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Aliases for MLNR Gene

Aliases for MLNR Gene

  • Motilin Receptor 2 3
  • GPR38 3 4 6
  • G Protein-Coupled Receptor 38 2 3
  • MTLR1 3 4
  • G-Protein Coupled Receptor 38 4
  • MTLR 4

External Ids for MLNR Gene

Previous Symbols for MLNR Gene

  • GPR38

Summaries for MLNR Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for MLNR Gene

  • Motilin is a 22 amino acid peptide hormone expressed throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The protein encoded by this gene is a motilin receptor which is a member of the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family. This member is a multi-pass transmembrane protein, and is an important therapeutic target for the treatment of hypomotility disorders. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

GeneCards Summary for MLNR Gene

MLNR (Motilin Receptor) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with MLNR include functional colonic disease and colonic pseudo-obstruction. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Signaling by GPCR. GO annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is GPR39.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MLNR Gene

  • Receptor for motilin.

Tocris Summary for MLNR Gene

  • Motilin Receptors are Gq/11-protein-coupled receptors that mediate progastrokinetic effects. They are found at their highest concentrations in the nerves of the antral wall of the stomach and are also found at significant levels throughout the smooth muscle of the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract and in the enteric nervous system. Motilin receptors promote gastric emptying after food intake and increase smooth muscle contraction in the GI tract. Motilin receptors have not been identified in rodents, but have been cloned in rabbits and humans. The human motilin receptor gene is localized on chromosome 13q14-q21.

Gene Wiki entry for MLNR Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for MLNR Gene

Genomics for MLNR Gene

Genomic Location for MLNR Gene

49,220,338 bp from pter
49,222,377 bp from pter
2,040 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for MLNR Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for MLNR Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for MLNR Gene

Regulatory Elements for MLNR Gene

Proteins for MLNR Gene

  • Protein details for MLNR Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Motilin receptor
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:

    Protein attributes for MLNR Gene

    412 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    45344 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Alternative splice isoforms for MLNR Gene


neXtProt entry for MLNR Gene

Proteomics data for MLNR Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for MLNR Gene

Other Protein References for MLNR Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for MLNR Gene

Domains for MLNR Gene

Gene Families for MLNR Gene

  • MLNR :GPCR / Class A : Motilin receptors

Protein Domains for MLNR Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for MLNR Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.:
    • O43193
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with MLNR: view

Function for MLNR Gene

Molecular function for MLNR Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Receptor for motilin.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for MLNR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004930 G-protein coupled receptor activity TAS 10381885
GO:0016520 growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MLNR: view

Phenotypes for MLNR Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with MLNR: view

miRNA for MLNR Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target MLNR

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for MLNR Gene

Localization for MLNR Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MLNR Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for MLNR Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for MLNR gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 2

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for MLNR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane TAS 10381885
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MLNR: view

Pathways for MLNR Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with MLNR: view

Pathways by source for MLNR Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for MLNR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IEA --
GO:0007586 digestion TAS 10381885
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MLNR: view

Compounds for MLNR Gene

(1) Tocris Compounds for MLNR Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Motilin (human, porcine) Endogenous peptide regulator of gastrointestinal motility [52906-92-0]

(25) IUPHAR Ligand for MLNR Gene

Ligand Type Action Affinity Pubmed IDs
[125I]motilin (human) Agonist Full agonist 10
motilin Agonist Full agonist 9.7
motilin Agonist Full agonist 9.7
motilin Agonist Full agonist 9.7
[nLeu13,Glu14]motilin (human) Agonist Full agonist 9.5
motilin-(1-19) (human) Agonist Full agonist 9.5
motilin-(1-13) (human) Agonist Full agonist 9.5
MA-2029 Antagonist Antagonist 9.2
motilin-(1-12) (human) Agonist Full agonist 9
[Leu13]motilin (human) Agonist Full agonist 9
[Phe3,Leu13]motilin (human) Agonist Full agonist 8.9
GSK962040 Agonist Full agonist 7.9
[Bpa1,Ile13]motilin (human) Agonist Full agonist 7.9
motilin-(2-22) (human) Agonist Full agonist 7.5
[L-Bpa5,Ile13]motilin (human) Agonist Full agonist 7.3
ABT-229 Agonist Full agonist 7.2
KOS1326 Agonist Full agonist 7.2
motilin-(1-11) (human) Agonist Full agonist 6.8
EM-523 Agonist Full agonist 6.6
ME67 Agonist Full agonist 6.5
erythromycin-A Agonist Full agonist 6.5
[D-Bpa5,Ile13]motilin (human) Agonist Full agonist 6.4
ME4 Agonist Full agonist 6.3
roxithromycin Agonist Full agonist 6.2
ME36 Agonist Full agonist 4.7

(8) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for MLNR Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
erythromycin 86.7 55
em574 85.4 5
em 523 85.3 2
cisapride 70 1
aequorin 43.2 2
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with MLNR: view

Transcripts for MLNR Gene

mRNA/cDNA for MLNR Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(1) Additional mRNA sequences :
(3) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for MLNR Gene

Motilin receptor:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for MLNR Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for MLNR Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for MLNR Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for MLNR Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for MLNR Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Stomach (15.2).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for MLNR Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for MLNR Gene Hs.248126

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for MLNR Gene

Tissue specificity: Expressed only in thyroid, stomach, and bone marrow
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with MLNR: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery for MLNR Gene

Orthologs for MLNR Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for MLNR Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia MLNR 35
  • 86.73 (n)
  • 84.58 (a)
  • 84 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia MLNR 35
  • 84.88 (n)
  • 81.96 (a)
  • 77 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Trhr2 36
  • 24 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia MLNR 36
  • 71 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves MLNR 35
  • 73.31 (n)
  • 70.09 (a)
  • 68 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia MLNR 36
  • 61 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia mlnr 35
  • 57.82 (n)
  • 58.47 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii LOC100536406 35
  • 57.88 (n)
  • 51.5 (a)
  • 50 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta capaR 36
  • 23 (a)
CG8784 36
  • 15 (a)
CG8795 36
  • 18 (a)
Pk1r 36
  • 23 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea nmur-1 36
  • 23 (a)
nmur-2 36
  • 23 (a)
nmur-3 36
  • 20 (a)
nmur-4 36
  • 23 (a)
Species with no ortholog for MLNR:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for MLNR Gene

Gene Tree for MLNR (if available)
Gene Tree for MLNR (if available)

Paralogs for MLNR Gene

Paralogs for MLNR Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for MLNR Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with MLNR: view

Variants for MLNR Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for MLNR Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 13 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs2075610 -- 49,221,569(+) CCACA(A/G)ATGAG intron-variant
rs7326106 -- 49,221,902(+) TGGGG(C/T)GAGGA intron-variant
rs9568169 -- 49,220,514(+) GTGAC(A/C)GTGAT synonymous-codon, reference
rs9591245 -- 49,221,328(+) TGCTC(A/G)CCCAG intron-variant
rs34816527 -- 49,221,987(+) GGGTT(-/C)TATTT intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for MLNR Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv832607 CNV Loss 17160897

Relevant External Links for MLNR Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MLNR Gene

Disorders for MLNR Gene

(4) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for MLNR Gene

(9) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for MLNR Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
diabetic gastroparesis 88.1 5
gastroparesis 80.8 2
motility disorder 67.5 5
hypomotility 67 2
functional dyspepsia 66.8 2

Relevant External Links for MLNR

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with MLNR: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MLNR Gene

Publications for MLNR Gene

  1. Growth hormone secretagogue receptor family members and ligands. (PMID: 11322507) Smith R.G. … Howard A.D. (Endocrine 2001) 3 4 23
  2. Receptor for motilin identified in the human gastrointestinal system. (PMID: 10381885) Feighner S.D. … Howard A.D. (Science 1999) 3 4 23
  3. Cloning and characterization of two human G protein-coupled receptor genes (GPR38 and GPR39) related to the growth hormone secretagogue and neurotensin receptors. (PMID: 9441746) McKee K.K. … van der Ploeg L.H.T. (Genomics 1997) 2 3 4
  4. The DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 13. (PMID: 15057823) Dunham A. … Ross M.T. (Nature 2004) 3 4
  5. Mutational analysis of predicted intracellular loop domains of human motilin receptor. (PMID: 18032475) Tokunaga H. … Onji M. (Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 2008) 3 23

Products for MLNR Gene

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat
  • QIAGEN qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate MLNR
    • QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human,mouse,rat
    • Pre-validated RT² qPCR Primer Assay in human,mouse,rat
    • QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human,mouse,rat
    • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for MLNR
    • Block miRNA regulation of MLNR using miScript Target Protectors

    Sources for MLNR Gene

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