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Aliases for MMP21 Gene

Aliases for MMP21 Gene

  • Matrix Metallopeptidase 21 2 3
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 21 2 3
  • MMP-21 3 4
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase-21 3
  • EC 3.4.24.- 4
  • EC 3.4.24 63

External Ids for MMP21 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for MMP21 Gene

  • GC10M126430
  • GC10M126658
  • GC10M127496
  • GC10M127029
  • GC10M127445
  • GC10M121144

Summaries for MMP21 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for MMP21 Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the matrix metalloproteinase family. Proteins in this family are involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix for both normal physiological processes, such as embryonic development, reproduction, and tissue remodeling, and disease processes, such as asthma and tumor metastasis. The encoded protein may play an important role in embryogenesis, particularly in neuronal cells, as well as in lymphocyte development and survival. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]

GeneCards Summary for MMP21 Gene

MMP21 (Matrix Metallopeptidase 21) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with MMP21 include asthma. Among its related pathways are GPCR Pathway and Integrin Pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include calcium ion binding and metalloendopeptidase activity. An important paralog of this gene is MMP2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MMP21 Gene

  • May have an important and specific function in tumor progression and embryogenesis. Cleaves alpha-1-antitrypsin

Tocris Summary for MMP21 Gene

  • Matrix metalloproteases (matrix metalloproteinase, MMPs), also called matrixins, are zinc-dependent endopeptidases that are the major proteases involved in ECM degradation. MMPs are capable of degrading a wide range of extracellular molecules and a number of bioactive molecules. 24 matrixin genes have been identified in humans, which can be organized into six groups based on domain organization and substrate preference: Collagenases (MMP-1, -8 and -13), Gelatinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9), Stromelysins (MMP-3, -10 and -11), Matrilysin (MMP-7 and MMP-26), Membrane-type (MT)-MMPs (MMP-14, -15, -16, -17, -24 and -25) and others (MMP-12, -19, -20, -21, -23, -27 and -28). MMP activity is regulated by two major endogenous inhibitors: alpha2-macroglobulin and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (TIMPs). MMPs play a central role in cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, angiogenesis, apoptosis and host defences. Dysregulatoin of MMPs has been implicated in many diseases including arthritis, chronic ulcers, encephalomyelitis and cancer. Tumour metastasis is a multistep process involving the dessemination of tumor cells from the primary tumor to secondarys at a distant organ or tissue. One of the first steps in metastasis is the degradation of the basement membrane, a process in which MMPs have been implicated. MMPs are secreted by tumor cells themselves or by surrounding stromal cells stimulated by the nearby tumor. Numerous studies have linked altered MMP expression in different human cancers with poor disease prognosis. MMP-1, -2, -3, -7, -9, -13 and -14 all have elevated expression in primary tumors and/or metastases. Synthetic or natural inhibitors of MMPs result in inhibition of metastasis, while up-regulation of MMPs led to enhanced cancer cell invasion.

Gene Wiki entry for MMP21 Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for MMP21 Gene

Genomics for MMP21 Gene

Regulatory Elements for MMP21 Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for MMP21 Gene

125,766,453 bp from pter
125,775,821 bp from pter
9,369 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for MMP21 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for MMP21 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for MMP21 Gene

Proteins for MMP21 Gene

  • Protein details for MMP21 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Matrix metalloproteinase-21
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q5VZP9
    • Q8NG02

    Protein attributes for MMP21 Gene

    569 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    65043 Da
    Name=Ca(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29108;
    Name=Zn(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29105; Note=Binds 1 zinc ion per subunit.;
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for MMP21 Gene

Proteomics data for MMP21 Gene at MOPED

Selected DME Specific Peptides for MMP21 Gene

Post-translational modifications for MMP21 Gene

Other Protein References for MMP21 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

Domains for MMP21 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for MMP21 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Q8N119
  • The conserved cysteine present in the cysteine-switch motif binds the catalytic zinc ion, thus inhibiting the enzyme. The dissociation of the cysteine from the zinc ion upon the activation-peptide release activates the enzyme
  • Belongs to the peptidase M10A family.
  • Contains 4 hemopexin repeats.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with MMP21: view

Function for MMP21 Gene

Molecular function for MMP21 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
May have an important and specific function in tumor progression and embryogenesis. Cleaves alpha-1-antitrypsin

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for MMP21 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for MMP21 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004222 metalloendopeptidase activity IEA --
GO:0005509 calcium ion binding IEA --
GO:0008237 metallopeptidase activity --
GO:0008270 zinc ion binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MMP21: view

Phenotypes for MMP21 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with MMP21: view

Animal Model Products

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for MMP21

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Animal Models , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for MMP21 Gene

Localization for MMP21 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MMP21 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for MMP21 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for MMP21 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 3
mitochondrion 2
cytosol 1
lysosome 1
nucleus 1
plasma membrane 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for MMP21 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region IEA --
GO:0031012 extracellular matrix IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MMP21: view

Pathways for MMP21 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with MMP21: view

Pathways by source for MMP21 Gene

Interacting Proteins for MMP21 Gene

STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 4 interactants - click image to see details)
Selected Interacting proteins: ENSP00000357798 for MMP21 Gene via STRING

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for MMP21 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002244 hematopoietic progenitor cell differentiation IEA --
GO:0006508 proteolysis IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MMP21: view

Compounds for MMP21 Gene

(5) Tocris Compounds for MMP21 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Batimastat Potent, broad spectrum MMP inhibitor [130370-60-4]
GI 254023X Selective ADAM10 metalloprotease inhibitor [260264-93-5]
GM 6001 Broad spectrum MMP inhibitor [142880-36-2]
Ro 32-3555 Potent, collagenase-selective MMP inhibitor [190648-49-8]
WAY 170523 Potent and selective inhibitor of MMP-13 [307002-73-9]

(1) HMDB Compounds for MMP21 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
  • Ca

(1) Drugbank Compounds for MMP21 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number Type Actions PubMed IDs
154039-60-8 target inhibitor
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with MMP21: view

Transcripts for MMP21 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for MMP21 Gene

(6) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(2) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(2) Additional mRNA sequences :
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for MMP21 Gene

Matrix metallopeptidase 21:
Representative Sequences:

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for MMP21

Primer Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for MMP21 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for MMP21 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for MMP21 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for MMP21 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for MMP21 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Ovary (4.5).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues for MMP21 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Adipocyte (69.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for MMP21 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for MMP21 Gene Hs.314141

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for MMP21 Gene

Tissue specificity: Identified in fetal brain, kidney and liver. In adult tissues found primarily in ovary, kidney, liver, lung, placenta, brain and peripheral blood leukocytes. Expressed as well in various cancer cell lines.
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with MMP21: view

Expression partners for MMP21 Gene

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery for MMP21 Gene

Orthologs for MMP21 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for MMP21 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia MMP21 35
  • 82.69 (n)
  • 80.29 (a)
MMP21 36
  • 80 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Mmp21 35
  • 78.78 (n)
  • 78.55 (a)
Mmp21 16
Mmp21 36
  • 78 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia MMP21 35
  • 99.36 (n)
  • 99.12 (a)
MMP21 36
  • 99 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Mmp21 35
  • 77.96 (n)
  • 75.89 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia MMP21 36
  • 62 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia MMP21 36
  • 59 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 36
  • 21 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia mmp21 35
  • 62.7 (n)
  • 60 (a)
Str.5461 35
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia mmp21-A 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii LOC100003089 35
  • 58.79 (n)
  • 53.69 (a)
MMP21 36
  • 49 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea C31B8.8 36
  • 21 (a)
H19M22.3 36
  • 20 (a)
zmp-1 36
  • 22 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 39 (a)
Species with no ortholog for MMP21:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • cow (Bos Taurus)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for MMP21 Gene

Gene Tree for MMP21 (if available)
Gene Tree for MMP21 (if available)

Paralogs for MMP21 Gene

Paralogs for MMP21 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with MMP21: view

Variants for MMP21 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for MMP21 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 10 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs2170643 -- 125,776,779(-) CTCTC(A/G)GGAGG upstream-variant-2KB
rs5788714 -- 125,770,861(+) AAAAA(-/AAAA)TACAA intron-variant
rs7919646 -- 125,766,250(+) GTGGA(A/G)GGCAA downstream-variant-500B
rs7922546 -- 125,772,184(+) CCTCC(A/G)CTAGC intron-variant
rs10901424 -- 125,772,383(+) CATGG(G/T)TGCTG intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for MMP21 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv832017 CNV Loss 17160897
dgv837n71 CNV Gain 21882294
nsv428241 CNV Loss 18775914
dgv324e1 CNV Complex 17122850

Relevant External Links for MMP21 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MMP21 Gene

Disorders for MMP21 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

MalaCards: The human disease database.

Search for MMP21 Gene in MalaCards »

(1) Diseases for MMP21 Gene including...

(2) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for MMP21 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
cancer 24.1 2
tumors 8.63 2

Relevant External Links for MMP21

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with MMP21: view

No data available for OMIM , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , University of Copenhagen DISEASES and Genatlas for MMP21 Gene

Publications for MMP21 Gene

  1. Matrix metalloproteinase-21, the human orthologue for XMMP, is expressed during fetal development and in cancer. (PMID: 12490321) Ahokas K. … Saarialho-Kere U. (Gene 2002) 3 4 23
  2. The matrix metalloproteinase-21 gene 572C/T polymorphism and the risk of breast cancer. (PMID: 15015597) Shagisultanova E.I. … Malkhosyan S.R. (Anticancer Res. 2004) 3 23 48
  3. MMP-21 is expressed by macrophages and fibroblasts in vivo and in culture. (PMID: 16984259) Skoog T. … Saarialho-Kere U. (Exp. Dermatol. 2006) 3 23
  4. Matrix metalloproteinase-21 is expressed epithelially during development and in cancer and is up-regulated by transforming growth factor-beta1 in keratinocytes. (PMID: 14691307) Ahokas K. … Saarialho-Kere U. (Lab. Invest. 2003) 3 23
  5. The structure and regulation of the human and mouse matrix metalloproteinase-21 gene and protein. (PMID: 12617721) Marchenko G.N. … Strongin A.Y. (Biochem. J. 2003) 3 4

Products for MMP21 Gene

Sources for MMP21 Gene

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