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Aliases for MLNR Gene

Aliases for MLNR Gene

  • Motilin Receptor 2 3 5
  • G Protein-Coupled Receptor 38 2 3
  • GPR38 3 4
  • MTLR1 3 4
  • G-Protein Coupled Receptor 38 4
  • MTLR 4

External Ids for MLNR Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for MLNR Gene

  • GPR38

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for MLNR Gene

  • GC13P047593
  • GC13P048692
  • GC13P049794
  • GC13P030588

Summaries for MLNR Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for MLNR Gene

  • Motilin is a 22 amino acid peptide hormone expressed throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The protein encoded by this gene is a motilin receptor which is a member of the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family. This member is a multi-pass transmembrane protein, and is an important therapeutic target for the treatment of hypomotility disorders. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

GeneCards Summary for MLNR Gene

MLNR (Motilin Receptor) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with MLNR include Gastroparesis and Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and RET signaling. GO annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is GHSR.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MLNR Gene

  • Receptor for motilin.

Tocris Summary for MLNR Gene

  • The motilin receptor is a Gq/11-protein-coupled receptor that mediates progastrokinetic effects. It is found at its highest concentrations in the nerves of the antral wall of the stomach and is also found at significant levels throughout the smooth muscle of the upper GI tract.

Gene Wiki entry for MLNR Gene

Additional gene information for MLNR Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for MLNR Gene

Genomics for MLNR Gene

Regulatory Elements for MLNR Gene

Enhancers for MLNR Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH13H049257 0.8 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.9 +37.9 37938 1.4 MLNR CAB39L GC13M049248 GC13P049296
GH13H049146 0.7 Ensembl ENCODE 11.5 -73.3 -73341 1.4 JUND STAT2 MLNR COX7CP1 RNY3P2
GH13H049400 0.7 ENCODE 10.9 +181.2 181196 1.2 HDAC1 TBP NCOA1 DPF2 REST ZBTB40 ZNF217 CTBP1 JUND GATA3 PHF11 MLNR CAB39L GC13P049413 GC13P049390
GH13H049298 0.6 ENCODE 11.3 +79.1 79130 1 TGIF2 SOX5 SOX13 TBP DRAP1 ZNF18 MLNR PHF11 CDADC1 GC13P049296 GC13P049390
GH13H049277 0.4 dbSUPER 12.9 +57.9 57930 1 SCRT2 CDADC1 MLNR CAB39L GC13P049296 GC13M049248
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around MLNR on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Locations for MLNR Gene

Genomic Locations for MLNR Gene
2,040 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for MLNR Gene

Genes around MLNR on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
MLNR Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for MLNR Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for MLNR Gene

Proteins for MLNR Gene

  • Protein details for MLNR Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Motilin receptor
    Protein Accession:

    Protein attributes for MLNR Gene

    412 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    45344 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Alternative splice isoforms for MLNR Gene


neXtProt entry for MLNR Gene

Post-translational modifications for MLNR Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn6 and Asn192
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for MLNR Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for MLNR Gene

Domains & Families for MLNR Gene

Gene Families for MLNR Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • G-protein coupled receptors
  • Predicted membrane proteins

Protein Domains for MLNR Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for MLNR Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with MLNR: view

Function for MLNR Gene

Molecular function for MLNR Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Receptor for motilin.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for MLNR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004930 G-protein coupled receptor activity TAS 10381885
GO:0016520 growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MLNR: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with MLNR: view

Animal Model Products

miRNA for MLNR Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target MLNR

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for MLNR

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for MLNR Gene

Localization for MLNR Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MLNR Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for MLNR gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 2
cytosol 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for MLNR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane TAS 10381885
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MLNR: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for MLNR Gene

Pathways & Interactions for MLNR Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with MLNR: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for MLNR Gene

Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for MLNR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA --
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS,IEA --
GO:0007586 digestion TAS 10381885
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MLNR: view

Drugs & Compounds for MLNR Gene

(37) Drugs for MLNR Gene - From: DrugBank, ApexBio, DGIdb, IUPHAR, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Roxithromycin Approved, Withdrawn Pharma Full agonist, Agonist, inhibitor 6
Erythromycin Approved, Vet_approved Pharma Target, agonist 100
Azithromycin Approved Pharma binder 361
Camicinal Investigational Pharma 0
[<small>D</small>-Bpa<sup>5</sup>,Ile<sup>13</sup>]motilin (human) Pharma Full agonist, Agonist 0

(4) Additional Compounds for MLNR Gene - From: IUPHAR and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Full agonist, Agonist

(3) Tocris Compounds for MLNR Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
ANQ 11125 Selective motilin receptor antagonist 153966-48-4
MA 2029 Potent and selective, competitive motilin receptor antagonist; orally active 287206-61-5
Motilin (human, porcine) Endogenous peptide regulator of gastrointestinal motility 52906-92-0

(4) ApexBio Compounds for MLNR Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
ANQ 11125 Motilin receptor antagonist,selective 153966-48-4
GSK962040 hydrochloride 923565-22-4
MA 2029 287206-61-5
Motilin (human, porcine) 52906-92-0
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with MLNR: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for MLNR Gene

mRNA/cDNA for MLNR Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(1) Additional mRNA sequences :
(3) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for MLNR Gene

Motilin receptor:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for MLNR

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for MLNR Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for MLNR Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for MLNR Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for MLNR Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for MLNR Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Stomach (x15.2).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for MLNR Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Monocytes (51.4) and Stomach (17.6).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for MLNR Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for MLNR Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of MLNR Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for MLNR Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for MLNR Gene:

Tissue specificity: Expressed only in thyroid, stomach, and bone marrow.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for MLNR Gene

  • Stomach(4.4)
  • Intestine(2.1)
  • Nervous system(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with MLNR: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for MLNR Gene

Orthologs for MLNR Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for MLNR Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia MLNR 33 34
  • 86.73 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia MLNR 33
  • 84.88 (n)
  • 77 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia MLNR 34
  • 71 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Trhr2 34
  • 24 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves MLNR 33 34
  • 73.31 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia MLNR 34
  • 61 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia mlnr 33
  • 57.82 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii LOC100536406 33
  • 57.88 (n)
  • 50 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta capaR 34
  • 23 (a)
Pk1r 34
  • 23 (a)
CG8795 34
  • 18 (a)
CG8784 34
  • 15 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea nmur-1 34
  • 23 (a)
nmur-2 34
  • 23 (a)
nmur-4 34
  • 23 (a)
nmur-3 34
  • 20 (a)
Species where no ortholog for MLNR was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for MLNR Gene

Gene Tree for MLNR (if available)
Gene Tree for MLNR (if available)

Paralogs for MLNR Gene

Paralogs for MLNR Gene

(4) SIMAP similar genes for MLNR Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with MLNR: view

Variants for MLNR Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for MLNR Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 13 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1000320863 -- 49,222,801(+) AACAG(G/T)ACATC downstream-variant-500B
rs1001521180 -- 49,222,070(+) TTGCT(A/G)GTTGC reference, stop-gained
rs1002393036 -- 49,221,307(+) AAACG(A/C)TGGGT intron-variant
rs1002551915 -- 49,220,694(+) GGCGA(A/G)GGCTG reference, synonymous-codon
rs1002730919 -- 49,221,541(+) AATTC(G/T)TAATC intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for MLNR Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv832607 CNV loss 17160897

Variation tolerance for MLNR Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 68.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.94; 36.02% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for MLNR Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MLNR Gene

Disorders for MLNR Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(7) MalaCards diseases for MLNR Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
  • gastric atonia
diabetic autonomic neuropathy
  • diabetic neuropathies
colonic pseudo-obstruction
  • primary chronic pseudo-obstruction of colon
functional gastric disease
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search MLNR in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for MLNR

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with MLNR: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for MLNR Gene

Publications for MLNR Gene

  1. Growth hormone secretagogue receptor family members and ligands. (PMID: 11322507) Smith RG … Howard A (Endocrine 2001) 3 4 22 60
  2. Receptor for motilin identified in the human gastrointestinal system. (PMID: 10381885) Feighner SD … Howard AD (Science (New York, N.Y.) 1999) 3 4 22 60
  3. Cloning and characterization of two human G protein-coupled receptor genes (GPR38 and GPR39) related to the growth hormone secretagogue and neurotensin receptors. (PMID: 9441746) McKee KK … Van der Ploeg LH (Genomics 1997) 2 3 4 60
  4. L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel alpha subunit 1C is a novel candidate gene associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism: an application of haplotype-based analysis for multiple linked single nucleotide polymorphisms. (PMID: 20424473) Yokoyama K … Hosoya T (Nephron. Clinical practice 2010) 3 45 60
  5. Mutational analysis of predicted intracellular loop domains of human motilin receptor. (PMID: 18032475) Tokunaga H … Onji M (American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology 2008) 3 22 60

Products for MLNR Gene

Sources for MLNR Gene

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