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Aliases for MMD Gene

Aliases for MMD Gene

  • Monocyte To Macrophage Differentiation Associated 2 3
  • Monocyte To Macrophage Differentiation-Associated 2 3 5
  • Progestin And AdipoQ Receptor Family Member 11 3 4
  • Progestin And AdipoQ Receptor Family Member XI 3 4
  • PAQR11 3 4
  • Monocyte To Macrophage Differentiation Protein 3
  • Macrophage Maturation-Associated 3
  • MMD1 3
  • MMA 3

External Ids for MMD Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for MMD Gene

  • GC17M053200
  • GC17M055951
  • GC17M053812
  • GC17M053944
  • GC17M050824
  • GC17M053469
  • GC17M048830

Summaries for MMD Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for MMD Gene

  • This protein is expressed by in vitro differentiated macrophages but not freshly isolated monocytes. Although sequence analysis identifies seven potential transmembrane domains, this protein has little homology to G-protein receptors and it has not been positively identified as a receptor. A suggested alternative function is that of an ion channel protein in maturing macrophages. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for MMD Gene

MMD (Monocyte To Macrophage Differentiation Associated) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with MMD include Amino Acid Metabolic Disorder and Female Stress Incontinence. GO annotations related to this gene include protein kinase activity and receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is MMD2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MMD Gene

  • Involved in the dynamics of lysosomal membranes associated with microglial activation following brain lesion.

No data available for Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for MMD Gene

Genomics for MMD Gene

Regulatory Elements for MMD Gene

Enhancers for MMD Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around MMD on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for MMD Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around MMD on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for MMD Gene

55,392,613 bp from pter
55,421,993 bp from pter
29,381 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for MMD Gene

Genes around MMD on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
MMD Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for MMD Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for MMD Gene

Proteins for MMD Gene

  • Protein details for MMD Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Monocyte to macrophage differentiation factor
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2R6X9
    • D3DTY6
    • Q8TAN7

    Protein attributes for MMD Gene

    238 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    27667 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for MMD Gene

Proteomics data for MMD Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for MMD Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for MMD Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for MMD Gene

Domains & Families for MMD Gene

Gene Families for MMD Gene

Protein Domains for MMD Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for MMD Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the ADIPOR family.
  • Belongs to the ADIPOR family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with MMD: view

Function for MMD Gene

Molecular function for MMD Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Involved in the dynamics of lysosomal membranes associated with microglial activation following brain lesion.

Phenotypes for MMD Gene

GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for MMD:
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with MMD: view

Animal Model Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for MMD Gene

Localization for MMD Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MMD Gene

Late endosome membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein. Lysosome membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for MMD Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for MMD gene
Compartment Confidence
golgi apparatus 5
plasma membrane 5
lysosome 4
vacuole 4
endosome 3
cytosol 2
extracellular 2
mitochondrion 2
nucleus 2
cytoskeleton 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for MMD Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005765 lysosomal membrane IEA --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MMD: view

Pathways & Interactions for MMD Gene

SuperPathways for MMD Gene

No Data Available

Interacting Proteins for MMD Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for MMD Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006468 protein phosphorylation IDA 21968647
GO:0019835 cytolysis IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MMD: view

No data available for Pathways by source and SIGNOR curated interactions for MMD Gene

Drugs & Compounds for MMD Gene

(4) Drugs for MMD Gene - From: ClinicalTrials

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Anesthetics Pharma 8255
Coal Tar Pharma 179
Pharmaceutical Solutions Pharma 7317
Calamus Nutra 364
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with MMD: view

Transcripts for MMD Gene

Unigene Clusters for MMD Gene

Monocyte to macrophage differentiation-associated:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for MMD Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8
SP1: -
SP2: - - -

Relevant External Links for MMD Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for MMD Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for MMD Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for MMD Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Nucleus accumbens (basal ganglia) (x5.3), Brain - Amygdala (x4.7), Brain - Putamen (basal ganglia) (x4.4), and Brain - Hippocampus (x4.1).

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for MMD Gene Hs.463483

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for MMD Gene

Tissue specificity: Exhibits relatively ubiquitous expression with preferential expression in mature (in vitro differentiated) macrophages.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with MMD: view

Primer Products

No data available for Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression and Protein tissue co-expression partners for MMD Gene

Orthologs for MMD Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for MMD Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia MMD 35
  • 94.12 (n)
  • 97.48 (a)
MMD 36
  • 96 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia MMD 35
  • 93.7 (n)
  • 99.16 (a)
MMD 36
  • 99 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Mmd 35
  • 91.18 (n)
  • 99.16 (a)
Mmd 16
Mmd 36
  • 99 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia MMD 35
  • 100 (n)
  • 100 (a)
MMD 36
  • 100 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Mmd 35
  • 89.5 (n)
  • 98.74 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia MMD 36
  • 97 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia MMD 36
  • 84 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves MMD 35
  • 83.83 (n)
  • 90.3 (a)
MMD 36
  • 90 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia MMD 36
  • 85 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia mmd 35
  • 79.01 (n)
  • 89.36 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii mmd 35
  • 73.59 (n)
  • 81.39 (a)
mmd 36
  • 80 (a)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.11012 35
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG4615 37
  • 41 (a)
CG4615 35
  • 48.26 (n)
  • 45.65 (a)
CG4615 36
  • 33 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP006136 35
  • 49.49 (n)
  • 43.17 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea Y71G12B.23 37
  • 39 (a)
Y71G12B.23 36
  • 34 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 37 (a)
Species with no ortholog for MMD:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for MMD Gene

Gene Tree for MMD (if available)
Gene Tree for MMD (if available)

Paralogs for MMD Gene

Paralogs for MMD Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for MMD Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with MMD: view

Variants for MMD Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for MMD Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 17 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1050750 -- 55,411,302(-) CATCG(C/T)TTCTA nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense
rs1050751 -- 55,393,498(-) CACAG(C/T)GGATA utr-variant-3-prime
rs1052525 -- 55,420,210(-) CACGT(A/C)TGTGC intron-variant
rs1131307 -- 55,407,815(-) GACAG(C/T)GGAGC nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense
rs2229671 -- 55,411,403(-) GTTCC(A/G)GCCAT nc-transcript-variant, reference, synonymous-codon

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for MMD Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv908620 CNV Loss 21882294
esv2716056 CNV Deletion 23290073
nsv2100 CNV Loss 18451855

Variation tolerance for MMD Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 24% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.16; 3.70% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Relevant External Links for MMD Gene

Disorders for MMD Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(15) MalaCards diseases for MMD Gene - From: DISEASES

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
amino acid metabolic disorder
  • inborn errors of amino acid metabolism
female stress incontinence
  • female urinary stress incontinence
inherited metabolic disorder
  • inborn errors of metabolism
sleep disorder
  • non-organic sleep disorder
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search MMD in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for MMD

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with MMD: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for MMD Gene

Publications for MMD Gene

  1. PAQR proteins: a novel membrane receptor family defined by an ancient 7-transmembrane pass motif. (PMID: 16044242) Tang Y.T. … Funk W.D. (J. Mol. Evol. 2005) 2 3 4 67
  2. Molecular cloning of a novel macrophage maturation-associated transcript encoding a protein with several potential transmembrane domains. (PMID: 7503749) Rehli M. … Andreesen R. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1995) 2 3
  3. Monocyte to macrophage differentiation-associated (MMD) targeted by miR-140-5p regulates tumor growth in non-small cell lung cancer. (PMID: 24971538) Li W. … He F. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2014) 3
  4. PAQR10 and PAQR11 mediate Ras signaling in the Golgi apparatus. (PMID: 21968647) Jin T. … Chen Y. (Cell Res. 2012) 3
  5. Novel genetic loci identified for the pathophysiology of childhood obesity in the Hispanic population. (PMID: 23251661) Comuzzie A.G. … Butte N.F. (PLoS ONE 2012) 3

Products for MMD Gene

Sources for MMD Gene