Aliases for MMP21 Gene
External Ids for MMP21 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for MMP21 Gene
This gene encodes a member of the matrix metalloproteinase family. Proteins in this family are involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix for both normal physiological processes, such as embryonic development, reproduction, and tissue remodeling, and disease processes, such as asthma and tumor metastasis. The encoded protein may play an important role in embryogenesis, particularly in neuronal cells, as well as in lymphocyte development and survival. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]
GeneCards Summary for MMP21 Gene
MMP21 (Matrix Metallopeptidase 21) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with MMP21 include asthma. Among its related pathways are GPCR Pathway and Integrin Pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include calcium ion binding and metalloendopeptidase activity. An important paralog of this gene is MMP2.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MMP21 Gene
May have an important and specific function in tumor progression and embryogenesis. Cleaves alpha-1-antitrypsin
Matrix metalloproteases (matrix metalloproteinase, MMPs), also called matrixins, are zinc-dependent endopeptidases that are the major proteases involved in ECM degradation. MMPs are capable of degrading a wide range of extracellular molecules and a number of bioactive molecules. 24 matrixin genes have been identified in humans, which can be organized into six groups based on domain organization and substrate preference: Collagenases (MMP-1, -8 and -13), Gelatinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9), Stromelysins (MMP-3, -10 and -11), Matrilysin (MMP-7 and MMP-26), Membrane-type (MT)-MMPs (MMP-14, -15, -16, -17, -24 and -25) and others (MMP-12, -19, -20, -21, -23, -27 and -28). MMP activity is regulated by two major endogenous inhibitors: alpha2-macroglobulin and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (TIMPs). MMPs play a central role in cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, angiogenesis, apoptosis and host defences. Dysregulatoin of MMPs has been implicated in many diseases including arthritis, chronic ulcers, encephalomyelitis and cancer. Tumour metastasis is a multistep process involving the dessemination of tumor cells from the primary tumor to secondarys at a distant organ or tissue. One of the first steps in metastasis is the degradation of the basement membrane, a process in which MMPs have been implicated. MMPs are secreted by tumor cells themselves or by surrounding stromal cells stimulated by the nearby tumor. Numerous studies have linked altered MMP expression in different human cancers with poor disease prognosis. MMP-1, -2, -3, -7, -9, -13 and -14 all have elevated expression in primary tumors and/or metastases. Synthetic or natural inhibitors of MMPs result in inhibition of metastasis, while up-regulation of MMPs led to enhanced cancer cell invasion.