512.1  NM_181513.1  

    Unigene Cluster for MRPL21:

    Mitochondrial ribosomal protein L21
    Hs.503047  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: AK096756
    8 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000450904 ENST00000362034 ENST00000565125(uc001ooh.3 uc001ooi.3 uc010rqe.1)
    ENST00000541279 ENST00000567045 ENST00000544567 ENST00000541265 ENST00000536637

    miRNA
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    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat MRPL21
    Primer
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    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat MRPL21
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat MRPL21
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat MRPL21

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AK096756.1 AK301989.1 BC055088.1 

    9 DOTS entries:

    DT.95270864  DT.452130  DT.92431113  DT.92431110  DT.100832940  DT.100027371  DT.102825360  DT.91743298 
    DT.95377978 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 165):

    NM_181515 AI302818 NM_181512 BM915025 BI085401 BG164202 NM_181514 AI359290 
    AI360172 CA307206 BM785766 AI492606 CD675449 AA910767 AW016380 F34536 
    BQ276246 AI147563 F27002 BQ230641 BQ881333 AI197808 AA456459 BE621340 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    Selected Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for MRPL21 (see all 8)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4a · 4b · 4c · 4d ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b · 6c · 6d · 6e ^ 7
    SP1:                          -                 -                 -           -                 -     -     -         
    SP2:                                            -                 -           -                 -     -     -         
    SP3:                                            -                 -                                                   
    SP4:                          -                 -                 -                                                   
    SP5:                                            -                 -           -                                       


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for MRPL21

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    MRPL21 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: GCCAAGAATC
    MRPL21 Expression
    About this image

    MRPL21 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    MRPL21 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.503047
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    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for MRPL21

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

    Orthologs for MRPL21 gene from Selected species (see all 17)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Mrpl211 , 5 mitochondrial ribosomal protein L211, 5 84.69(n)1
    82.56(a)1
      19 (3.05 cM)5
    3532421  NM_172252.31  NP_758456.21 
     32829015 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves MRPL211 mitochondrial ribosomal protein L21 70.24(n)
    72.88(a)
      423000  NM_001199518.1  NP_001186447.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia MRPL216
    mitochondrial ribosomal protein L21
    65(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    1(76101887-76131272)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia Xl.102812 Xenopus laevis transcribed sequence with weak similarity more 75.67(n)    48049743 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii Dr.136932 Transcribed sequence with weak similarity to protein more 74.75(n)    AL718672.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta mRpL211 mitochondrial ribosomal protein L21 49.05(n)
    42.28(a)
      40091  NM_001275110.1  NP_001262039.1 
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea mrpl-216
    Protein MRPL-21 (mrpl-21) mRNA, complete cds
    35(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    III(4242667-4243561) WBGene00023422


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for MRPL21 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for MRPL21 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for MRPL21 gene

    Find genes that share paralogs with MRPL21           About GenesLikeMe


    1 Pseudogenes.org Pseudogene for MRPL21
    PGOHUM00000239840


    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for MRPL21 (see all 333)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 11 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs795811981,2
    C,F--68658268(+) TGTCCC/TTCCTC 2 -- ds50011Minor allele frequency- T:0.05WA 118
    rs4883631,2
    C,F,A,H--68658298(+) TGGATC/GCCTGC 2 -- ds500114Minor allele frequency- G:0.22NS EA NA CSA WA 956
    rs1125774651,2
    C,F--68658306(+) TGCTGC/TGCTGT 2 -- ds50012Minor allele frequency- T:0.06CSA WA 119
    rs591973141,2
    C,F--68658442(+) TGTTTC/TGATTA 2 -- ds50012Minor allele frequency- T:0.06WA 120
    rs1428875721,2
    --68658465(+) TTGCTC/GTTCTT 2 -- ds50010--------
    rs1510671641,2
    C--68658496(+) GTTGCG/TCCTCT 2 -- ds50010--------
    rs1889498831,2
    --68658518(+) CTCCAA/GGTCCC 2 -- ds50010--------
    rs1409744071,2
    --68658558(+) CCTGCC/TGCCGC 2 -- ds50010--------
    rs1917068941,2
    C--68658559(+) CTGCCA/GCCGCC 2 -- ds50010--------
    rs1836025321,2
    --68658562(+) CCGCCA/GCCACA 2 -- ds50010--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for MRPL21 (68658744 - 68671303 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 4 variations for MRPL21:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv996248CNV Insertion20482838
    nsv374CNV Insertion18451855
    nsv509423CNV Insertion20534489
    nsv428261CNV Gain18775914

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
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    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for MRPL21

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 611834    OMIM disorders: --


    Find genes that share disorders with MRPL21           About GenesLikeMe

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): MRPL21
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: MRPL21 (1 document)

    Export disorders for MRPL21 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for MRPL21 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 16):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with MRPL21)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression. (PubMed id 20877624)1, 4 Hendrickson S.L....O'Brien S.J. (PLoS ONE 2010)
    2. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    3. The large subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome. Analysis of the complement of ribosomal proteins present. (PubMed id 11551941)1, 3 Koc E.C.... Spremulli L.L. (J. Biol. Chem. 2001)
    4. p32/gC1qR is indispensable for fetal development and mitochondrial translation: importance of its RNA-binding ability. (PubMed id 22904065)1 Yagi M....Kang D. (Nucleic Acids Res. 2012)
    5. A census of human soluble protein complexes. (PubMed id 22939629)1 Havugimana P.C....Emili A. (Cell 2012)
    6. Initial characterization of the human central proteome. (PubMed id 21269460)2 Burkard T.R.... Colinge J. (BMC Syst. Biol. 2011)
    7. A proteome-wide, quantitative survey of in vivo ubiquitylation sites reveals widespread regulatory roles. (PubMed id 21890473)1 Wagner S.A....Choudhary C. (amp 2011)
    8. Systematic and quantitative assessment of the ubiquitin-modified proteome. (PubMed id 21906983)1 Kim W....Gygi S.P. (Mol. Cell 2011)
    9. Mass spectrometric analysis of lysine ubiquitylation reveals promiscuity at site level. (PubMed id 21139048)1 Danielsen J.M....Nielsen M.L. (amp 2011)
    10. Dynamics of cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase network revealed by systematic quantitative proteomics. (PubMed id 21145461)1 Bennett E.J....Harper J.W. (Cell 2010)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 219927 HGNC: 14479 AceView: MRPL21 Ensembl:ENSG00000197345 euGenes: HUgn219927
    ECgene: MRPL21 Kegg: 219927 H-InvDB: MRPL21

    (According to HUGE)
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    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for MRPL21 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for MRPL21 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving MRPL21

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, eBioscience, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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