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Aliases for MGST1 Gene

Aliases for MGST1 Gene

  • Microsomal Glutathione S-Transferase 1 2 3 5
  • Microsomal GST-1 3 4
  • Microsomal GST-I 3 4
  • EC 4 61
  • GST12 3 4
  • MGST 3 4
  • Glutathione S-Transferase 12 3
  • MGST-I 3

External Ids for MGST1 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for MGST1 Gene

  • GST12

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for MGST1 Gene

  • GC12P016240
  • GC12P016644
  • GC12P016400
  • GC12P016391
  • GC12P016500

Summaries for MGST1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for MGST1 Gene

  • The MAPEG (Membrane Associated Proteins in Eicosanoid and Glutathione metabolism) family consists of six human proteins, two of which are involved in the production of leukotrienes and prostaglandin E, important mediators of inflammation. Other family members, demonstrating glutathione S-transferase and peroxidase activities, are involved in cellular defense against toxic, carcinogenic, and pharmacologically active electrophilic compounds. This gene encodes a protein that catalyzes the conjugation of glutathione to electrophiles and the reduction of lipid hydroperoxides. This protein is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and outer mitochondrial membrane where it is thought to protect these membranes from oxidative stress. Several transcript variants, some non-protein coding and some protein coding, have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

GeneCards Summary for MGST1 Gene

MGST1 (Microsomal Glutathione S-Transferase 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with MGST1 include Megalencephalic Leukoencephalopathy With Subcortical Cysts. Among its related pathways are Cytochrome P450 - arranged by substrate type and Drug metabolism - cytochrome P450. GO annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and glutathione transferase activity. An important paralog of this gene is PTGES.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MGST1 Gene

  • Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Has a wide substrate specificity.

Gene Wiki entry for MGST1 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for MGST1 Gene

Genomics for MGST1 Gene

Regulatory Elements for MGST1 Gene

Enhancers for MGST1 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH12F016346 0.6 ENCODE 24.2 +3.0 2969 6.9 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF48 YY1 GLIS2 FOS SP3 SP5 MXD4 MGST1 SLC15A5 GC12P016380
GH12F016389 0.4 Ensembl 11 +42.9 42859 0.4 BHLHE40 MAX CEBPB FOS NFE2L2 MGST1 LOC102724196 GC12P016380 SUPT16HP1
GH12F016390 0.8 ENCODE 11 +42.6 42560 0.2 BHLHE40 MAX NFE2L2 MGST1 GC12P016380 SUPT16HP1
GH12F016280 0.2 ENCODE 5.6 -65.8 -65765 1.3 ATF3 HNF4G RAD21 YY1 MGST1 SLC15A5 PIR41579
GH12F016176 0.3 FANTOM5 5.1 -171.0 -170971 0.3 MGST1 SLC15A5 GC12M016137 GC12P016202
- Elite enhancer/Elite enhancer-gene association Download Table
Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around MGST1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for MGST1 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00000427065 1358 3001 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF48 YY1 GLIS2 FOS SP3 SP5 MXD4

Genomic Location for MGST1 Gene

16,347,142 bp from pter
16,609,259 bp from pter
262,118 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for MGST1 Gene

Genes around MGST1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
MGST1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for MGST1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for MGST1 Gene

Proteins for MGST1 Gene

  • Protein details for MGST1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Microsomal glutathione S-transferase 1
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K533
    • G5EA53

    Protein attributes for MGST1 Gene

    155 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    17599 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homotrimer; The trimer binds only one molecule of glutathione.

    Alternative splice isoforms for MGST1 Gene


neXtProt entry for MGST1 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for MGST1 Gene


Post-translational modifications for MGST1 Gene

  • Peroxynitrite induces nitration at Tyr-93 which activates the enzyme.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Domains & Families for MGST1 Gene

Gene Families for MGST1 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for MGST1 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the MAPEG family.
  • Belongs to the MAPEG family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with MGST1: view

Function for MGST1 Gene

Molecular function for MGST1 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
microsomal glutathione-S-transferase 1,microsomal,GST superfamily,expressed in the liver and several other tissues
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
RX + glutathione = HX + R-S-glutathione.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Can be activated by reagents that attack Cys-50 sulfhydryl, such as N-ethylmaleimide. Activation also occurs via nitration of Tyr-93 by peroxynitrite (By similarity).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Has a wide substrate specificity.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for MGST1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for MGST1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004364 glutathione transferase activity TAS --
GO:0004602 glutathione peroxidase activity IDA 20727966
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 20195357
GO:0016740 transferase activity IEA --
GO:0042802 identical protein binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MGST1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with MGST1: view

Animal Model Products

miRNA for MGST1 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target MGST1

Inhibitory RNA Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for MGST1 Gene

Localization for MGST1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MGST1 Gene

Microsome. Mitochondrion outer membrane; Peripheral membrane protein. Endoplasmic reticulum membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for MGST1 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for MGST1 gene
Compartment Confidence
endoplasmic reticulum 5
mitochondrion 5
peroxisome 5
cytosol 3
nucleus 3
extracellular 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for MGST1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IEA --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA,IDA 20727966
GO:0005741 mitochondrial outer membrane IEA --
GO:0005743 mitochondrial inner membrane IEA --
GO:0005778 peroxisomal membrane IEA,ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MGST1: view

Pathways & Interactions for MGST1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with MGST1: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for MGST1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006749 glutathione metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006805 xenobiotic metabolic process TAS --
GO:0010243 response to organonitrogen compound IEA --
GO:0032496 response to lipopolysaccharide IEA --
GO:0033327 Leydig cell differentiation IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MGST1: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for MGST1 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for MGST1 Gene

(9) Drugs for MGST1 Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Glutathione Approved Nutra Target 0
Water Approved Pharma 0
Trichloroethylene Pharma 5

(46) Additional Compounds for MGST1 Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
(1S,2R)-Naphthalene 1,2-oxide
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with MGST1: view

Transcripts for MGST1 Gene

Unigene Clusters for MGST1 Gene

Microsomal glutathione S-transferase 1:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for MGST1 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b · 4c ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b · 6c · 6d
SP1: - - -
SP2: -
SP3: - -
SP4: - - - -
SP6: - -

Relevant External Links for MGST1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for MGST1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for MGST1 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for MGST1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (x9.0), Adrenal Gland (x6.8), and Adipose - Visceral (Omentum) (x4.5).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for MGST1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Nasal epithelium (17.6) and Liver (12.6).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for MGST1 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for MGST1 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of MGST1 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for MGST1 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for MGST1 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Highly expressed in liver.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with MGST1: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery for MGST1 Gene

Orthologs for MGST1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for MGST1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia MGST1 34 35
  • 99.57 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia MGST1 34 35
  • 88.6 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia MGST1 34 35
  • 87.31 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Mgst1 34 16 35
  • 79.35 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Mgst1 34
  • 77.85 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia MGST1 35
  • 73 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves MGST1 34 35
  • 72.47 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia MGST1 35
  • 58 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia mgst1 34
  • 59.35 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii mgst1.1 34 35
  • 57.36 (n)
mgst1.2 35
  • 57 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Mgstl 34 35
  • 51.54 (n)
CG33177 35
  • 36 (a)
CG33178 35
  • 33 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta GSTMIC1 34
  • 49.07 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 35
  • 50 (a)
-- 35
  • 44 (a)
-- 35
  • 38 (a)
-- 35
  • 33 (a)
Species where no ortholog for MGST1 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for MGST1 Gene

Gene Tree for MGST1 (if available)
Gene Tree for MGST1 (if available)

Paralogs for MGST1 Gene

Paralogs for MGST1 Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for MGST1 Gene using alignment to 7 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with MGST1: view

Variants for MGST1 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for MGST1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 12 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1024834 -- 16,365,728(+) GAaca(C/T)gcacg intron-variant
rs1024835 -- 16,365,732(+) ATGCA(C/T)GCGTG intron-variant
rs1024836 -- 16,365,739(+) CGTGc(A/G)cgcgc intron-variant
rs1024837 -- 16,365,741(+) TGcac(A/G)cgcac intron-variant
rs1024838 -- 16,366,300(+) TAAAA(G/T)TATAG intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for MGST1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv3892149 CNV loss 25118596
esv3892150 CNV loss 25118596
nsv1036638 CNV loss 25217958
nsv1049805 CNV loss 25217958
nsv832338 CNV gain 17160897

Variation tolerance for MGST1 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 61.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.71; 15.09% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for MGST1 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MGST1 Gene

Disorders for MGST1 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(1) MalaCards diseases for MGST1 Gene - From: GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts
  • vacuolating megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search MGST1 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for MGST1

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with MGST1: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for MGST1 Gene

Publications for MGST1 Gene

  1. Microsomal glutathione S-transferase gene polymorphisms and colorectal cancer risk in a Han Chinese population. (PMID: 17483957) Zhang H. … Wu M. (Int J Colorectal Dis 2007) 3 22 46 64
  2. Functional candidate genes in age-related macular degeneration: significant association with VEGF, VLDLR, and LRP6. (PMID: 16384981) Haines J.L. … Pericak-Vance M.A. (Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2006) 3 22 46 64
  3. Genetic analysis of the glutathione s-transferase genes MGST1, GSTM3, GSTT1, and GSTM1 in patients with hereditary pancreatitis. (PMID: 15338373) Schneider A. … Whitcomb D.C. (J. Gastroenterol. 2004) 3 22 46 64
  4. Structural organization of the human microsomal glutathione S- transferase gene (GST12). (PMID: 8812420) Kelner M.J. … Montoya M.A. (Genomics 1996) 3 4 22 64
  5. Association study between single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 199 drug-related genes and commonly measured quantitative traits of 752 healthy Japanese subjects. (PMID: 19343046) Saito A. … Kamatani N. (J. Hum. Genet. 2009) 3 46 64

Products for MGST1 Gene

Sources for MGST1 Gene

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