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Aliases for METRNL Gene

Aliases for METRNL Gene

  • Meteorin Like, Glial Cell Differentiation Regulator 2 3 5
  • Subfatin 3 4
  • Meteorin, Glial Cell Differentiation Regulator-Like 3
  • Meteorin-Like Protein 3

External Ids for METRNL Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for METRNL Gene

  • GC17P078631
  • GC17P081037
  • GC17P076439

Summaries for METRNL Gene

GeneCards Summary for METRNL Gene

METRNL (Meteorin Like, Glial Cell Differentiation Regulator) is a Protein Coding gene. GO annotations related to this gene include hormone activity. An important paralog of this gene is METRN.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for METRNL Gene

  • Hormone induced following exercise or cold exposure that promotes energy expenditure. Induced either in the skeletal muscle after exercise or in adipose tissue following cold exposure and is present in the circulation. Able to stimulate energy expenditure associated with the browning of the white fat depots and improves glucose tolerance. Does not promote an increase in a thermogenic gene program via direct action on adipocytes, but acts by stimulating several immune cell subtypes to enter the adipose tissue and activate their prothermogenic actions. Stimulates an eosinophil-dependent increase in IL4 expression and promotes alternative activation of adipose tissue macrophages, which are required for the increased expression of the thermogenic and anti-inflammatory gene programs in fat. Required for some cold-induced thermogenic responses, suggesting a role in metabolic adaptations to cold temperatures (By similarity).

No data available for Entrez Gene Summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for METRNL Gene

Genomics for METRNL Gene

Regulatory Elements for METRNL Gene

Enhancers for METRNL Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH17F083182 1.3 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 14.2 +103.7 103710 2.0 MAZ TFAP4 KLF1 SP5 NR3C1 TEAD3 ZFP69B ZFHX2 GLIS2 ZNF692 METRNL LOC105371948 LOC101929650
GH17F083118 0.6 Ensembl 13.1 +39.5 39510 1.2 ARID1B CTCF ZNF652 METRNL CD7 LOC101930496 ENSG00000279143
GH17F083109 1.1 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 13.1 +30.9 30917 2.9 HDGF PKNOX1 SIN3A YY1 ZNF207 ZNF548 FOS ZNF263 REST SMARCB1 METRNL ENSG00000260563 ENSG00000262663 ENSG00000262652 NARF-IT1 ARL2BPP9 OGFOD3 ENSG00000261888 B3GNTL1 LOC101930496
GH17F083050 0.4 ENCODE 12.9 -26.9 -26887 4.4 HDGF PKNOX1 CREB3L1 MLX ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF143 B3GNTL1 METRNL ENSG00000260563 ENSG00000261888 FN3KRP
GH17F083047 0.2 ENCODE 12.8 -30.6 -30647 2.4 HDGF PKNOX1 MLX ARID4B DMAP1 SLC30A9 FOS SP5 MXD4 MIER2 B3GNTL1 RFNG ENSG00000265678 METRNL OGFOD3 PIR44293
- Elite enhancer/Elite enhancer-gene association Download Table
Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around METRNL on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for METRNL Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00001355913 709 3201 PKNOX1 ARID4B SIN3A ZNF48 GLIS2 ZNF263 ZHX2 TBX21 ZNF592 MBD2

Genomic Location for METRNL Gene

Chromosome:
17
Start:
83,079,691 bp from pter
End:
83,095,129 bp from pter
Size:
15,439 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for METRNL Gene

Genes around METRNL on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
METRNL Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for METRNL Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for METRNL Gene

Proteins for METRNL Gene

  • Protein details for METRNL Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q641Q3-METRL_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Meteorin-like protein
    Protein Accession:
    Q641Q3
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B3KSJ5
    • Q86VM0

    Protein attributes for METRNL Gene

    Size:
    311 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    34398 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=AAH50568.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Alternative splice isoforms for METRNL Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for METRNL Gene

Post-translational modifications for METRNL Gene

  • Glycosylation at Thr 215
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for METRNL Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for METRNL Gene

Domains & Families for METRNL Gene

Protein Domains for METRNL Gene

ProtoNet:

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for METRNL Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q641Q3

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

METRL_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the meteorin family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the meteorin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with METRNL: view

No data available for Gene Families for METRNL Gene

Function for METRNL Gene

Molecular function for METRNL Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Hormone induced following exercise or cold exposure that promotes energy expenditure. Induced either in the skeletal muscle after exercise or in adipose tissue following cold exposure and is present in the circulation. Able to stimulate energy expenditure associated with the browning of the white fat depots and improves glucose tolerance. Does not promote an increase in a thermogenic gene program via direct action on adipocytes, but acts by stimulating several immune cell subtypes to enter the adipose tissue and activate their prothermogenic actions. Stimulates an eosinophil-dependent increase in IL4 expression and promotes alternative activation of adipose tissue macrophages, which are required for the increased expression of the thermogenic and anti-inflammatory gene programs in fat. Required for some cold-induced thermogenic responses, suggesting a role in metabolic adaptations to cold temperatures (By similarity).

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for METRNL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003674 molecular_function ND --
GO:0005179 hormone activity ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with METRNL: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with METRNL: view

Animal Models for METRNL Gene

MGI Knock Outs for METRNL:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for METRNL

Inhibitory RNA Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for METRNL Gene

Localization for METRNL Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for METRNL Gene

Secreted.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for METRNL Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for METRNL gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
nucleus 2
cytoskeleton 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
golgi apparatus 1
lysosome 1
mitochondrion 1
plasma membrane 1
vacuole 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for METRNL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region IEA --
GO:0005615 extracellular space ISS 24393292
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome IDA 19199708
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with METRNL: view

Pathways & Interactions for METRNL Gene

SuperPathways for METRNL Gene

No Data Available

Interacting Proteins for METRNL Gene

Selected Interacting proteins: Q641Q3-METRL_HUMAN for METRNL Gene via IID

Symbol External ID(s) Details
CHMP4B

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for METRNL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0009409 response to cold ISS --
GO:0014850 response to muscle activity ISS --
GO:0045444 fat cell differentiation ISS 24393292
GO:0050728 negative regulation of inflammatory response ISS --
GO:0050873 brown fat cell differentiation ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with METRNL: view

No data available for Pathways by source and SIGNOR curated interactions for METRNL Gene

Transcripts for METRNL Gene

Unigene Clusters for METRNL Gene

Meteorin, glial cell differentiation regulator-like:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for METRNL Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for METRNL Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
METRNL
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
METRNL

Expression for METRNL Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for METRNL Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for METRNL Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (x4.6).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for METRNL Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Plasma (64.8).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for METRNL Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for METRNL Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of METRNL Gene:

METRNL

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for METRNL Gene:

Hs.378821

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for METRNL Gene:

Q641Q3-METRL_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Highly expressed in the skeletal muscle, in subcutaneous adipose tissue, epididymal white adipose tissue depots and heart. Also expressed in brown adipose tissues and kidney.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with METRNL: view

Primer Products

Orthologs for METRNL Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for METRNL Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia METRNL 34 35
  • 98.69 (n)
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia METRNL 34 35
  • 84.31 (n)
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia METRNL 34 35
  • 83.14 (n)
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Metrnl 34
  • 78.95 (n)
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Metrnl 34 16 35
  • 78.45 (n)
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia METRNL 35
  • 70 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia METRNL 35
  • 64 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves METRNL 34 35
  • 72.46 (n)
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia METRNL 35
  • 68 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia metrnl 34
  • 66.41 (n)
Str.6134 34
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii metrnl 34 35
  • 62.25 (n)
METRNL (1 of 2) 35
  • 48 (a)
OneToMany
Dr.17200 34
Species where no ortholog for METRNL was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for METRNL Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for METRNL (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for METRNL (if available)

Paralogs for METRNL Gene

Paralogs for METRNL Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for METRNL Gene using alignment to 4 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with METRNL: view

Variants for METRNL Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for METRNL Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 17 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs10432005 -- 83,086,033(+) CTGGA(C/T)GCCTG intron-variant
rs111313340 -- 83,090,212(+) CGCCC(C/T)GCCCC intron-variant
rs111380609 -- 83,080,827(+) CTGGC(C/G)CGGGC intron-variant
rs111389501 -- 83,093,443(+) GGGGT(G/T)GTTTT intron-variant
rs111413709 -- 83,077,715(+) TTCGG(C/T)CTAGC upstream-variant-2KB

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for METRNL Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv1530n106 CNV deletion 24896259
dgv3296n100 CNV gain 25217958
dgv3298n100 CNV gain 25217958
dgv3299n100 CNV gain 25217958
esv1010836 CNV deletion 20482838
esv21913 CNV gain+loss 19812545
esv3641452 CNV gain 21293372
esv3641453 CNV gain 21293372
esv3893052 CNV gain 25118596
esv3893053 CNV gain 25118596
nsv1057153 CNV loss 25217958
nsv1061524 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1067553 CNV loss 25217958
nsv1071421 CNV deletion 25765185
nsv473871 CNV novel sequence insertion 20440878
nsv522768 CNV loss 19592680
nsv529045 CNV loss 19592680
nsv819941 CNV gain 19587683
nsv828147 CNV loss 20364138
nsv828149 CNV gain 20364138
nsv828150 CNV gain 20364138
nsv952398 CNV deletion 24416366

Variation tolerance for METRNL Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 54.2% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.78; 47.22% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for METRNL Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
METRNL

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for METRNL Gene

Disorders for METRNL Gene

Relevant External Links for METRNL

Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
METRNL

No disorders were found for METRNL Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for METRNL Gene

Publications for METRNL Gene

  1. Subfatin is a novel adipokine and unlike Meteorin in adipose and brain expression. (PMID: 24393292) Li Z.Y. … Miao C.Y. (CNS Neurosci. Ther. 2014) 3 4 64
  2. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PMID: 14702039) Ota T. … Sugano S. (Nat. Genet. 2004) 3 4 64
  3. Adipocyte Metrnl Antagonizes Insulin Resistance Through PPARI^ Signaling. (PMID: 26307585) Li Z.Y. … Miao C.Y. (Diabetes 2015) 3 64
  4. A human interactome in three quantitative dimensions organized by stoichiometries and abundances. (PMID: 26496610) Hein M.Y. … Mann M. (Cell 2015) 3 64
  5. Meteorin-like is a hormone that regulates immune-adipose interactions to increase beige fat thermogenesis. (PMID: 24906147) Rao R.R. … Spiegelman B.M. (Cell 2014) 4 64

Products for METRNL Gene

Sources for METRNL Gene

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