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Aliases for MMP16 Gene

Aliases for MMP16 Gene

  • Matrix Metallopeptidase 16 (Membrane-Inserted) 2 3
  • Membrane-Type Matrix Metalloproteinase 3 3 4
  • Membrane-Type-3 Matrix Metalloproteinase 3 4
  • MT-MMP 3 3 4
  • MT3-MMP 3 4
  • MMP-16 3 4
  • MMP-X2 3 4
  • MT3MMP 3 4
  • MTMMP3 3 4
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 16 (Membrane-Inserted) 2
  • Putative Transmembrane Protein C8orf57 3
  • Chromosome 8 Open Reading Frame 57 2
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase-16 3
  • EC 63
  • EC 3.4.24.- 4
  • EC 3.4.24 63
  • MT-MMP2 3
  • MT-MMP3 3
  • C8orf57 3
  • MMPX2 4

External Ids for MMP16 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for MMP16 Gene

  • C8orf57

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for MMP16 Gene

  • GC08M087480
  • GC08M088781
  • GC08M089009
  • GC08M088999
  • GC08M089118
  • GC08M084259
  • GC08M089044

Summaries for MMP16 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for MMP16 Gene

  • Proteins of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family are involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix in normal physiological processes, such as embryonic development, reproduction, and tissue remodeling, as well as in disease processes, such as arthritis and metastasis. Most MMP's are secreted as inactive proproteins which are activated when cleaved by extracellular proteinases. The encoded protein activates MMP2 by cleavage. This gene was once referred to as MT-MMP2, but was renamed as MT-MMP3 or MMP16. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]

GeneCards Summary for MMP16 Gene

MMP16 (Matrix Metallopeptidase 16 (Membrane-Inserted)) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with MMP16 include osteochondrosis and arthritis. Among its related pathways are MicroRNAs in cancer and Degradation of the extracellular matrix. GO annotations related to this gene include calcium ion binding and enzyme activator activity. An important paralog of this gene is MMP13.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MMP16 Gene

  • Endopeptidase that degrades various components of the extracellular matrix, such as collagen type III and fibronectin. Activates progelatinase A. Involved in the matrix remodeling of blood vessels. Isoform short cleaves fibronectin and also collagen type III, but at lower rate. It has no effect on type I, II, IV and V collagen. However, upon interaction with CSPG4, it may be involved in degradation and invasion of type I collagen by melanoma cells.

Tocris Summary for MMP16 Gene

  • Matrix metalloproteases (matrix metalloproteinase, MMPs), also called matrixins, are zinc-dependent endopeptidases that are the major proteases involved in ECM degradation. MMPs are capable of degrading a wide range of extracellular molecules and a number of bioactive molecules. 24 matrixin genes have been identified in humans, which can be organized into six groups based on domain organization and substrate preference: Collagenases (MMP-1, -8 and -13), Gelatinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9), Stromelysins (MMP-3, -10 and -11), Matrilysin (MMP-7 and MMP-26), Membrane-type (MT)-MMPs (MMP-14, -15, -16, -17, -24 and -25) and others (MMP-12, -19, -20, -21, -23, -27 and -28). MMP activity is regulated by two major endogenous inhibitors: alpha2-macroglobulin and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (TIMPs). MMPs play a central role in cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, angiogenesis, apoptosis and host defences. Dysregulatoin of MMPs has been implicated in many diseases including arthritis, chronic ulcers, encephalomyelitis and cancer. Tumour metastasis is a multistep process involving the dessemination of tumor cells from the primary tumor to secondarys at a distant organ or tissue. One of the first steps in metastasis is the degradation of the basement membrane, a process in which MMPs have been implicated. MMPs are secreted by tumor cells themselves or by surrounding stromal cells stimulated by the nearby tumor. Numerous studies have linked altered MMP expression in different human cancers with poor disease prognosis. MMP-1, -2, -3, -7, -9, -13 and -14 all have elevated expression in primary tumors and/or metastases. Synthetic or natural inhibitors of MMPs result in inhibition of metastasis, while up-regulation of MMPs led to enhanced cancer cell invasion.

Gene Wiki entry for MMP16 Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for MMP16 Gene

Genomics for MMP16 Gene

Regulatory Elements for MMP16 Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for MMP16 Gene

88,032,009 bp from pter
88,328,025 bp from pter
296,017 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for MMP16 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for MMP16 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for MMP16 Gene

Proteins for MMP16 Gene

  • Protein details for MMP16 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Matrix metalloproteinase-16
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2RAN7
    • Q14824
    • Q52H48

    Protein attributes for MMP16 Gene

    607 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    69521 Da
    Name=Ca(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29108;
    Name=Zn(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29105; Note=Binds 1 zinc ion per subunit.;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with CSPG4 through CSPG4 chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for MMP16 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for MMP16 Gene


neXtProt entry for MMP16 Gene

Proteomics data for MMP16 Gene at MOPED

Selected DME Specific Peptides for MMP16 Gene

Post-translational modifications for MMP16 Gene

Other Protein References for MMP16 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

  • R&D Systems Antibodies for MMP16 (MMP-16/MT3-MMP)

Domains for MMP16 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for MMP16 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • P51512
  • The conserved cysteine present in the cysteine-switch motif binds the catalytic zinc ion, thus inhibiting the enzyme. The dissociation of the cysteine from the zinc ion upon the activation-peptide release activates the enzyme
  • Belongs to the peptidase M10A family.
  • Contains 4 hemopexin repeats.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with MMP16: view

Function for MMP16 Gene

Molecular function for MMP16 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: matrix metalloproteinase 16,membrane-type,activator of MMP2,possessing a proteolytic activity against extracellular matrix molecules,expressed in placenta,brain and lung
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation: TIMP-2 shows little inhibitory activity compared to TIMP-1. TIMP-1 seems to have less binding affinity than TIMP-2 for the short isoform
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Endopeptidase that degrades various components of the extracellular matrix, such as collagen type III and fibronectin. Activates progelatinase A. Involved in the matrix remodeling of blood vessels. Isoform short cleaves fibronectin and also collagen type III, but at lower rate. It has no effect on type I, II, IV and V collagen. However, upon interaction with CSPG4, it may be involved in degradation and invasion of type I collagen by melanoma cells.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for MMP16 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for MMP16 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004222 metalloendopeptidase activity IEA --
GO:0005509 calcium ion binding IEA --
GO:0008047 enzyme activator activity TAS 7559440
GO:0008237 metallopeptidase activity --
GO:0008270 zinc ion binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MMP16: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with MMP16: view

Animal Models for MMP16 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for MMP16:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for MMP16 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target MMP16

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for MMP16

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for MMP16 Gene

Localization for MMP16 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MMP16 Gene

Isoform Long: Cell membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein; Extracellular side. Note=Localized at the cell surface of melanoma cells.
Isoform Short: Secreted, extracellular space, extracellular matrix. Cell surface. Note=Localized at the cell surface of melanoma cells.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for MMP16 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for MMP16 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
plasma membrane 5
golgi apparatus 4
cytosol 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
peroxisome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for MMP16 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005578 proteinaceous extracellular matrix IEA --
GO:0005796 Golgi lumen TAS --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane TAS 7559440
GO:0009986 cell surface IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MMP16: view

Pathways for MMP16 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with MMP16: view

Pathways by source for MMP16 Gene

1 KEGG pathway for MMP16 Gene
1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathway for MMP16 Gene

PCR Array Products

  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays
    • Extracellular Matrix & Adhesion Molecules in human,mouse,rat

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for MMP16 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001503 ossification --
GO:0001958 endochondral ossification IEA --
GO:0006508 proteolysis IEA --
GO:0022617 extracellular matrix disassembly TAS --
GO:0030198 extracellular matrix organization TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MMP16: view

Compounds for MMP16 Gene

(5) Tocris Compounds for MMP16 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Batimastat Potent, broad spectrum MMP inhibitor [130370-60-4]
GI 254023X Selective ADAM10 metalloprotease inhibitor [260264-93-5]
GM 6001 Broad spectrum MMP inhibitor [142880-36-2]
Ro 32-3555 Potent, collagenase-selective MMP inhibitor [190648-49-8]
WAY 170523 Potent and selective inhibitor of MMP-13 [307002-73-9]

(1) HMDB Compounds for MMP16 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
  • Ca

(2) Drugbank Compounds for MMP16 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number Type Actions PubMed IDs
130370-60-4 target
154039-60-8 target inhibitor

(5) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for MMP16 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate 23.7 1
glycosaminoglycan 23 1
losartan 21.9 6
vegf 10.3 1
tyrosine 0 1
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with MMP16: view

Transcripts for MMP16 Gene

Unigene Clusters for MMP16 Gene

Matrix metallopeptidase 16 (membrane-inserted):
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for MMP16

Primer Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for MMP16 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for MMP16 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for MMP16 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for MMP16 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for MMP16 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for MMP16 Gene Hs.546267

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for MMP16 Gene

Tissue specificity: Expressed in heart, brain, placenta, ovary and small intestine. Isoform Short is found in the ovary
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with MMP16: view

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for MMP16 Gene

Orthologs for MMP16 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for MMP16 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia MMP16 35
  • 99.67 (n)
  • 100 (a)
MMP16 36
  • 100 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia MMP-16 36
  • 98 (a)
MMP16 35
  • 93.19 (n)
  • 98.02 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia MMP16 35
  • 94.45 (n)
  • 99.34 (a)
MMP16 36
  • 99 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Mmp16 35
  • 93.19 (n)
  • 98.02 (a)
Mmp16 16
Mmp16 36
  • 98 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia MMP16 36
  • 97 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia MMP16 36
  • 93 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Mmp16 35
  • 92 (n)
  • 97.8 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves MMP16 35
  • 87.07 (n)
  • 92.57 (a)
MMP16 36
  • 95 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia MMP16 36
  • 91 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia mmp16 35
  • 80.61 (n)
  • 87.44 (a)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.2106 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii CABZ01029422.1 36
  • 74 (a)
mmp16a 36
  • 76 (a)
mmp16b 35
  • 70.11 (n)
  • 74 (a)
mmp16b 36
  • 70 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Mmp2 36
  • 25 (a)
Mmp2 37
  • 46 (a)
Mmp1 37
  • 36 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea H19M22.3a 37
  • 33 (a)
C31B8.8 37
  • 41 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 35 (a)
Species with no ortholog for MMP16:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for MMP16 Gene

Gene Tree for MMP16 (if available)
Gene Tree for MMP16 (if available)

Paralogs for MMP16 Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for MMP16 Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with MMP16: view

Variants for MMP16 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for MMP16 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 08 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs874346 -- 88,040,990(+) AAACT(C/T)TTTTT utr-variant-3-prime
rs922389 -- 88,125,049(+) AACCT(A/G)TGAAT intron-variant
rs939277 -- 88,206,480(-) ggatc(A/C)tttag intron-variant
rs939278 -- 88,205,482(-) TTATA(C/T)CCAGA intron-variant
rs939279 -- 88,313,903(-) tctca(C/T)gagat intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for MMP16 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
essv19267 CNV CNV 17122850
esv2669999 CNV Deletion 23128226
esv23361 CNV Loss 19812545
nsv396473 CNV Loss 16902084
nsv831386 CNV Gain 17160897
nsv527243 CNV Loss 19592680
esv2737272 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv1991117 CNV Deletion 18987734
esv2737273 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2737275 CNV Deletion 23290073
nsv891170 CNV Loss 21882294
esv2737276 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv3247 CNV Deletion 18987735
esv2188156 CNV Deletion 18987734
esv2671281 CNV Deletion 23128226

Relevant External Links for MMP16 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MMP16 Gene

Disorders for MMP16 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

MalaCards: The human disease database. (2) Diseases for MMP16 Gene including...

Search for MMP16 Gene in MalaCards »

(10) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for MMP16 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
seminoma 32.7 1
metastasis 32.1 3
tumors 21.7 5
carcinoma 16.6 5
diabetic nephropathies 15.9 2

Relevant External Links for MMP16

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with MMP16: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MMP16 Gene

Publications for MMP16 Gene

  1. Identification of the second membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase (MT-MMP-2) gene from a human placenta cDNA library. MT-MMPs form a unique membrane-type subclass in the MMP family. (PMID: 7559440) Takino T. … Seiki M. (J. Biol. Chem. 1995) 2 3 4 23
  2. Expression of three membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases (MT-MMPs) in rat vascular smooth muscle cells and characterization of MT3-MMPs with and without transmembrane domain. (PMID: 9092507) Shofuda K. … Miyazaki K. (J. Biol. Chem. 1997) 3 4 23
  3. Identification of soluble type of membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase-3 formed by alternatively spliced mRNA. (PMID: 9396633) Matsumoto S. … Masuho Y. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1997) 3 4 23
  4. Melanoma chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan regulates matrix metalloproteinase-dependent human melanoma invasion into type I collagen. (PMID: 11278606) Iida J. … McCarthy J.B. (J. Biol. Chem. 2001) 3 4 23
  5. Matrix metalloproteinase gene polymorphisms and bronchopulmonary dysplasia: identification of MMP16 as a new player in lung development. (PMID: 18784838) Hadchouel A. … Delacourt C. (PLoS ONE 2008) 3 23 48

Products for MMP16 Gene

Sources for MMP16 Gene

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