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Aliases for MLNR Gene

Aliases for MLNR Gene

  • Motilin Receptor 2 3 5
  • G Protein-Coupled Receptor 38 2 3
  • GPR38 3 4
  • MTLR1 3 4
  • G-Protein Coupled Receptor 38 4
  • MTLR 4

External Ids for MLNR Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for MLNR Gene

  • GPR38

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for MLNR Gene

  • GC13P047593
  • GC13P048692
  • GC13P049794
  • GC13P030588

Summaries for MLNR Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for MLNR Gene

  • Motilin is a 22 amino acid peptide hormone expressed throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The protein encoded by this gene is a motilin receptor which is a member of the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family. This member is a multi-pass transmembrane protein, and is an important therapeutic target for the treatment of hypomotility disorders. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

GeneCards Summary for MLNR Gene

MLNR (Motilin Receptor) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with MLNR include Gastroparesis and Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy. Among its related pathways are Peptide ligand-binding receptors and Interleukin-3, 5 and GM-CSF signaling. GO annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is GPR39.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MLNR Gene

  • Receptor for motilin.

Tocris Summary for MLNR Gene

  • The motilin receptor is a Gq/11-protein-coupled receptor that mediates progastrokinetic effects. It is found at its highest concentrations in the nerves of the antral wall of the stomach and is also found at significant levels throughout the smooth muscle of the upper GI tract.

Gene Wiki entry for MLNR Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for MLNR Gene

Genomics for MLNR Gene

Regulatory Elements for MLNR Gene

Enhancers for MLNR Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around MLNR on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for MLNR Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around MLNR on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for MLNR Gene

49,220,338 bp from pter
49,222,377 bp from pter
2,040 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for MLNR Gene

Genes around MLNR on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
MLNR Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for MLNR Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for MLNR Gene

Proteins for MLNR Gene

  • Protein details for MLNR Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Motilin receptor
    Protein Accession:

    Protein attributes for MLNR Gene

    412 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    45344 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Alternative splice isoforms for MLNR Gene


neXtProt entry for MLNR Gene

Proteomics data for MLNR Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for MLNR Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn 6 and Asn 192
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for MLNR Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for MLNR Gene

Domains & Families for MLNR Gene

Gene Families for MLNR Gene

Protein Domains for MLNR Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for MLNR Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with MLNR: view

Function for MLNR Gene

Molecular function for MLNR Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Receptor for motilin.
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with MLNR: view

Animal Model Products

miRNA for MLNR Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target MLNR

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for MLNR Gene

Localization for MLNR Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MLNR Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for MLNR Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for MLNR gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 2

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for MLNR Gene

Pathways & Interactions for MLNR Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with MLNR: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for MLNR Gene

Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for MLNR Gene


Drugs & Compounds for MLNR Gene

(33) Drugs for MLNR Gene - From: DrugBank, DGIdb, IUPHAR, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Roxithromycin Approved, Withdrawn Pharma Full agonist, Agonist, inhibitor 5
Erythromycin Approved Pharma Target 92
Azithromycin Approved Pharma binder 327
[<small>D</small>-Bpa<sup>5</sup>,Ile<sup>13</sup>]motilin (human) Pharma Full agonist, Agonist 0
[<small>L</small>-Bpa<sup>5</sup>,Ile<sup>13</sup>]motilin (human) Pharma Full agonist, Agonist 0

(7) Additional Compounds for MLNR Gene - From: Novoseek, IUPHAR, and Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Full agonist, Agonist
ANQ 11125
MA 2029
Motilin (human, porcine)

(3) Tocris Compounds for MLNR Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
ANQ 11125 Selective motilin receptor antagonist 153966-48-4
MA 2029 Potent and selective, competitive motilin receptor antagonist; orally active 287206-61-5
Motilin (human, porcine) Endogenous peptide regulator of gastrointestinal motility 52906-92-0
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with MLNR: view

Transcripts for MLNR Gene

mRNA/cDNA for MLNR Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(1) Additional mRNA sequences :
(3) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for MLNR Gene

Motilin receptor:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for MLNR Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for MLNR Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for MLNR Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for MLNR Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for MLNR Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Stomach (x15.2).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for MLNR Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Monocytes (51.4) and Stomach (17.6).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for MLNR Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for MLNR Gene Hs.248126

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for MLNR Gene

Tissue specificity: Expressed only in thyroid, stomach, and bone marrow.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with MLNR: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for MLNR Gene

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery for MLNR Gene

Orthologs for MLNR Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for MLNR Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia MLNR 35
  • 86.73 (n)
  • 84.58 (a)
  • 84 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia MLNR 35
  • 84.88 (n)
  • 81.96 (a)
  • 77 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia MLNR 36
  • 71 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Trhr2 36
  • 24 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves MLNR 35
  • 73.31 (n)
  • 70.09 (a)
  • 68 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia MLNR 36
  • 61 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia mlnr 35
  • 57.82 (n)
  • 58.47 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii LOC100536406 35
  • 57.88 (n)
  • 51.5 (a)
  • 50 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta capaR 36
  • 23 (a)
CG8784 36
  • 15 (a)
CG8795 36
  • 18 (a)
Pk1r 36
  • 23 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea nmur-1 36
  • 23 (a)
nmur-2 36
  • 23 (a)
nmur-3 36
  • 20 (a)
nmur-4 36
  • 23 (a)
Species with no ortholog for MLNR:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for MLNR Gene

Gene Tree for MLNR (if available)
Gene Tree for MLNR (if available)

Paralogs for MLNR Gene

Paralogs for MLNR Gene

(4) SIMAP similar genes for MLNR Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with MLNR: view

Variants for MLNR Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for MLNR Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv832607 CNV Loss 17160897

Variation tolerance for MLNR Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 68.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.94; 36.02% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar and Relevant External Links for MLNR Gene

Disorders for MLNR Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(5) MalaCards diseases for MLNR Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
  • gastric atonia
diabetic autonomic neuropathy
  • diabetic neuropathies
colonic pseudo-obstruction
  • primary chronic pseudo-obstruction of colon
functional colonic disease
  • colonic diseases, functional
stomach disease
  • gastric disease
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search MLNR in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for MLNR

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with MLNR: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for MLNR Gene

Publications for MLNR Gene

  1. Cloning and characterization of two human G protein-coupled receptor genes (GPR38 and GPR39) related to the growth hormone secretagogue and neurotensin receptors. (PMID: 9441746) McKee K.K. … van der Ploeg L.H.T. (Genomics 1997) 2 3 4 67
  2. Mutational analysis of predicted intracellular loop domains of human motilin receptor. (PMID: 18032475) Tokunaga H. … Onji M. (Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 2008) 3 23
  3. Motilin receptor expression in smooth muscle, myenteric plexus, and mucosa of human inflamed and noninflamed intestine. (PMID: 18183601) Ter Beek W.P. … Lamers C.B. (Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 2008) 3 23
  4. Desensitization and internalization of the human motilin receptor is independent of the C-terminal tail. (PMID: 18420306) Mitselos A. … Depoortere I. (Peptides 2008) 3 23
  5. Differential contributions of motilin receptor extracellular domains for peptide and non-peptidyl agonist binding and activity. (PMID: 16531413) Matsuura B. … Onji M. (J. Biol. Chem. 2006) 3 23

Products for MLNR Gene

Sources for MLNR Gene