Set Analyses:
Advanced Search

Advanced Search

 
Search By
Section (entire)
for


 



MIR503 Gene

RNA gene   GIFtS: 22
GCID: GC0XM133680

MicroRNA 503


(Previous symbol: MIRN503)
  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
About This Section

TryGeneCards Plus

Subcategory (RNA class): miRNA

Quality score for this RNA gene is 3

Aliases
MicroRNA 5031 2
MIRN5031 2
hsa-mir-5032
mir-5039

External Ids:    HGNC: 321381   Entrez Gene: 5745062   Ensembl: ENSG000002080057   OMIM: 3008655   
ORGUL members:    fRNAdb10:FR121147      
miRBase: MI0003188    

Export aliases for MIR503 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC0XM133520 GC0XM133522


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

TryGeneCards Plus

Entrez Gene summary for MIR503 Gene:
microRNAs (miRNAs) are short (20-24 nt) non-coding RNAs that are involved in post-transcriptional regulation of
gene expression in multicellular organisms by affecting both the stability and translation of mRNAs. miRNAs are
transcribed by RNA polymerase II as part of capped and polyadenylated primary transcripts (pri-miRNAs) that can
be either protein-coding or non-coding. The primary transcript is cleaved by the Drosha ribonuclease III enzyme
to produce an approximately 70-nt stem-loop precursor miRNA (pre-miRNA), which is further cleaved by the
cytoplasmic Dicer ribonuclease to generate the mature miRNA and antisense miRNA star (miRNA*) products. The
mature miRNA is incorporated into a RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which recognizes target mRNAs through
imperfect base pairing with the miRNA and most commonly results in translational inhibition or destabilization of
the target mRNA. The RefSeq represents the predicted microRNA stem-loop. (provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009)

GeneCards Summary for MIR503 Gene:
MIR503 (microRNA 503) is an RNA gene, and is affiliated with the miRNA class. Diseases associated with MIR503 include thalassemia, and endotheliitis.




(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
About This Section

TryGeneCards Plus
Regulatory elements:
   Search for regulatory transcription factor binding sites for MIR503
         Other transcription factors

Browse SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for MIR503

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat MIR503


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: Xq26.3   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  Xq26.3   HGNC cytogenetic band: Xq26.3

MIR503 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
MIR503 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome X         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC0XM133680:  view genomic region (via miRBase)     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
133,680,358 bp from pter      End:
133,680,428 bp from pter
Size:
71 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
About This Section

TryGeneCards Plus

UniProtKB: --


(According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
About This Section

TryGeneCards Plus
HGNC Gene Families:
MIR: ncRNAs / Micro RNAs

  --

(According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, and Vector BioLabs, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
About This Section

TryGeneCards Plus

Animal Models:
   inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for MIR503
   inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for MIR503

   genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for MIR503
   genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for MIR503

miRNA
Products:
    
Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat MIR503 using miScript Target Protectors
Search for qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate MIR503
Browse SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmids
Inhib. RNA
Products:
    
Browse OriGene RNAi
Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat MIR503

Gene Editing
Products:
DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for MIR503

Clone
Products:
     
Browse OriGene untagged/tagged cDNA clones in CMV expression vector
OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
GenScript Custom all cDNA clones Services for MIR503
Browse Sino Biological Human cDNA Clones
DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for MIR503
Search Vector BioLabs for ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat MIR503

Cell Line
Products:
     
GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for MIR503
Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for MIR503 
In Situ Assay
Products:
   

 
Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for MIR503


(According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
About This Section

TryGeneCards Plus
  --

(SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
About This Section

TryGeneCards Plus

SuperPaths for MIR503 About    
See pathways by source

SuperPathContained pathways About
1miRNAs involved in DDR
miRNAs involved in DDR


1 BioSystems Pathway for MIR503
    miRNAs involved in DDR


    Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for MIR503
Interactions:

    Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for MIR503

(Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
About This Section

TryGeneCards Plus
Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
   Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
  Browse compounds at ApexBio 

Browse Tocris compounds for MIR503



(Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN )
About This Section

TryGeneCards Plus

1 Ensembl transcript including schematic representation, and UCSC links where relevant:
ENST00000385270(miRNA)
miRNA
Products:
     
Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat MIR503 using miScript Target Protectors
Search for qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate MIR503
Browse SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmids
Inhib. RNA
Products:
     
Browse OriGene RNAi
Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat MIR503
Clone
Products:
     
Browse OriGene untagged/tagged cDNA clones in CMV expression vector
OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
GenScript Custom all cDNA clones Services for MIR503
DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for MIR503
Search Vector BioLabs for ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat MIR503
Primer
Products:
    
Browse OriGene qPCR
Search Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assays in human, mouse, rat MIR503
  Search QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat MIR503
  Search QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat MIR503

GeneLoc Exon Structure


(RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
About This Section

TryGeneCards Plus

Expression evidence for MIR503:none

See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
CGAP TAG: --

MIR503 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3 --
    Custom PCR Arrays for MIR503
Primer
Products:
Browse OriGene qPCR
Search Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assays in human, mouse, rat MIR503
Search QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat MIR503
Search QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat MIR503
In Situ
Assay Products:
 

 
Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for MIR503

(Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
About This Section

TryGeneCards Plus
  --

ENSEMBL Gene Tree for MIR503 (if available)
TreeFam Gene Tree for MIR503 (if available)

(Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
About This Section

TryGeneCards Plus
  --

(SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
About This Section

TryGeneCards Plus
Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
Search QIAGEN SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing MIR503
DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for MIR503

(in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
About This Section

TryGeneCards Plus
OMIM gene information: 300865    OMIM disorders: --

5 diseases for MIR503:    
About MalaCards
thalassemia    endotheliitis    diabetes mellitus    ischemia
hypertension


MIR503 for disorders           About GeneDecksing


Export disorders for MIR503 gene to outside databases

(in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
About This Section

TryGeneCards Plus

PubMed articles for MIR503 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 16):
(articles sorted by number of sources associating them with MIR503)
    Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
world of online information

  1. miR-503 represses CUG-binding protein 1 translation by recruiting CUGBP1 mRNA to processing bodies. (PubMed id 22072795)1, 3 Cui Y.H....Wang J.Y. (Mol. Biol. Cell 2012)
  2. MicroRNA-503 suppresses proliferation and cell-cycle progression of endometrioid endometrial cancer by negatively regulating cyclin D1. (PubMed id 23731275)1 Xu Y.Y....Yin L.R. (FEBS J. 2013)
  3. MicroRNA-503 targets FGF2 and VEGFA and inhibits tumor angiogenesis and growth. (PubMed id 23352645)1 Zhou B....Wang Q. (Cancer Lett. 2013)
  4. An endothelial apelin-FGF link mediated by miR-424 and miR-503 is disrupted in pulmonary arterial hypertension. (PubMed id 23263626)1 Kim J....Chun H.J. (Nat. Med. 2013)
  5. Histone deacetylases and NF-kB signaling coordinate expression of CX3CL1 in epithelial cells in response to microbial challenge by suppressing miR-424 and miR-503. (PubMed id 23724129)1 Zhou R....Chen X.M. (PLoS ONE 2013)
  6. Investigation of the interaction between the MIR-503 and CD40 genes in irradiated U937 cells. (PubMed id 22429276)1 Cheng G....Jin S. (Radiat Oncol 2012)
  7. hsa-miR-503 is downregulated in I^ thalassemia major. (PubMed id 22890417)1 Roy P....Das M. (Acta Haematol. 2012)
  8. Deep-sequencing of endothelial cells exposed to hypoxia reveals the complexity of known and novel microRNAs. (PubMed id 22282338)1 Voellenkle C....Martelli F. (RNA 2012)
  9. Deregulation of microRNA-503 contributes to diabetes mellitus-induced impairment of endothelial function and reparative angiogenesis after limb ischemia. (PubMed id 21220732)1 Caporali A....Emanueli C. (Circulation 2011)
  10. Analysis of microRNA expression profiling identifies microRNA-503 regulates metastatic function in hepatocellular cancer cell. (PubMed id 21495032)1 Zhou J. and Wang W. (J Surg Oncol 2011)

(in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
About This Section

TryGeneCards Plus
 ANDOR
Aliases
Free Text  

  Query String
PubMed
OMIM
NCBI Bookshelf
  (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

(According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
About This Section

TryGeneCards Plus
Entrez Gene: 574506 HGNC: 32138 Ensembl:ENSG00000208005 miRBase: hsa-mir-503 euGenes: HUgn574506
ECgene: MIR503 H-InvDB: MIR503

(According to HUGE)
About This Section

TryGeneCards Plus
  --

(According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
About This Section

TryGeneCards Plus
NameDescription
PharmGKB entry for MIR503 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

(Patent information from GeneIP,
Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
About This Section

TryGeneCards Plus
Patent Information for MIR503 gene:
Search GeneIP for patents involving MIR503

GeneCards and IP:
Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



(Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Animal models from inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway)
About This Section

TryGeneCards Plus

 
 EMD Millipore genomic analysis products

  
 Browse Antibodies   Browse Cell Culture Products  
 Browse ELISAs   Browse Flow Cytometry Kits  
 Browse Primer Pairs   Browse Enzyme Activity Assays/Reagents  
 Browse ELISpot/FluoroSpot Kits/Development Modules   Browse TFB/Immunoprecipitation Assays  
 Browse Apoptosis Detection Kits/Reagents   Browse Ubiquitin Proteasome Pathway (UPP) Assay Kits/Reagents  
 Browse DNA Damage/Repair Kits/Reagents   Browse Luminex Assays  
 Browse Cell Selection/Detection Kits/Reagents   Browse Secondary Antibodies/Controls/Staining Reagents  
 Browse Recombinant/Natural Proteins   Browse Stem Cell Products  
 Browse cDNA Clones   Browse Proteome Profiler Antibody Arrays  
 Browse OriGene Antibodies   Browse OriGene RNAi products  
 Browse OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards   Browse OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysates  
 OriGene Custom Mass Spec   Browse OriGene clones  
 Browse OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs   Browse OriGene full length recombinant human proteins expressed in human HEK293 cells  
 Browse OriGene ORF clones   OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling  
 OriGene Custom Antibody Services for MIR503   OriGene Custom Protein Services for MIR503  

 
 
 Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat MIR503 using miScript Target Protectors SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing MIR503
 DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat MIR503 Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat MIR503
 Search QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat MIR503 Search QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat MIR503
 Custom PCR Arrays for MIR503 Search Chromatin IP Primers for MIR503
 Search Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assays in human, mouse, rat MIR503 Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for MIR503
 Search Regulatory tfbs for MIR503
 GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for MIR503 GenScript Custom cDNA clones with any tag delivered in your preferred vector Services for MIR503
 GenScript Custom Assay Services for MIR503 GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for MIR503
 CloneReady with Over 120,000 Genes  Gene Synthesis: Any Gene in Any Vector
 Vector-based siRNA and miRNA, Ready for Transfection Gene Mutant Library, Variants up to 10^11
 Plasmid Preparation Custom Peptide Services
 Search for Antibodies & Assays

 Search Tocris compounds for MIR503
 Browse Sino Biological Proteins
 Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
 Browse Sino Biological cDNA Clones
 4000+ Proteins
 Search Sino Biological for antibodies, proteins & pathways
 Protein Production Services
 Transfection Reagents
 Protein A/G/L resins
 Isotyping reagents
 Search www.enzolifesciences.com for proteins, assays, substrates, inhibitors & antibodies

 Novus Biologicals
 Novus Tissue Slides
 Search for Antibodies for MIR503 at Abcam
 See all of Abcam's Antibodies, Kits and Proteins for MIR503
 Custom Antibody / Protein Production Service
 Bulk Purchasing
 Advantages of Rabbit Monoclonal antibodies
 Abcam protocols and scientific support
 Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
 Browse Proteins at Cloud-Clone Corp.
 Browse Antibodies at Cloud-Clone Corp.
 Browse ELISAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.
 Browse CLIAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.



 Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for MIR503
 Gene Synthesis
 Protein Engineering
 Variant Library Synthesis
 Codon Optimization
 Protein Production and Purification
 Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for MIR503
 Browse SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmids for MIR503
 Browse SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids for MIR503
 Search ThermoFisher Antibodies for MIR503
 Search Vector BioLabs for ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat MIR503
 inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for MIR503
 inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for MIR503
 Search LSBio for Antibodies for MIR503
Customized transgenic rodents for:
 Humanization
 Biomarker expression
 Off-target effect monitoring
 Translational medicine
 Tissue-specific gene expresssion
 Time-controlled gene expresssion
 Browse compounds at ApexBio
       
GeneCards Homepage - Last full update: 7 May 2014 - Incrementals: 9 May 2014 , 2 Jun 2014 , 26 Jun 2014 , 30 Jun 2014

View Random Gene

Category
(GIFtS: )
GIFtS Group
The GeneCards human gene database gene index: 1 3 5 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 


Developed at the Crown Human Genome Center, Department of Molecular Genetics, the Weizmann Institute of Science

Hot genes      Disease genes      MIR503 gene at Home site.
Version: 3.12.142 28 July 2014
hostname: 356977-web1.xennexinc.com index build: 126 solr: 1.4