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Aliases for MMD Gene

Aliases for MMD Gene

  • Monocyte To Macrophage Differentiation Associated 2 3 5
  • Progestin And AdipoQ Receptor Family Member 11 3 4
  • Progestin And AdipoQ Receptor Family Member XI 3 4
  • PAQR11 3 4
  • Monocyte To Macrophage Differentiation-Associated 2
  • Monocyte To Macrophage Differentiation Protein 3
  • Monocyte To Macrophage Differentiation Factor 3
  • Macrophage Maturation-Associated 3
  • MMD1 3
  • MMA 3

External Ids for MMD Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for MMD Gene

  • GC17M053200
  • GC17M055951
  • GC17M053812
  • GC17M053944
  • GC17M050824
  • GC17M053469
  • GC17M048830

Summaries for MMD Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for MMD Gene

  • This protein is expressed by in vitro differentiated macrophages but not freshly isolated monocytes. Although sequence analysis identifies seven potential transmembrane domains, this protein has little homology to G-protein receptors and it has not been positively identified as a receptor. A suggested alternative function is that of an ion channel protein in maturing macrophages. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for MMD Gene

MMD (Monocyte To Macrophage Differentiation Associated) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with MMD include Moyamoya Disease 1 and Amino Acid Metabolic Disorder. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein kinase activity and receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is MMD2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MMD Gene

  • Involved in the dynamics of lysosomal membranes associated with microglial activation following brain lesion.

Additional gene information for MMD Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for MMD Gene

Genomics for MMD Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for MMD Gene

Promoters and enhancers for MMD Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH17I055417 Promoter/Enhancer 2.5 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 556.4 +1.2 1248 5.9 PKNOX1 FOXA2 SMAD1 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 IRF4 YY1 KLF13 PAF1 MMD GC17P055410
GH17I055442 Enhancer 1.3 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 17.5 -22.2 -22228 4 PKNOX1 FOXA2 ARID4B DMAP1 SLC30A9 ATF7 FOS RUNX3 PAF1 JUNB MMD LOC101927367
GH17I055750 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 9.9 -329.5 -329484 2.1 PKNOX1 MLX ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZBTB7B YY1 SLC30A9 POLR2B CBX5 PCTP MMD GC17P055774
GH17I055449 Enhancer 1.4 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 12.1 -30.1 -30137 4.5 PKNOX1 SMAD1 FOXA2 MLX ARNT ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 YY1 ZNF766 MMD LOC101927367 SMIM36
GH17I055448 Enhancer 1.2 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 12.1 -27.1 -27126 1.3 SIX4 SOX13 CEBPG ZNF644 RAD21 RFX5 GATA3 GATA2 RERE RCOR1 MMD COX11 LOC101927367 SMIM36
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around MMD on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the MMD gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for MMD Gene

Genomic Locations for MMD Gene
29,381 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for MMD Gene

Genes around MMD on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
MMD Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for MMD Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for MMD Gene

Proteins for MMD Gene

  • Protein details for MMD Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Monocyte to macrophage differentiation factor
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2R6X9
    • D3DTY6
    • Q8TAN7

    Protein attributes for MMD Gene

    238 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    27667 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for MMD Gene

Post-translational modifications for MMD Gene

No Post-translational modifications

Other Protein References for MMD Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for MMD Gene

Domains & Families for MMD Gene

Gene Families for MMD Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Predicted membrane proteins
  • Transporters

Protein Domains for MMD Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for MMD Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the ADIPOR family.
  • Belongs to the ADIPOR family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with MMD: view

Function for MMD Gene

Molecular function for MMD Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Involved in the dynamics of lysosomal membranes associated with microglial activation following brain lesion.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for MMD Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for MMD Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004672 protein kinase activity IDA 21968647
GO:0004872 receptor activity TAS 7503749
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MMD: view

Phenotypes for MMD Gene

GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for MMD:
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with MMD: view

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for MMD Gene

Localization for MMD Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MMD Gene

Late endosome membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein. Lysosome membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for MMD gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
golgi apparatus 5
lysosome 4
endosome 3
extracellular 2
mitochondrion 2
nucleus 2
cytosol 2
cytoskeleton 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for MMD Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005764 lysosome IEA --
GO:0005765 lysosomal membrane IEA --
GO:0005768 endosome IEA --
GO:0005794 Golgi apparatus IDA 21968647
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane TAS 7503749
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MMD: view

Pathways & Interactions for MMD Gene

No Data Available

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for MMD Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006468 protein phosphorylation IEA --
GO:0019835 cytolysis IEA --
GO:0032880 regulation of protein localization IDA 21968647
GO:0045666 positive regulation of neuron differentiation IDA 21968647
GO:0045860 positive regulation of protein kinase activity IDA 21968647
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MMD: view

No data available for Pathways by source and SIGNOR curated interactions for MMD Gene

Drugs & Compounds for MMD Gene

(4) Drugs for MMD Gene - From: ClinicalTrials

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Coal tar Approved Pharma 218
Anesthetics Pharma 10650
Pharmaceutical Solutions Pharma 9000
Calamus Nutra 530
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with MMD: view

Transcripts for MMD Gene

Unigene Clusters for MMD Gene

Monocyte to macrophage differentiation-associated:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for MMD Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8
SP1: -
SP2: - - -

Relevant External Links for MMD Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for MMD Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for MMD Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for MMD Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Nucleus accumbens (basal ganglia) (x5.3), Brain - Amygdala (x4.7), Brain - Putamen (basal ganglia) (x4.4), and Brain - Hippocampus (x4.1).

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of MMD Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for MMD Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for MMD Gene:

Tissue specificity: Exhibits relatively ubiquitous expression with preferential expression in mature (in vitro differentiated) macrophages.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for MMD Gene

  • Nervous system(4.9)
  • Blood(4.6)
  • Spleen(4.4)
  • Urine(2.8)
  • Liver(2.3)
  • Lung(2.2)
  • Kidney(2.1)
  • Heart(2)
  • Intestine(2)
  • Muscle(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with MMD: view

No data available for Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression , Protein tissue co-expression partners and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for MMD Gene

Orthologs for MMD Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for MMD Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia MMD 33 34
  • 100 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia MMD 34
  • 97 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia MMD 33 34
  • 94.12 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia MMD 33 34
  • 93.7 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Mmd 33 16 34
  • 91.18 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Mmd 33
  • 89.5 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia MMD 34
  • 84 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves MMD 33 34
  • 83.83 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia MMD 34
  • 85 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia mmd 33
  • 79.01 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii mmd 33 34
  • 73.59 (n)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.11012 33
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP006136 33
  • 49.49 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG4615 35 33 34
  • 48.26 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea Y71G12B.23 35 34
  • 39 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 37 (a)
Species where no ortholog for MMD was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for MMD Gene

Gene Tree for MMD (if available)
Gene Tree for MMD (if available)

Paralogs for MMD Gene

Paralogs for MMD Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for MMD Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with MMD: view

Variants for MMD Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for MMD Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 17 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000054124 -- 55,401,517(-) A/G coding_sequence_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant, synonymous_variant
rs1000396547 -- 55,414,770(-) T/C intron_variant
rs1000419712 -- 55,407,502(-) C/T intron_variant
rs1000430907 -- 55,421,344(-) C/A intron_variant
rs1000507294 -- 55,421,247(-) C/T intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for MMD Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2716056 CNV deletion 23290073
esv3410565 CNV insertion 20981092
esv3640841 CNV loss 21293372
nsv2100 CNV deletion 18451855

Variation tolerance for MMD Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 24% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.16; 3.70% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for MMD Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MMD Gene

Disorders for MMD Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(15) MalaCards diseases for MMD Gene - From: DISEASES

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
moyamoya disease 1
  • mymy1
amino acid metabolic disorder
  • inborn errors of amino acid metabolism
apnea, obstructive sleep
  • osa
sleep disorder
  • non-organic sleep disorder
methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria, cblc type
  • mahcc
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search MMD in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for MMD

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with MMD: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for MMD Gene

Publications for MMD Gene

  1. PAQR proteins: a novel membrane receptor family defined by an ancient 7-transmembrane pass motif. (PMID: 16044242) Tang YT … Funk WD (Journal of molecular evolution 2005) 2 3 4 58
  2. Molecular cloning of a novel macrophage maturation-associated transcript encoding a protein with several potential transmembrane domains. (PMID: 7503749) Rehli M … Andreesen R (Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1995) 2 3 4 58
  3. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard DS … MGC Project Team (Genome research 2004) 3 4 58
  4. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition drives a pro-metastatic Golgi compaction process through scaffolding protein PAQR11. (PMID: 27869652) Tan X … Kurie JM (The Journal of clinical investigation 2017) 3 58
  5. Monocyte to macrophage differentiation-associated (MMD) targeted by miR-140-5p regulates tumor growth in non-small cell lung cancer. (PMID: 24971538) Li W … He F (Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2014) 3 58

Products for MMD Gene

Sources for MMD Gene

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