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Aliases for MIR4321 Gene

Subcategory (RNA class) for MIR4321 Gene


Quality Score for this RNA gene is


Aliases for MIR4321 Gene

  • MicroRNA 4321 2 3
  • AMH 4 5
  • Muellerian-Inhibiting Substance 4
  • Anti-Muellerian Hormone 4
  • Anti-Mullerian Hormone 5
  • Hsa-Mir-4321 3
  • MIF 4
  • MIS 4

External Ids for MIR4321 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for MIR4321 Gene

  • GC19U901368
  • GC19P002249

Summaries for MIR4321 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for MIR4321 Gene

  • microRNAs (miRNAs) are short (20-24 nt) non-coding RNAs that are involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in multicellular organisms by affecting both the stability and translation of mRNAs. miRNAs are transcribed by RNA polymerase II as part of capped and polyadenylated primary transcripts (pri-miRNAs) that can be either protein-coding or non-coding. The primary transcript is cleaved by the Drosha ribonuclease III enzyme to produce an approximately 70-nt stem-loop precursor miRNA (pre-miRNA), which is further cleaved by the cytoplasmic Dicer ribonuclease to generate the mature miRNA and antisense miRNA star (miRNA*) products. The mature miRNA is incorporated into a RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which recognizes target mRNAs through imperfect base pairing with the miRNA and most commonly results in translational inhibition or destabilization of the target mRNA. The RefSeq represents the predicted microRNA stem-loop. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

GeneCards Summary for MIR4321 Gene

MIR4321 (MicroRNA 4321) is an RNA Gene, and is affiliated with the miRNA class.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MIR4321 Gene

  • This glycoprotein, produced by the Sertoli cells of the testis, causes regression of the Muellerian duct. It is also able to inhibit the growth of tumors derived from tissues of Muellerian duct origin.

No data available for Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for MIR4321 Gene

Genomics for MIR4321 Gene

Regulatory Elements for MIR4321 Gene

Enhancers for MIR4321 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH19F002247 1.2 Ensembl ENCODE 0.8 +1.6 1590 7.5 PKNOX1 ARID4B FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF48 SLC30A9 ZNF121 GLIS2 ZNF143 ZHX2 AMH PLEKHJ1 THOP1 MIR4321 LOC105372240
GH19F002255 1.2 Ensembl ENCODE 0.4 +8.7 8712 6.0 HDGF PKNOX1 INSM2 KLF17 FEZF1 ZBTB40 ZNF366 SCRT2 RCOR1 ZNF391 MIR6789 SF3A2 PLEKHJ1 MIR1227 C19orf35 JSRP1 MIR4321 LOC105372240
GH19F002263 1.4 FANTOM5 ENCODE 0.3 +15.2 15170 1.6 HDGF ARNT CREB3L1 ARID4B YBX1 ZNF766 CBX5 KLF13 REST MEF2D SF3A2 MIR1227 ENSG00000261526 SCAMP4 ZNF77 C19orf35 ENSG00000267317 TMPRSS9 SPPL2B LOC105372240
GH19F002261 1 Ensembl ENCODE 0.4 +12.6 12592 0.6 CTCF ZBTB11 ZMYM3 TRIM22 ZIC2 ZNF644 RAD21 ZNF121 POLR2A ZNF157 MIR6789 PLEKHJ1 SF3A2 MIR1227 LOC105372240 MIR4321
GH19F002266 1 ENCODE 0.3 +17.5 17485 1.0 HDGF ATF1 PKNOX1 CREB3L1 ARID4B DMAP1 YY1 SLC30A9 GLIS2 ZNF143 JSRP1 LSM7 LOC105372240 MIR4321
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around MIR4321 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for MIR4321 Gene

2,249,309 bp from pter
2,252,073 bp from pter
2,765 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for MIR4321 Gene

Genes around MIR4321 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
MIR4321 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for MIR4321 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for MIR4321 Gene

Proteins for MIR4321 Gene

  • Protein details for MIR4321 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Muellerian-inhibiting factor
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • O75246
    • Q6GTN3

    Protein attributes for MIR4321 Gene

    560 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    59195 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer; disulfide-linked.
    • Homodimer; disulfide-linked.
    • Although it does not compete with EGF for receptor binding sites, MIS can inhibit the autophosphorylation of the EGF receptor in vitro.

neXtProt entry for MIR4321 Gene

Post-translational modifications for MIR4321 Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn 64 and Asn 329
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for MIR4321 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for MIR4321 Gene

Domains & Families for MIR4321 Gene

Gene Families for MIR4321 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the TGF-beta family.
  • Belongs to the TGF-beta family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with MIR4321: view

No data available for Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for MIR4321 Gene

Function for MIR4321 Gene

Molecular function for MIR4321 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
This glycoprotein, produced by the Sertoli cells of the testis, causes regression of the Muellerian duct. It is also able to inhibit the growth of tumors derived from tissues of Muellerian duct origin.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for MIR4321 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005102 receptor binding IPI --
GO:0005160 transforming growth factor beta receptor binding IEA --
GO:0005179 hormone activity TAS --
GO:0008083 growth factor activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MIR4321: view

Animal Model Products

miRNA Products

Clone Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Phenotypes , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for MIR4321 Gene

Localization for MIR4321 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MIR4321 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for MIR4321 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region NAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MIR4321: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS for MIR4321 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for MIR4321 Gene

SuperPathways for MIR4321 Gene

No Data Available

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for MIR4321 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001655 urogenital system development IBA --
GO:0001880 Mullerian duct regression NAS --
GO:0007267 cell-cell signaling TAS --
GO:0007506 gonadal mesoderm development IEA --
GO:0007530 sex determination TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MIR4321: view

No data available for Pathways by source and SIGNOR curated interactions for MIR4321 Gene

Transcripts for MIR4321 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for MIR4321 Gene

(4) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

miRNA Products

Clone Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for MIR4321 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for MIR4321 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for MIR4321 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of MIR4321 Gene:

No Expression Related Data Available

No data available for mRNA expression in normal human tissues , mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression , Protein tissue co-expression partners and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for MIR4321 Gene

Orthologs for MIR4321 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for MIR4321 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia AMH 35
  • 99 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia AMH 35
  • 75 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Amh 35
  • 73 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia AMH 35
  • 47 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia AMH 35
  • 43 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves AMH 35
  • 34 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia AMH 35
  • 35 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii amh 35
  • 22 (a)
Species where no ortholog for MIR4321 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • dog (Canis familiaris)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for MIR4321 Gene

Gene Tree for MIR4321 (if available)
Gene Tree for MIR4321 (if available)

Paralogs for MIR4321 Gene

No data available for Paralogs for MIR4321 Gene

Variants for MIR4321 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for MIR4321 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 19 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs104894666 Pathogenic 2,250,667(+) CCTCC(C/T)GAGAC nc-transcript-variant, reference, stop-gained
rs185020288 Likely benign 2,249,682(+) ACGGC(A/G)GCTGG upstream-variant-2KB, reference, missense
rs10406324 -- 2,249,113(+) AGGAC(A/G)GCATG downstream-variant-500B, upstream-variant-2KB
rs10407022 -- 2,249,478(+) AGGCA(G/T)CCCAC upstream-variant-2KB, reference, missense
rs111234888 -- 2,250,282(+) AGATT(-/C)CCCGG intron-variant, upstream-variant-2KB

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for MIR4321 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv833707 CNV loss 17160897
nsv578383 CNV loss 21841781
nsv578382 CNV loss 21841781
dgv6218n54 CNV loss 21841781

Relevant External Links for MIR4321 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Variation tolerance for MIR4321 Gene

Disorders for MIR4321 Gene


  • Persistent Muellerian duct syndrome 1 (PMDS1) [MIM:261550]: A form of male pseudohermaphroditism characterized by a failure of Muellerian duct regression in otherwise normal males. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:8162013, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8872466}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Relevant External Links for MIR4321

Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:

No disorders were found for MIR4321 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards and Genatlas for MIR4321 Gene

Publications for MIR4321 Gene

  1. Ago2 immunoprecipitation identifies predicted microRNAs in human embryonic stem cells and neural precursors. (PMID: 19784364) Goff L.A. … Hart R.P. (PLoS ONE 2009) 3 64
  2. miRBase: microRNA sequences, targets and gene nomenclature. (PMID: 16381832) Griffiths-Jones S. … Enright A.J. (Nucleic Acids Res. 2006) 3 64
  3. The DNA sequence and biology of human chromosome 19. (PMID: 15057824) Grimwood J. … Lucas S.M. (Nature 2004) 4 64
  4. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard D.S. … Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004) 4 64
  5. A 27 base-pair deletion of the anti-Muellerian type II receptor gene is the most common cause of the persistent Muellerian duct syndrome. (PMID: 8872466) Imbeaud S. … Picard J.-Y. (Hum. Mol. Genet. 1996) 4 64

Products for MIR4321 Gene

Sources for MIR4321 Gene

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