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MMP23A Gene

pseudogene   GIFtS: 44
GCID: GC01P001619

Matrix Metallopeptidase 23A (Pseudogene)

(Previous names: matrix metalloproteinase 23A, matrix metallopeptidase 23A)
(Previous symbol: MMP21)
  See MMP23A-related disease
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Matrix Metallopeptidase 23A (Pseudogene)1 2     Femalysin3
MMP211 2 3 5     MMP-213
MIFR-12 3     MMP-223
MIFR2 5     MMP-233
Matrix Metallopeptidase 23A1     MMP223
Matrix Metalloproteinase 23A1     Matrix Metalloproteinase-213
EC 3.4.24.-3     Matrix Metalloproteinase-223

External Ids:    HGNC: 71701   Entrez Gene: 85112   Ensembl: ENSG000002159147   OMIM: 6033205   UniProtKB: O759003   

Export aliases for MMP23A gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC01U990215 GC01P001436 GC01P001579 GC01P000048 GC01P9N0059 GC01P001557 GC01P000908


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for MMP23A Gene:
This locus represents the partially duplicated copy of the MMP23B gene, and therefore considered a pseudogene.
This pseudogene is part of a duplicated region of chromosome 1p36.3. It belongs to the more centromeric copy of
the duplicated region. (provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for MMP23A Gene:
MMP23A (matrix metallopeptidase 23A (pseudogene)) is a pseudogene. Diseases associated with MMP23A include encephalomyelitis.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: MMP23_HUMAN, O75900
Function: Protease. May regulate the surface expression of some potassium channels by retaining them in the
endoplasmic reticulum (By similarity)

summary for MMP23A Gene:
Matrix metalloproteases (matrix metalloproteinase, MMPs), also called matrixins, are zinc-dependent
endopeptidases that are the major proteases involved in ECM degradation. MMPs are capable of degrading a
wide range of extracellular molecules and a number of bioactive molecules. 24 matrixin genes have been
identified in humans, which can be organized into six groups based on domain organization and substrate
preference: Collagenases (MMP-1, -8 and -13), Gelatinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9), Stromelysins (MMP-3, -10 and
-11), Matrilysin (MMP-7 and MMP-26), Membrane-type (MT)-MMPs (MMP-14, -15, -16, -17, -24 and -25) and others
(MMP-12, -19, -20, -21, -23, -27 and -28). MMP activity is regulated by two major endogenous inhibitors:
alpha2-macroglobulin and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (TIMPs). MMPs play a central role in cell
proliferation, migration, differentiation, angiogenesis, apoptosis and host defences. Dysregulatoin of MMPs
has been implicated in many diseases including arthritis, chronic ulcers, encephalomyelitis and cancer.
Tumour metastasis is a multistep process involving the dessemination of tumor cells from the primary tumor
to secondarys at a distant organ or tissue. One of the first steps in metastasis is the degradation of the
basement membrane, a process in which MMPs have been implicated. MMPs are secreted by tumor cells themselves
or by surrounding stromal cells stimulated by the nearby tumor. Numerous studies have linked altered MMP
expression in different human cancers with poor disease prognosis. MMP-1, -2, -3, -7, -9, -13 and -14 all
have elevated expression in primary tumors and/or metastases. Synthetic or natural inhibitors of MMPs result
in inhibition of metastasis, while up-regulation of MMPs led to enhanced cancer cell invasion.




(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the MMP23A gene promoter:
         ER-alpha   USF1   AML1a   Tal-1   Nkx5-1   Tal-1beta   E47   C/EBPalpha   ITF-2   Zic3   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidMMP23A promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for MMP23A

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat MMP23A


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 1p36.33   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  1p36.33   HGNC cytogenetic band: 1p36.3

MMP23A Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
MMP23A gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 1         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC01P001619:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
1,631,369 bp from pter      End:
1,633,249 bp from pter
Size:
1,881 bases      Orientation:
plus strand
ORGUL member locations:
Legend (see complete legend)

ORGUL Member Locations for MMP23A

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: MMP23_HUMAN, O75900 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Matrix metalloproteinase-23 precursor  
Size: 390 amino acids; 43935 Da
Cofactor: Binds 1 zinc ion per subunit (By similarity)
Secondary accessions: A2AGN0 A2AGN1 O75894 O75895 Q5QPQ8 Q76P96 Q7LDM6 Q7LDM7 Q9UBR9 Q9UJK8
Alternative splicing: 3 isoforms:  O75900-1   O75900-2   O75900-3   

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for MMP23A: NX_O75900

Explore proteomics data for MMP23A at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • N-glycosylated1
  • Proteolytic cleavage might yield an active form (By similarity)1
  • Modification sites at neXtProt
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See MMP23A Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB


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    Search eBioscience for ELISAs for MMP23A 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    IGD: Immunoglobulin superfamily / Immunoglobulin-like domain containing

    Selected InterPro protein domains (see all 9):
     IPR024079 MetalloPept_cat_dom
     IPR021190 Pept_M10A
     IPR013783 Ig-like_fold
     IPR006026 Peptidase_Metallo
     IPR007110 Ig-like_dom

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry O75900

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: O75900

    2 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB003582 Metridin-like ShK toxin
    IPB003599 Immunoglobulin subtype


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: MMP23_HUMAN, O75900
    Domain: The ShKT domain associates with, and blocks several potassium channels in the nanomolar to low micromolar
    range. The relative affinity is Kv1.6 > Kv1.3 > Kv1.1 = Kv3.2 > Kv1.4 (By similarity)
    Similarity: Belongs to the peptidase M10A family
    Similarity: Contains 1 Ig-like C2-type (immunoglobulin-like) domain
    Similarity: Contains 1 ShKT domain


    Find genes that share domains with MMP23A           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: MMP23_HUMAN, O75900
    Function: Protease. May regulate the surface expression of some potassium channels by retaining them in the
    endoplasmic reticulum (By similarity)
    Enzyme regulation: Inhibited by TIMP2 (By similarity)

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for MMP23A:
    matrix metalloproteinase 23A,regulator in matrix remodeling,with three alternatively spliced isoforms
    A,B,C,expressed in ovary,testis,prostate

         Enzyme Number (IUBMB): EC 3.4.24.-1

    Phenotypes:
         1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for MMP23A:
     Increased viability after born 

    Animal Models:
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for MMP23A
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    miRTarBase miRNAs that target MMP23A:
    hsa-mir-197-3p (MIRT004178)

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    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    MMP23_HUMAN, O75900: Endoplasmic reticulum membrane; Single-pass type II membrane protein (By similarity).
    Membrane; Single-pass type II membrane protein. Note=A secreted form produced by proteolytic cleavage may also
    exist (Probable)

    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for MMP23A About    
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Matrix Metalloproteinases
    Matrix Metalloproteinases0.68

    4 Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for MMP23A
        Inhibition of Matrix Metalloproteinases
    Transendothelial Migration of Leukocytes
    UPA-UPAR Pathway
    Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    1 BioSystems Pathway for MMP23A
        Matrix Metalloproteinases


        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for MMP23A
    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for MMP23A

    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Compounds for MMP23A available from Tocris Bioscience    About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    GI 254023XSelective ADAM10 metalloprotease inhibitor[260264-93-5]
    MarimastatBroad spectrum MMP inhibitor[154039-60-8]
    GM 6001Broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor[142880-36-2]
    UK 383367Potent and selective BMP-1 (PCP) inhibitor[348622-88-8]
    Batimastat Potent, broad spectrum MMP inhibitor [130370-60-4]

    1 DrugBank Compound for MMP23A    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    Marimastat-- 154039-60-8targetinhibitor10852638 10669951



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    2 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000234610 ENST00000412810(uc001ahi.1 uc009vko.1)
    miRNA
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    Inhib. RNA
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      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat MMP23A

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 40):

    BX096766 BM679806 BM930943 BX100332 AF086353 BQ575307 CR608527 CB048617 
    AF057062 AF057061 AJ707857 CF127824 BI517766 AI815030 BM544158 BM717784 
    BM796874 BI829304 AA151428 AI347985 AA626131 AB010961 NM_006983 AB010962 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    MMP23A expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: --
    MMP23A Expression
    About this image


    MMP23A expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     
     Blood (Hematopoietic System)
             Natural Killer Cells Peripheral Blood
    MMP23A Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    MMP23A Protein Expression

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: MMP23_HUMAN, O75900
    Tissue specificity: Predominantly expressed in ovary, testis and prostate

        Custom PCR Arrays for MMP23A
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    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for MMP23A

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

    Orthologs for MMP23A gene from 1 species (see representative species )    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    rainbow trout
    (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
    Actinopterygii Omy.42642 Oncorhynchus mykiss transcribed sequence with moderate more 77.79(n)    BX858331.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for MMP23A (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for MMP23A (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for MMP23A gene
    2 SIMAP similar genes for MMP23A using alignment to 1 protein entry:     MMP23_HUMAN:
    MMP23B    mifr-2

    Find genes that share paralogs with MMP23A           About GenesLikeMe



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for MMP23A (see all 23)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 1 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1463376181,2
    C--1629418(+) AGGTCA/GGTAGG 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1396571921,2
    C--1629461(+) AAAACA/GGGGCA 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1163385091,2
    C,F--1629487(+) AGGTGT/CCCACA 1 -- us2k13Minor allele frequency- C:0.50WA NA EA 358
    rs1431344911,2
    C--1630752(+) GAGGC-/AGGAGGAG 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs2011872861,2
    C--1633002(+) GGCAG-/C/CG  
            
    GGGGG
    1 -- int10--------
    rs1852416821,2
    --1633004(+) GCAGCC/GGGGGG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1899528721,2
    --1633007(+) GCGGGC/GGGGGG 1 -- int10--------
    rs2001481871,2
    C--1633259(+) CTCCTC/GGCTCA 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs2009609281,2
    C--1633378(+) CGGACA/CACAGG 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1825659961,2
    --1633440(+) ATAAGA/CGGAGG 1 -- ds50010--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for MMP23A (1631369 - 1633249 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) Selected variations for MMP23A (see all 37):    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2659399CNV Deletion23128226
    esv2748696CNV Deletion23290073
    dgv2e199CNV Deletion23128226
    esv2661270CNV Deletion23128226
    nsv436343CNV Deletion17901297
    dgv51n71CNV Loss21882294
    nsv871940CNV Loss21882294
    dgv47n71CNV Loss21882294
    nsv871560CNV Loss21882294
    nsv871837CNV Loss21882294

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    Search QIAGEN SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing MMP23A
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for MMP23A

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 603320    OMIM disorders: --

    1 disease for MMP23A:    
    About MalaCards
    encephalomyelitis


    Find genes that share disorders with MMP23A           About GenesLikeMe


    Export disorders for MMP23A gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for MMP23A gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 14):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with MMP23A)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Isolation and characterization of two novel metalloproteinase genes linked to the Cdc2L locus on human chromosome 1p36.3. (PubMed id 9740677)1, 2, 3, 9 Gururajan R.... Kidd V.J. (Genomics 1998)
    2. Cloning and characterization of a rat ortholog of MMP-23 (matrix metalloproteinase-23), a unique type of membrane-anchored matrix metalloproteinase and conditioned switching of its expression during the ovarian follicular development. (PubMed id 11328856)1, 2 Ohnishi J....Takahashi T. (Mol. Endocrinol. 2001)
    3. Cloning and characterization of human MMP-23, a new matrix metalloproteinase predominantly expressed in reproductive tissues and lacking conserved domains in other family members. (PubMed id 9988691)1, 2 Velasco G....Lopez-Otin C. (J. Biol. Chem. 1999)
    4. Duplication of a genomic region containing the Cdc2L1-2 and MMP21-22 genes on human chromosome 1p36.3 and their linkage to D1Z2. (PubMed id 9750192)1, 3 Gururajan R.... Kidd V.J. (Genome Res. 1998)
    5. Potassium channel modulation by a toxin domain in matrix metalloprotease 23. (PubMed id 19965868)1 Rangaraju S....Chandy K.G. (J. Biol. Chem. 2010)
    6. The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1. (PubMed id 16710414)2 Gregory S.G.... Bentley D.R. (Nature 2006)
    7. Delineation of mechanisms and regions of dosage imbalance in complex rearrangements of 1p36 leads to a putative gene for regulation of cranial suture closure. (PubMed id 15483646)1 Gajecka M....Shaffer L.G. (Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 2005)
    8. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    9. Structural differences of matrix metalloproteinases. Homology modeling and energy minimization of enzyme-substrate complexes. (PubMed id 10949161)1 Terp G.E....rgensen F.S. (amp 2000)
    10. Clinical potential of matrix metalloprotease inhibitors in cancer therapy. (PubMed id 10852638)7 Heath E.I. and Grochow L.B. (Drugs 2000)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
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      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
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      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 8511 HGNC: 7170 AceView: MMP23B.1 Ensembl:ENSG00000215914 euGenes: HUgn8511
    ECgene: MMP23A H-InvDB: MMP23A

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for MMP23A Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for MMP23A Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for MMP23A gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving MMP23A

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, eBioscience, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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