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MPC2 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 48
GCID: GC01M167886

Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier 2

(Previous name: brain protein 44)
(Previous symbol: BRP44)
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(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier 21 2
BRP441 2 3 5
Brain Protein 441 2 3

External Ids:    HGNC: 245151   Entrez Gene: 258742   Ensembl: ENSG000001431587   OMIM: 6147375   UniProtKB: O955633   

Export aliases for MPC2 gene to outside databases


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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GeneCards Summary for MPC2 Gene:
MPC2 (mitochondrial pyruvate carrier 2) is a protein-coding gene. GO annotations related to this gene include pyruvate transmembrane transporter activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: MPC2_HUMAN, O95563
Function: Mediates the uptake of pyruvate into mitochondria

Gene Wiki entry for MPC2 (BRP44) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000001.10  NT_004487.20  NC_018912.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Search for regulatory transcription factor binding sites for MPC2
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidMPC2 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for MPC2

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat MPC2


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 1q24   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  1q24.2   HGNC cytogenetic band: 1q24

MPC2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
MPC2 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 1         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC01M167886:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
167,885,913 bp from pter      End:
167,906,307 bp from pter
Size:
20,395 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: MPC2_HUMAN, O95563 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Mitochondrial pyruvate carrier 2  
Size: 127 amino acids; 14279 Da
Subunit: The functional 150 kDa pyruvate import complex is a heteromer of MPC1 and MPC2 (By similarity)
Secondary accessions: A8K261 Q3SXR6 Q6FIF3

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for MPC2: NX_O95563

Explore proteomics data for MPC2 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Ubiquitination2 at Lys27
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See MPC2 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001137146.1  NP_056230.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000356820   ENSP00000271373   ENSP00000392874  
    Reactome Protein details: O95563

    MPC2 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    1 InterPro protein domain:
     IPR005336 MPC

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry O95563

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: O95563

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB005336 Protein of unknown function UPF0041

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: MPC2_HUMAN, O95563
    Similarity: Belongs to the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) family


    Find genes that share domains with MPC2           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: MPC2_HUMAN, O95563
    Function: Mediates the uptake of pyruvate into mitochondria

         Gene Ontology (GO): 1 molecular function term:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0050833pyruvate transmembrane transporter activity IEA--
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with MPC2           About GenesLikeMe


    Animal Models:
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for MPC2
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    hsa-mir-26b-5p (MIRT030303)

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    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidMPC2 3' UTR sequence
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    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    MPC2_HUMAN, O95563: Mitochondrion inner membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein

    Gene Ontology (GO): 3 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005739mitochondrion IDA--
    GO:0005743mitochondrial inner membrane IEA--
    GO:0016021integral component of membrane IEA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with MPC2           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for MPC2 About    
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Citric acid cycle (TCA cycle)
    Pyruvate metabolism and Citric Acid (TCA) cycle0.49
    Pyruvate metabolism0.00
    2Respiratory electron transport, ATP synthesis by chemiosmotic coupling, and heat production by uncoupling proteins.
    The citric acid (TCA) cycle and respiratory electron transport0.71
    3Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis short map
    Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis0.60
    4Metabolism
    Metabolism0.38


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with MPC2           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways


    1 BioSystems Pathway for MPC2
        Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis


    1 Reactome Pathway for MPC2
        Pyruvate metabolism


        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for MPC2
    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for MPC2

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 13)

    Selected Interacting proteins for MPC2 (O955633 ENSP000002713734) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 16)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    C20orf24Q9BUV83, ENSP000003412134I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000341213
    SDHBP219123, ENSP000003646494I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000364649
    LRRK2Q5S0073, ENSP000002989104I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000298910
    SEPT7Q161813I2D: score=5 
    EMC2Q150063I2D: score=4 
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5 biological process terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006090pyruvate metabolic process TAS--
    GO:0006850mitochondrial pyruvate transport IEA--
    GO:0044237cellular metabolic process TAS--
    GO:0044281small molecule metabolic process TAS--
    GO:1901475pyruvate transmembrane transport ----

    Find genes that share ontologies with MPC2           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for MPC2



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for MPC2 gene (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001143674.3  NM_015415.3  

    Unigene Cluster for MPC2:

    Mitochondrial pyruvate carrier 2
    Hs.517768  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NR_026550
    3 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000367846(uc001ges.3 uc001geu.3 uc001get.3) ENST00000271373
    ENST00000458574(uc009wvn.3)
    miRNA
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      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat MPC2
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat MPC2

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AK290126.1 AK307189.1 AK311913.1 AL035304.1 AL110297.1 BC104157.1 BC104158.1 CR407632.1 
    CR533473.1 NR_026550.2 

    10 DOTS entries:

    DT.100858317  DT.100031207  DT.446630  DT.101967633  DT.95219522  DT.95219503  DT.91754081  DT.97847103 
    DT.95219521  DT.99996202 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 314):

    AL554033 AI559371 BQ220744 BU682646 AL035304 BQ011736 AW197038 BM264143 
    BE122712 AI342201 CR594136 BM703354 BQ574830 CR615341 BU902466 CD676509 
    BQ417273 CA307748 CA941619 AI291297 BU627184 BQ478343 AI086059 CA313892 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    5 Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for MPC2    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b · 6c · 6d
    SP1:                    -                                                   
    SP2:              -     -                                                   
    SP3:                    -                                                   
    SP4:                                                                        
    SP5:                                            -                           


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for MPC2

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    MPC2 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: --
    MPC2 Expression
    About this image


    MPC2 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 9) fully expand
     
     Bone (Muscoskeletal System)
             Bone Marrow
     
     Colon (Gastrointestinal Tract)
     
     Kidney (Urinary System)
     
     Testis (Reproductive System)
     
     Liver (Hepatobiliary System)
    MPC2 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    MPC2 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.517768
        Custom PCR Arrays for MPC2
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    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

    Orthologs for MPC2 gene from Selected species (see all 23)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Mpc21 , 5 brain protein 445
    mitochondrial pyruvate carrier 21
    89.33(n)1
    93.6(a)1
      1 (72.80 cM)5
    704561  NM_027430.21  NP_081706.11 
     1654610375 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves BRP441 brain protein 44 76.27(n)
    84.8(a)
      768451  NM_001278124.1  NP_001265053.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia MPC26
    mitochondrial pyruvate carrier 2
    84(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    3(163939192-163953009)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia Xl.158872 Xenopus laevis transcribed sequence with moderate similarity more 72.12(n)    CD252878.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii wufb22g072 Danio rerio mRNA similar to DKFZP564B167 protein (cDNA more 73.46(n)    BC049015.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta CG93991 CG9399 56.48(n)
    59.26(a)
      41157  NM_001170100.2  NP_001163571.1 
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea F53F10.36
    Protein F53F10.3 (F53F10.3) mRNA, complete cds
    46(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    I(3827208-3828143) WBGene00018765
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes FMP43(YGR243W)4 Putative protein of unknown function; expression regulated more   --   7(977336-977776) 853158  NP_011759.1 
    thale cress
    (Arabidopsis thaliana)
    eudicotyledons AT4G223101 AT4G22310 55.56(n)
    49.02(a)
      828326  NM_118357.5  NP_193962.1 
    rice
    (Oryza sativa)
    Liliopsida Os07g04491001 Os07g0449100 56.3(n)
    52.22(a)
      4343123  NM_001066081.1  NP_001059546.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for MPC2 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for MPC2 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for MPC2 gene
    1 SIMAP similar gene for MPC2 using alignment to 2 protein entries:     MPC2_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    MPC1

    Find genes that share paralogs with MPC2           About GenesLikeMe



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for MPC2 (see all 349)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 1 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs38340681,2
    C,F--167885466(+) GAGATG/-GGAGT 3 -- ds50013Minor allele frequency- -:0.50NA 6
    rs1431881631,2
    --167885479(+) TGCTCC/TTGTCG 3 -- ds50010--------
    rs1475021911,2
    --167885483(+) CTTGTC/TGCCCA 3 -- ds50010--------
    rs115784251,2
    C,F,H--167885545(+) GTTGAA/CGTGAT 3 -- ds50016Minor allele frequency- C:0.42NA WA 12
    rs2002790961,2
    --167885618(+) TTTTG-/TATTATTA 3 -- ds50010--------
    rs115802021,2
    C,F,H--167885634(+) GAGACG/AGGGTT 3 -- ds50014Minor allele frequency- A:0.38NA WA 8
    rs1474164671,2
    C--167885664(+) GGTCTC/TGAACT 3 -- ds50010--------
    rs2037841,2
    F--167885702(+) ggcctC/Accaaa 3 -- ds50012Minor allele frequency- A:0.00NA 4
    rs1823074621,2
    --167885713(+) GTGCTC/TGGATT 3 -- ds50010--------
    rs1878875131,2
    --167885734(+) GCCACC/TGCACC 3 -- ds50010--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for MPC2 (167885913 - 167906307 bp)

    Structural Variations
          Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) variations for MPC2: --
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing MPC2
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for MPC2

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 614737    OMIM disorders: --


    Find genes that share disorders with MPC2           About GenesLikeMe


    Export disorders for MPC2 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for MPC2 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 22):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with MPC2)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. A mitochondrial pyruvate carrier required for pyruvate uptake in yeast, Drosophila, and humans. (PubMed id 22628558)1, 2, 3 Bricker D.K.... Rutter J. (Science 2012)
    2. The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1. (PubMed id 16710414)1, 2 Gregory S.G.... Bentley D.R. (Nature 2006)
    3. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    4. Towards a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs. (PubMed id 11230166)1, 2 Wiemann S.... Poustka A. (Genome Res. 2001)
    5. Structural characterization of a heterogeneous family of rat brain mRNAs. (PubMed id 3022128)1, 3 Tsou A.P....Sutcliffe J.G. (Mol. Cell. Biol. 1986)
    6. Pathway Analysis of ChIP-Seq-Based NRF1 Target Genes Suggests a Logical Hypothesis of their Involvement in the Pathogenesis of Neurodegenerative Diseases. (PubMed id 24250222)1 Satoh J....Yamamoto Y. (Gene Regul Syst Bio 2013)
    7. Initial characterization of the human central proteome. (PubMed id 21269460)2 Burkard T.R.... Colinge J. (BMC Syst. Biol. 2011)
    8. A proteome-wide, quantitative survey of in vivo ubiquitylation sites reveals widespread regulatory roles. (PubMed id 21890473)1 Wagner S.A....Choudhary C. (amp 2011)
    9. Mass spectrometric analysis of lysine ubiquitylation reveals promiscuity at site level. (PubMed id 21139048)1 Danielsen J.M....Nielsen M.L. (amp 2011)
    10. A QUICK screen for Lrrk2 interaction partners--leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 is involved in actin cytoskeleton dynamics. (PubMed id 20876399)1 Meixner A....Ueffing M. (amp 2011)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 25874 HGNC: 24515 AceView: DKFZP564B167 Ensembl:ENSG00000143158 euGenes: HUgn25874
    ECgene: MPC2 H-InvDB: MPC2

    (According to HUGE)
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    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for MPC2 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for MPC2 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving MPC2

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, eBioscience, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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