Aliases for MMP19 Gene
External Ids for MMP19 Gene
Previous HGNC Symbols for MMP19 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for MMP19 Gene
This gene encodes a member of a family of proteins that are involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix in normal physiological processes, such as embryonic development, reproduction, and tissue remodeling, as well as in disease processes, such as arthritis and metastasis. The encoded protein is secreted as an inactive proprotein, which is activated upon cleavage by extracellular proteases. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]
GeneCards Summary for MMP19 Gene
MMP19 (Matrix Metallopeptidase 19) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with MMP19 include keloids and relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Among its related pathways are GPCR Pathway and Integrin Pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include calcium ion binding and metalloendopeptidase activity. An important paralog of this gene is MMP2.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MMP19 Gene
Endopeptidase that degrades various components of the extracellular matrix, such as aggrecan and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (comp), during development, haemostasis and pathological conditions (arthritic disease). May also play a role in neovascularization or angiogenesis. Hydrolyzes collagen type IV, laminin, nidogen, nascin-C isoform, fibronectin, and type I gelatin.
Matrix metalloproteases (matrix metalloproteinase, MMPs), also called matrixins, are zinc-dependent endopeptidases that are the major proteases involved in ECM degradation. MMPs are capable of degrading a wide range of extracellular molecules and a number of bioactive molecules. 24 matrixin genes have been identified in humans, which can be organized into six groups based on domain organization and substrate preference: Collagenases (MMP-1, -8 and -13), Gelatinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9), Stromelysins (MMP-3, -10 and -11), Matrilysin (MMP-7 and MMP-26), Membrane-type (MT)-MMPs (MMP-14, -15, -16, -17, -24 and -25) and others (MMP-12, -19, -20, -21, -23, -27 and -28). MMP activity is regulated by two major endogenous inhibitors: alpha2-macroglobulin and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (TIMPs). MMPs play a central role in cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, angiogenesis, apoptosis and host defences. Dysregulatoin of MMPs has been implicated in many diseases including arthritis, chronic ulcers, encephalomyelitis and cancer. Tumour metastasis is a multistep process involving the dessemination of tumor cells from the primary tumor to secondarys at a distant organ or tissue. One of the first steps in metastasis is the degradation of the basement membrane, a process in which MMPs have been implicated. MMPs are secreted by tumor cells themselves or by surrounding stromal cells stimulated by the nearby tumor. Numerous studies have linked altered MMP expression in different human cancers with poor disease prognosis. MMP-1, -2, -3, -7, -9, -13 and -14 all have elevated expression in primary tumors and/or metastases. Synthetic or natural inhibitors of MMPs result in inhibition of metastasis, while up-regulation of MMPs led to enhanced cancer cell invasion.