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MRPL16 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 55
GCID: GC11M059573

Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein L16

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(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein L161 2
L16mt2 3
MRP-L162 3
39S Ribosomal Protein L16, Mitochondrial2

External Ids:    HGNC: 144761   Entrez Gene: 549482   Ensembl: ENSG000001669027   OMIM: 6118295   UniProtKB: Q9NX203   

Export aliases for MRPL16 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC11M061967 GC11M061086 GC11M059824 GC11M059348 GC11M059330 GC11M055920


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for MRPL16 Gene:
Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the
mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit.
They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is
reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain
a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and
sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a
39S subunit protein. (provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for MRPL16 Gene:
MRPL16 (mitochondrial ribosomal protein L16) is a protein-coding gene. GO annotations related to this gene include structural constituent of ribosome and rRNA binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: RM16_HUMAN, Q9NX20
Function: Component of the large subunit of mitochondrial ribosome




(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000011.9  NC_018922.2  NT_167190.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the MRPL16 gene promoter:
         AML1a   NF-E2 p45   Roaz   FOXO1a   TGIF   Zic3   Pax-4a   NF-E2   FOXO1   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidMRPL16 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for MRPL16

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat MRPL16


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 11q12.1   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  11q12.1   HGNC cytogenetic band: 11q12.1

MRPL16 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
MRPL16 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 11         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC11M059573:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
59,573,608 bp from pter      End:
59,578,345 bp from pter
Size:
4,738 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: RM16_HUMAN, Q9NX20 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: 39S ribosomal protein L16, mitochondrial precursor  
Size: 251 amino acids; 28449 Da
Sequence caution: Sequence=AAG23818.1; Type=Erroneous initiation;
Secondary accessions: Q9BYD0 Q9HB70

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for MRPL16: NX_Q9NX20

Explore proteomics data for MRPL16 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Modification sites at neXtProt
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See MRPL16 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_060310.1  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000300151   ENSP00000436592  

    MRPL16 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    MRPL: Mitochondrial ribosomal proteins / large subunits

    2 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR000114 Ribosomal_L16
     IPR016180 Ribosomal_L10e/L16

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q9NX20

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q9NX20

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB000114 Ribosomal protein L16

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: RM16_HUMAN, Q9NX20
    Similarity: Belongs to the ribosomal protein L16P family


    Find genes that share domains with MRPL16           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: RM16_HUMAN, Q9NX20
    Function: Component of the large subunit of mitochondrial ribosome

         Gene Ontology (GO): 2 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0003735structural constituent of ribosome IEA--
    GO:0019843rRNA binding IEA--
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with MRPL16           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for MRPL16:
     Increased gamma-H2AX phosphory 

    Animal Models:
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for MRPL16
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    miRNA
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    miRTarBase miRNAs that target MRPL16:
    hsa-mir-155-5p (MIRT020738), hsa-mir-3622a-3p (MIRT052866)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat MRPL16 using miScript Target Protectors
    Search for qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate MRPL16
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidMRPL16 3' UTR sequence
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    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat MRPL16

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    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    RM16_HUMAN, Q9NX20: Mitochondrion
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    mitochondrion5
    peroxisome1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 2 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005739mitochondrion IEA--
    GO:0005840ribosome IEA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with MRPL16           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for MRPL16 About    
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1CFTR translational fidelity class I mutations
    Ribosome0.54


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with MRPL16           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways




    1 Kegg Pathway  (Kegg details for MRPL16):
        Ribosome

        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for MRPL16
    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for MRPL16

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for MRPL16 (Q9NX202, 3 ENSP000003001514) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 450)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    ICT1Q141972, 3, ENSP000003015854MINT-8079030 I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000301585
    MRPL2Q5T6532, ENSP000003734044MINT-8079030 STRING: ENSP00000373404
    MRPL22Q9NWU52, ENSP000004111774MINT-8079030 STRING: ENSP00000411177
    MRPL4Q9BYD32, ENSP000002530994MINT-8079030 STRING: ENSP00000253099
    MRPL13Q9BYD12, ENSP000003065484MINT-8079030 STRING: ENSP00000306548
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 1 biological process term:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006412translation IEA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with MRPL16           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for MRPL16 (RM16)



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for MRPL16 gene: 
    NM_017840.3  

    Unigene Cluster for MRPL16:

    Mitochondrial ribosomal protein L16
    Hs.530734  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: BQ058130
    4 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000300151(uc001noh.2) ENST00000534340 ENST00000525470 ENST00000531802

    miRNA
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      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat MRPL16
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat MRPL16

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AB049642.1 AF183428.1 AF275806.1 AK000491.1 BC001040.2 BC019269.1 CR457117.1 

    9 DOTS entries:

    DT.449288  DT.40106681  DT.91943376  DT.100704146  DT.120739611  DT.40191988  DT.95322920  DT.100787435 
    DT.40197039 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 309):

    BG475959 AA310967 CA310299 AA593182 AF183428 AI271905 CR612630 BU684553 
    AI168063 BM905242 CB164384 AA583437 BM759726 BU632412 NM_017840 CA868536 
    AI088850 BM792311 AA715252 AL555807 AW248600 BE304400 AA748716 AW953499 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    5 Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for MRPL16    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b · 3c ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b
    SP1:              -     -           -     -     -           -               
    SP2:                    -           -     -     -           -               
    SP3:              -     -                                                   
    SP4:                                -     -                                 
    SP5:                                                                        


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for MRPL16

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    MRPL16 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: CCCAAACGTG
    MRPL16 Expression
    About this image

    MRPL16 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    MRPL16 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.530734
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    In Situ
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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

    Orthologs for MRPL16 gene from Selected species (see all 16)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Mrpl161 , 5 mitochondrial ribosomal protein L161, 5 85.52(n)1
    84.46(a)1
      19 (8.52 cM)5
    940631  NM_025606.31  NP_079882.21 
     117704155 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves MRPL161 mitochondrial ribosomal protein L16 66.82(n)
    68.3(a)
      428840  XM_426396.4  XP_426396.3 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia MRPL166
    mitochondrial ribosomal protein L16
    65(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    1(90887052-90889700)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia 480271522   -- 75.87(n)    48027152 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii mrpl161 mitochondrial ribosomal protein L16 63.41(n)
    62.79(a)
      493604  NM_001007764.1  NP_001007765.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta mRpL161 , 3 protein biosynthesis structural
    constituent of more3
    mitochondrial ribosomal protein L161
    50(a)3
    50.84(n)1
    47.9(a)1
      2B143
    311501  NM_001272219.11  NP_001259148.11 
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea mrpl-161 mrpl-16 45.05(n)
    33.33(a)
      188040  NM_065564.5  NP_497965.2 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for MRPL16 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for MRPL16 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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      --

    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for MRPL16 (see all 166)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 11 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1172533111,2
    C,F--59573896(+) CTTTCC/TGTATG 2 Q R mis11Minor allele frequency- T:0.02EA 120
    rs4916711,2,,4
    C,F,H--59573957(+) GTTACG/ATTCTC 2 /R /C mis1 ese321Minor allele frequency- A:0.03MN NA NS EA WA EU 7829
    rs127874621,2,,4
    C,F,H--59573980(+) CTTTTC/TGCATC 2 Q R mis1 ese320Minor allele frequency- T:0.02NS EA NA EU 8109
    rs1475452571,2
    C,F--59573999(+) AGTCCC/TGCGGC 2 R G mis12Minor allele frequency- T:0.00NA EU 5873
    rs1411509561,2
    C,F--59574000(+) GTCCCG/ACGGCT 2 /R syn12Minor allele frequency- A:0.00NA EU 5873
    rs2009031391,2
    C--59574103(+) CAAGGC/TGGCCA 2 H R mis10--------
    rs1400730131,2
    C--59574111(+) CCAGCC/GTTCAC 2 N K mis10--------
    rs1995614671,2
    C--59574125(+) TGTCAC/TGTAGT 2 M V mis10--------
    rs1995657511,2
    --59574223(+) CAAACA/GTGTTC 2 T M mis10--------
    rs771092741,2
    C--59574247(+) AGCGGC/TTGATT 2 N S mis10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for MRPL16 (59573608 - 59578345 bp)

    Structural Variations
          Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) variations for MRPL16: --
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing MRPL16
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for MRPL16

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 611829    OMIM disorders: --


    Find genes that share disorders with MRPL16           About GenesLikeMe

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): MRPL16
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: MRPL16 (1 document)

    Export disorders for MRPL16 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for MRPL16 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 15):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with MRPL16)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression. (PubMed id 20877624)1, 4 Hendrickson S.L....O'Brien S.J. (PLoS ONE 2010)
    2. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    3. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PubMed id 14702039)1, 2 Ota T.... Sugano S. (Nat. Genet. 2004)
    4. Structural compensation for the deficit of rRNA with proteins in the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome. Systematic analysis of protein components of the large ribosomal subunit from mammalian mitochondria. (PubMed id 11279069)1, 2 Suzuki T....Watanabe K. (J. Biol. Chem. 2001)
    5. The large subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome. Analysis of the complement of ribosomal proteins present. (PubMed id 11551941)1, 2 Koc E.C.... Spremulli L.L. (J. Biol. Chem. 2001)
    6. A census of human soluble protein complexes. (PubMed id 22939629)1 Havugimana P.C....Emili A. (Cell 2012)
    7. Initial characterization of the human central proteome. (PubMed id 21269460)2 Burkard T.R.... Colinge J. (BMC Syst. Biol. 2011)
    8. Mass spectrometric analysis of lysine ubiquitylation reveals promiscuity at site level. (PubMed id 21139048)1 Danielsen J.M....Nielsen M.L. (amp 2011)
    9. Mapping the NPHP-JBTS-MKS protein network reveals ciliopathy disease genes and pathways. (PubMed id 21565611)1 Sang L.... Jackson P.K. (Cell 2011)
    10. Systematic analysis of human protein complexes identifies chromosome segregation proteins. (PubMed id 20360068)1 Hutchins J.R.... Peters J.M. (Science 2010)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 54948 HGNC: 14476 AceView: MRPL16 Ensembl:ENSG00000166902 euGenes: HUgn54948
    ECgene: MRPL16 Kegg: 54948 H-InvDB: MRPL16

    (According to HUGE)
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    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for MRPL16 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for MRPL16 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving MRPL16

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, eBioscience, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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