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Aliases for MRPL21 Gene

Aliases for MRPL21 Gene

  • Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein L21 2 3 5
  • MRP-L21 3 4
  • L21mt 3 4
  • 39S Ribosomal Protein L21, Mitochondrial 3

External Ids for MRPL21 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for MRPL21 Gene

  • GC00U990877
  • GC11M068434
  • GC11M068415
  • GC11M068658
  • GC11M064998

Summaries for MRPL21 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for MRPL21 Gene

  • Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms were identified through sequence analysis although some may be subject to nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for MRPL21 Gene

MRPL21 (Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein L21) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Mitochondrial translation and Viral mRNA Translation. GO annotations related to this gene include poly(A) RNA binding and structural constituent of ribosome.

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for MRPL21 Gene

Genomics for MRPL21 Gene

Regulatory Elements for MRPL21 Gene

Enhancers for MRPL21 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH11F069006 1.3 FANTOM5 ENCODE 17 -107.6 -107647 9.0 HDGF HDAC1 ATF1 PKNOX1 SIN3A RAD21 YY1 ZNF143 RCOR1 FOS IGHMBP2 ENSG00000261625 MRPL21 GAL ORAOV1 MRGPRF MRGPRF-AS1 ENSG00000261276
GH11F068854 1.6 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 11.5 +47.3 47327 4.5 MLX ARID4B DMAP1 YY1 SLC30A9 SP5 ZHX2 MXD4 KAT8 MIER3 IGHMBP2 LOC105369364 TESMIN MRPL21 CPT1A
GH11F069048 1.6 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 11 -147.1 -147054 5.7 HDGF ATF1 ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A ZNF48 ZNF121 GLIS2 FOS SP3 TPCN2 ENSG00000259799 MRGPRF MRGPRF-AS1 IGHMBP2 MRPL21 MRGPRD PIR48560
GH11F068997 1 Ensembl ENCODE 17.3 -98.0 -97964 7.7 CTCF SIN3A ARID4B ZIC2 RAD21 YY1 POLR2A SMC3 PRDM10 FOS IGHMBP2 ENSG00000261625 MRPL21 GAL ORAOV1 MRGPRF-AS1 MRGPRD
GH11F069054 1.5 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 11 -152.0 -151977 2.9 HDGF PKNOX1 TBL1XR1 BMI1 RARA ZNF143 ZNF207 ETV6 CREM CBFB TPCN2 ENSG00000259799 IGHMBP2 MRGPRF-AS1 MRGPRF MRPL21 PIR48560
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around MRPL21 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for MRPL21 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00000564483 -265 2201 PKNOX1 CREB3L1 WRNIP1 ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 ZNF207

Genomic Location for MRPL21 Gene

Chromosome:
11
Start:
68,891,272 bp from pter
End:
68,903,835 bp from pter
Size:
12,564 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for MRPL21 Gene

Genes around MRPL21 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
MRPL21 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for MRPL21 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for MRPL21 Gene

Proteins for MRPL21 Gene

  • Protein details for MRPL21 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q7Z2W9-RM21_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    39S ribosomal protein L21, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Q7Z2W9
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A6NKU0
    • C9JPR2

    Protein attributes for MRPL21 Gene

    Size:
    205 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    22815 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Component of the mitochondrial ribosome large subunit (39S) which comprises a 16S rRNA and about 50 distinct proteins.
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=AAH55088.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for MRPL21 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for MRPL21 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for MRPL21 Gene

Post-translational modifications for MRPL21 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for MRPL21 Gene

Domains & Families for MRPL21 Gene

Gene Families for MRPL21 Gene

Protein Domains for MRPL21 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q7Z2W9

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

RM21_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the ribosomal protein L21P family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the ribosomal protein L21P family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with MRPL21: view

Function for MRPL21 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for MRPL21 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003735 structural constituent of ribosome IBA --
GO:0044822 poly(A) RNA binding IDA 22681889
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MRPL21: view

Animal Model Products

miRNA for MRPL21 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target MRPL21

Inhibitory RNA Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Molecular function , Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Phenotypes , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for MRPL21 Gene

Localization for MRPL21 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MRPL21 Gene

Mitochondrion.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for MRPL21 gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
nucleus 3
peroxisome 2
cytosol 2

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for MRPL21 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005622 intracellular IEA --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA --
GO:0005743 mitochondrial inner membrane TAS --
GO:0005762 mitochondrial large ribosomal subunit IDA,IBA 25278503
GO:0005840 ribosome IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MRPL21: view

Pathways & Interactions for MRPL21 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with MRPL21: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for MRPL21 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006412 translation IEA --
GO:0070125 mitochondrial translational elongation TAS --
GO:0070126 mitochondrial translational termination TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MRPL21: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for MRPL21 Gene

Transcripts for MRPL21 Gene

Unigene Clusters for MRPL21 Gene

Mitochondrial ribosomal protein L21:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for MRPL21 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4a · 4b · 4c · 4d ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b · 6c · 6d · 6e ^ 7
SP1: - - - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - -
SP3: - -
SP4: - - -
SP5: - - -
SP6: - - - - - -
SP7: -
SP8: - - -

Relevant External Links for MRPL21 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
MRPL21
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
MRPL21

Expression for MRPL21 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for MRPL21 Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for MRPL21 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Pancreas (9.8), Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (7.4), Lung (6.8), and Breast (6.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for MRPL21 Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for MRPL21 Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of MRPL21 Gene:

MRPL21

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for MRPL21 Gene:

Hs.503047
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with MRPL21: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for MRPL21 Gene

Orthologs for MRPL21 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for MRPL21 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia MRPL21 34 35
  • 99.19 (n)
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Mrpl21 34 16 35
  • 84.69 (n)
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia MRPL21 34 35
  • 84.46 (n)
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia MRPL21 34 35
  • 83.58 (n)
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Mrpl21 34
  • 82.93 (n)
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia MRPL21 35
  • 65 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia MRPL21 35
  • 59 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves MRPL21 34 35
  • 70.24 (n)
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia MRPL21 35
  • 65 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia mrpl21 34
  • 62.18 (n)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.10281 34
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii mrpl21 34 35
  • 59.22 (n)
Dr.13693 34
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.14177 34
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta mRpL21 34 35
  • 49.05 (n)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP012030 34
  • 48.63 (n)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea mrpl-21 35
  • 35 (a)
OneToOne
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.11033 35
  • 35 (a)
OneToOne
Species where no ortholog for MRPL21 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for MRPL21 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for MRPL21 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for MRPL21 (if available)

Paralogs for MRPL21 Gene

Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for MRPL21 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with MRPL21: view

No data available for Paralogs for MRPL21 Gene

Variants for MRPL21 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for MRPL21 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 11 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1249463 Benign 68,904,009(-) CTCTC(A/G)AGCTC nc-transcript-variant, upstream-variant-2KB, reference, synonymous-codon, utr-variant-5-prime
rs4930624 Benign 68,903,951(+) GGCGG(C/T)GATGG nc-transcript-variant, upstream-variant-2KB, utr-variant-5-prime
rs111164225 -- 68,892,385(+) AGAAG(G/T)GGAGC intron-variant, downstream-variant-500B
rs111164226 -- 68,892,425(+) AGAAG(G/T)GGAGC intron-variant, downstream-variant-500B
rs111164227 -- 68,892,465(+) AGAAG(G/T)GGAGC intron-variant, downstream-variant-500B

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for MRPL21 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv996248 CNV insertion 20482838
nsv374 CNV insertion 18451855
nsv428261 CNV gain 18775914
nsv509423 CNV insertion 20534489

Variation tolerance for MRPL21 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 77.6% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.46; 43.24% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for MRPL21 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
MRPL21

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MRPL21 Gene

Disorders for MRPL21 Gene

Relevant External Links for MRPL21

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
MRPL21
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
MRPL21
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
MRPL21

No disorders were found for MRPL21 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for MRPL21 Gene

Publications for MRPL21 Gene

  1. Structure of the large ribosomal subunit from human mitochondria. (PMID: 25278503) Brown A. … Ramakrishnan V. (Science 2014) 3 4 64
  2. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression. (PMID: 20877624) Hendrickson S.L. … O'Brien S.J. (PLoS ONE 2010) 3 46 64
  3. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard D.S. … Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004) 3 4 64
  4. The large subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome. Analysis of the complement of ribosomal proteins present. (PMID: 11551941) Koc E.C. … Spremulli L.L. (J. Biol. Chem. 2001) 2 3 64
  5. Mitochondrial Protein Interaction Mapping Identifies Regulators of Respiratory Chain Function. (PMID: 27499296) Floyd B.J. … Pagliarini D.J. (Mol. Cell 2016) 3 64

Products for MRPL21 Gene

Sources for MRPL21 Gene

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