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MMP21 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 57
GCID: GC10M127445

Matrix Metallopeptidase 21

(Previous name: matrix metalloproteinase 21)
  See MMP21-related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Matrix Metallopeptidase 211 2
Matrix Metalloproteinase 211 2
MMP-212 3
Matrix Metalloproteinase-212
EC 3.4.24.-3
EC 3.4.248

External Ids:    HGNC: 143571   Entrez Gene: 1188562   Ensembl: ENSG000001544857   OMIM: 6084165   UniProtKB: Q8N1193   

Export aliases for MMP21 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC10M126430 GC10M126658 GC10M127496 GC10M127029 GC10M121144


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for MMP21 Gene:
This gene encodes a member of the matrix metalloproteinase family. Proteins in this family are involved in the
breakdown of extracellular matrix for both normal physiological processes, such as embryonic development,
reproduction, and tissue remodeling, and disease processes, such as asthma and tumor metastasis. The encoded
protein may play an important role in embryogenesis, particularly in neuronal cells, as well as in lymphocyte
development and survival. (provided by RefSeq, May 2013)

GeneCards Summary for MMP21 Gene:
MMP21 (matrix metallopeptidase 21) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with MMP21 include encephalomyelitis, and asthma. GO annotations related to this gene include metalloendopeptidase activity and calcium ion binding. An important paralog of this gene is MMP23B.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: MMP21_HUMAN, Q8N119
Function: May have an important and specific function in tumor progression and embryogenesis. Cleaves
alpha-1-antitrypsin

summary for MMP21 Gene:
Matrix metalloproteases (matrix metalloproteinase, MMPs), also called matrixins, are zinc-dependent
endopeptidases that are the major proteases involved in ECM degradation. MMPs are capable of degrading a
wide range of extracellular molecules and a number of bioactive molecules. 24 matrixin genes have been
identified in humans, which can be organized into six groups based on domain organization and substrate
preference: Collagenases (MMP-1, -8 and -13), Gelatinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9), Stromelysins (MMP-3, -10 and
-11), Matrilysin (MMP-7 and MMP-26), Membrane-type (MT)-MMPs (MMP-14, -15, -16, -17, -24 and -25) and others
(MMP-12, -19, -20, -21, -23, -27 and -28). MMP activity is regulated by two major endogenous inhibitors:
alpha2-macroglobulin and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (TIMPs). MMPs play a central role in cell
proliferation, migration, differentiation, angiogenesis, apoptosis and host defences. Dysregulatoin of MMPs
has been implicated in many diseases including arthritis, chronic ulcers, encephalomyelitis and cancer.
Tumour metastasis is a multistep process involving the dessemination of tumor cells from the primary tumor
to secondarys at a distant organ or tissue. One of the first steps in metastasis is the degradation of the
basement membrane, a process in which MMPs have been implicated. MMPs are secreted by tumor cells themselves
or by surrounding stromal cells stimulated by the nearby tumor. Numerous studies have linked altered MMP
expression in different human cancers with poor disease prognosis. MMP-1, -2, -3, -7, -9, -13 and -14 all
have elevated expression in primary tumors and/or metastases. Synthetic or natural inhibitors of MMPs result
in inhibition of metastasis, while up-regulation of MMPs led to enhanced cancer cell invasion.

Gene Wiki entry for MMP21 Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000010.10  NC_018921.2  NT_030059.14  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the MMP21 gene promoter:
         Oct-B1   GATA-3   Meis-1b   GATA-1   GATA-2   IRF-2   HSF2   SEF-1 (1)   Meis-1a   Meis-1   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidMMP21 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for MMP21

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat MMP21


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 10q26.13   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  10q26.13   HGNC cytogenetic band: 10q26.3

MMP21 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
MMP21 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 10         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC10M127445:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
127,455,022 bp from pter      End:
127,464,390 bp from pter
Size:
9,369 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, antibodies-online, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: MMP21_HUMAN, Q8N119 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Matrix metalloproteinase-21 precursor  
Size: 569 amino acids; 65043 Da
Cofactor: Binds 1 zinc ion per subunit (By similarity)
Cofactor: Calcium (By similarity)
Secondary accessions: Q5VZP9 Q8NG02

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for MMP21: NX_Q8N119

Explore proteomics data for MMP21 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • The precursor is cleaved by a furin endopeptidase (By similarity)1
  • Glycosylation2 at Asn372
  • Selected DME Specific Peptides for MMP21 (Q8N119) (see all 5)
     WSEVTPL  PRCGVPD  NRTRYGDP  GISLLKVA 


    See MMP21 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_671724.1  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000357798  

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    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for MMP21

     
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    antibodies-online proteins for MMP21 (6 products) 

     
    antibodies-online peptides for MMP21

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    antibodies-online antibodies for MMP21 (6 products) 

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    antibodies-online kits for MMP21 (4 products) 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    IUPHAR Guide to PHARMACOLOGY protein family classification: MMP21
    Cell-surface protein and extracellular matrix metalloproteinases

    Selected InterPro protein domains (see all 9):
     IPR024079 MetalloPept_cat_dom
     IPR021190 Pept_M10A
     IPR000585 Hemopexin-like_dom
     IPR018487 Hemopexin-like_repeat
     IPR028719 MMP21

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q8N119

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q8N119

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB002477 Putative peptidoglycan binding domain 1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: MMP21_HUMAN, Q8N119
    Domain: The conserved cysteine present in the cysteine-switch motif binds the catalytic zinc ion, thus inhibiting
    the enzyme. The dissociation of the cysteine from the zinc ion upon the activation-peptide release activates the
    enzyme
    Similarity: Belongs to the peptidase M10A family
    Similarity: Contains 4 hemopexin repeats


    Find genes that share domains with MMP21           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: MMP21_HUMAN, Q8N119
    Function: May have an important and specific function in tumor progression and embryogenesis. Cleaves
    alpha-1-antitrypsin

         Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB): EC 3.4.24.-1 EC 3.4.242

         Gene Ontology (GO): 4 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0004222metalloendopeptidase activity IEA--
    GO:0005509calcium ion binding IEA--
    GO:0008237metallopeptidase activity ----
    GO:0008270zinc ion binding IEA--
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with MMP21           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for MMP21:
     Increased viability after born 

         2 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 1 allele(MGI details for Mmp21):
     cardiovascular system  growth/size/body 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with MMP21           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
       genOway: Develop your customized and physiologically relevant rodent model for MMP21

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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for MMP21


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    MMP21_HUMAN, Q8N119: Secreted (Potential)
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    extracellular3
    mitochondrion2
    cytosol1
    lysosome1
    nucleus1
    plasma membrane1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 2 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005576extracellular region IEA--
    GO:0031012extracellular matrix IEA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with MMP21           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for MMP21 About    
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Matrix Metalloproteinases
    Matrix Metalloproteinases0.68
    Inhibition of Matrix Metalloproteinases0.68
    2Integrin Pathway
    UPA-UPAR Pathway0.56
    Transendothelial Migration of Leukocytes0.38
    3GPCR Pathway
    Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma0.59

    4 Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for MMP21
        Inhibition of Matrix Metalloproteinases
    Transendothelial Migration of Leukocytes
    UPA-UPAR Pathway
    Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    1 BioSystems Pathway for MMP21
        Matrix Metalloproteinases


        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for MMP21
    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for MMP21

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 1 interactants - click image to see more details)

    1 Interacting protein for MMP21 (ENSP000003577984) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    TNFSF11ENSP000002398494STRING: ENSP00000239849
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 1 biological process term:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006508proteolysis ----

    Find genes that share ontologies with MMP21           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Compounds for MMP21 available from Tocris Bioscience    About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    GI 254023XSelective ADAM10 metalloprotease inhibitor[260264-93-5]
    MarimastatBroad spectrum MMP inhibitor[154039-60-8]
    GM 6001Broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor[142880-36-2]
    UK 383367Potent and selective BMP-1 (PCP) inhibitor[348622-88-8]
    Batimastat Potent, broad spectrum MMP inhibitor [130370-60-4]

    1 HMDB Compound for MMP21    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    CalciumCa (see all 2)7440-70-2--

    1 DrugBank Compound for MMP21    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    Marimastat-- 154039-60-8targetinhibitor10852638 10669951



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for MMP21 gene: 
    NM_147191.1  

    Unigene Cluster for MMP21:

    Matrix metallopeptidase 21
    Hs.314141  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_147191
    1 Ensembl transcript including schematic representation, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000368808(uc001liu.3)
    miRNA
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      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat MMP21

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AF331526.1 AF520613.1 

    1 DOTS entry:

    DT.95198411 

    6 AceView cDNA sequences:

    AF520613 NM_147191 AF331526 BX280618 AW665196 CD637483 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    MMP21 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: --
    MMP21 Expression
    About this image

    MMP21 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    MMP21 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.314141

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: MMP21_HUMAN, Q8N119
    Tissue specificity: Identified in fetal brain, kidney and liver. In adult tissues found primarily in ovary,
    kidney, liver, lung, placenta, brain and peripheral blood leukocytes. Expressed as well in various cancer cell
    lines

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    In Situ
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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

    Orthologs for MMP21 gene from Selected species (see all 12)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Mmp211 , 5 matrix metallopeptidase 211, 5 78.78(n)1
    78.55(a)1
      7 (77.24 cM)5
    2147661  NM_152944.11  NP_694423.11 
     1336742705 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia --
    --
    21(a)
    many ↔ many
    GL343245.1(1508729-1529577)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia mmp21-A2 matrix metalloproteinase 21 77.06(n)    U82541.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii LOC1000030891 matrix metalloproteinase-21-like 58.79(n)
    53.69(a)
      100003089  XM_001342685.5  XP_001342721.4 
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea zmp-16
    C31B8.86
    (see all 3)
    Protein C31B8.8 (C31B8.8) mRNA, complete cds
    (see all 3)
    22(a)
    21(a)
    (see all 3)
    many ↔ many
    many ↔ many
    (see all 3)
    III(5926898-5932953) WBGene00006987
    V(2905764-2909683) WBGene00016283


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for MMP21 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for MMP21 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for MMP21 gene
    MMP23B2  MMP92  MMP22  MMP192  MMP262  ELSPBP12  

    Find genes that share paralogs with MMP21           About GenesLikeMe



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for MMP21 (see all 311)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 10 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs283813311,2
    C,F--127454555(-) CCTGCA/CGTGAG 1 -- ds50017Minor allele frequency- C:0.04NS WA EA 416
    rs1882036731,2
    --127454699(+) GGAAAA/TGTGTA 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1417968851,2
    --127454738(+) GAGTTC/GTGAAG 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1462664331,2
    --127454811(+) CAGGGA/GCTGTG 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs79196461,2
    C,F,H--127454819(+) GTGGAG/AGGCAA 1 -- ds500111Minor allele frequency- A:0.00NS EA NA 706
    rs1394468271,2
    --127454950(+) AAGCAA/GTTGGG 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1840353051,2
    --127454996(+) GATCAC/TTGGAT 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs283813281,2
    C,F,H--127455030(-) AAGGTT/CTAAAA 1 -- ut3111Minor allele frequency- C:0.01NS NA WA 1094
    rs171535191,2
    C,F,H--127455088(-) CTTTTA/CAAATA 1 -- ut3118Minor allele frequency- C:0.07EU EA NS NA CSA WA 1804
    rs283813271,2
    C--127455184(-) AATTCT/CGATAC 1 -- ut31 ese36Minor allele frequency- C:0.00NS NA 188

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for MMP21 (127455022 - 127464390 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 4 variations for MMP21:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv428241CNV Loss18775914
    nsv832017CNV Loss17160897
    dgv837n71CNV Gain21882294
    dgv324e1CNV Complex17122850

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing MMP21
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for MMP21

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 608416    OMIM disorders: --

    2 diseases for MMP21:    
    About MalaCards
    encephalomyelitis    asthma


    Find genes that share disorders with MMP21           About GenesLikeMe

    2 Novoseek inferred disease relationships for MMP21 gene    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    cancer 24.1 2 14691307 (1), 12490321 (1)
    tumors 8.63 2 14691307 (1), 12490321 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): MMP21
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: MMP21 (2 documents)

    Export disorders for MMP21 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for MMP21 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 20):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with MMP21)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Matrix metalloproteinase-21, the human orthologue for XMMP, is expressed during fetal development and in cancer. (PubMed id 12490321)1, 2, 9 Ahokas K.... Saarialho-Kere U. (Gene 2002)
    2. The matrix metalloproteinase-21 gene 572C/T polymorphism and the risk of breast cancer. (PubMed id 15015597)1, 4, 9 Shagisultanova E.I....Malkhosyan S.R. (Anticancer Res. 2004)
    3. No association of MMP-7, MMP-8, and MMP-21 polymorphisms with the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in a Chinese population. (PubMed id 18768525)1, 4 Qiu W....He F. (amp 2008)
    4. The structure and regulation of the human and mouse matrix metalloproteinase-21 gene and protein. (PubMed id 12617721)1, 2 Marchenko G.N.... Strongin A.Y. (Biochem. J. 2003)
    5. Matrix metalloproteinase-21 is expressed epithelially during development and in cancer and is up-regulated by transforming growth factor-beta1 in keratinocytes. (PubMed id 14691307)1, 9 Ahokas K....Saarialho-Kere U. ( a journal of technical methods and pathology 2003)
    6. MMP-21 is expressed by macrophages and fibroblasts in vivo and in culture. (PubMed id 16984259)1, 9 Skoog T....Saarialho-Kere U. (Exp. Dermatol. 2006)
    7. Increased MMP-21 expression is associated with poor overall survival of patients with gastric cancer. (PubMed id 23275114)1 Wu T....Du X. (Med. Oncol. 2013)
    8. Identification of high-risk stage II and stage III colorectal cancer by analysis of MMP-21 expression. (PubMed id 21656525)1 Wu T....Du X. (J Surg Oncol 2011)
    9. Overexpression of matrix metalloproteinase-21 is associated with poor overall survival of patients with colorectal cancer. (PubMed id 21590459)1 Huang Y....Li J. (J. Gastrointest. Surg. 2011)
    10. Comparative expression pattern of Matrix-Metalloproteinases in human glioblastoma cell-lines and primary cultures. (PubMed id 21067565)1 Hagemann C....Vince G.H. (BMC Res Notes 2010)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 118856 HGNC: 14357 AceView: MMP21 Ensembl:ENSG00000154485 euGenes: HUgn118856
    ECgene: MMP21 H-InvDB: MMP21

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for MMP21 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for MMP21 Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
    NIEHS-SNPshttp://egp.gs.washington.edu/data/mmp21/

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for MMP21 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving MMP21

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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