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Aliases for MELK Gene

Aliases for MELK Gene

  • Maternal Embryonic Leucine Zipper Kinase 2 3
  • Tyrosine-Protein Kinase MELK 3 4
  • Protein Kinase PK38 3 4
  • Protein Kinase Eg3 3 4
  • PEg3 Kinase 3 4
  • EC 2.7.11.1 4 64
  • KIAA0175 4 6
  • HPK38 3 4
  • EC 2.7.10.2 4
  • EC 2.7.11 64
  • HMELK 4

External Ids for MELK Gene

Summaries for MELK Gene

GeneCards Summary for MELK Gene

MELK (Maternal Embryonic Leucine Zipper Kinase) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Neuroscience. GO annotations related to this gene include calcium ion binding and lipid binding. An important paralog of this gene is NUAK1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MELK Gene

  • Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in various processes such as cell cycle regulation, self-renewal of stem cells, apoptosis and splicing regulation. Has a broad substrate specificity; phosphorylates BCL2L14, CDC25B, MAP3K5/ASK1 and ZNF622. Acts as an activator of apoptosis by phosphorylating and activating MAP3K5/ASK1. Acts as a regulator of cell cycle, notably by mediating phosphorylation of CDC25B, promoting localization of CDC25B to the centrosome and the spindle poles during mitosis. Plays a key role in cell proliferation and carcinogenesis. Required for proliferation of embryonic and postnatal multipotent neural progenitors. Phosphorylates and inhibits BCL2L14, possibly leading to affect mammary carcinogenesis by mediating inhibition of the pro-apoptotic function of BCL2L14. Also involved in the inhibition of spliceosome assembly during mitosis by phosphorylating ZNF622, thereby contributing to its redirection to the nucleus. May also play a role in primitive hematopoiesis.

Gene Wiki entry for MELK Gene

No data available for Entrez Gene Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for MELK Gene

Genomics for MELK Gene

Genomic Location for MELK Gene

Start:
36,572,862 bp from pter
End:
36,677,683 bp from pter
Size:
104,822 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for MELK Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for MELK Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for MELK Gene

Regulatory Elements for MELK Gene

Proteins for MELK Gene

  • Protein details for MELK Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q14680-MELK_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase
    Protein Accession:
    Q14680
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A6P3A7
    • A6P3A8
    • B1AMQ6
    • B7Z1E6
    • B7Z5M5
    • B7Z6Q7
    • B7Z6R8
    • B7Z6Y0
    • B7Z7Q1
    • D3DRP8
    • F5H0Y0
    • F5H2R4
    • F5H689
    • Q7L3C3

    Protein attributes for MELK Gene

    Size:
    651 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    74642 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer. Interacts with ZNF622 and PPP1R8.
    Miscellaneous:
    • Potential therapeutic target for treatment of somatic tumors, such as brain and breast cancers, down-regulation of MELK inhibiting tumorigenesis (PubMed:17960622, PubMed:20861186).
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=BAA11492.2; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally shortened.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for MELK Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for MELK Gene

neXtProt entry for MELK Gene

Proteomics data for MELK Gene at MOPED

Selected DME Specific Peptides for MELK Gene

Post-translational modifications for MELK Gene

  • Autophosphorylated: autophosphorylation of the T-loop at Thr-167 and Ser-171 is required for activation. Thr-478 phosphorylation during mitosis promotes interaction with PPP1R8 (Probable).
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Ubiquitination at Lys44, Lys395, Lys406, Lys434, Lys536, Lys597, and Lys650

Domains for MELK Gene

Gene Families for MELK Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

MELK_HUMAN
Domain:
  • The KA1 domain mediates binding to phospholipids and targeting to membranes.:
    • Q14680
  • Contains 1 KA1 (kinase-associated) domain.:
    • Q14680
  • Contains 1 protein kinase domain.:
    • Q14680
Family:
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. CAMK Ser/Thr protein kinase family. SNF1 subfamily.:
    • Q14680
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with MELK: view

Function for MELK Gene

Molecular function for MELK Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity: ATP + a [protein]-L-tyrosine = ADP + a [protein]-L-tyrosine phosphate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity: ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation: Activated by autophosphorylation of the T-loop at Thr-167 and Ser-171: in contrast to other members of the SNF1 subfamily, phosphorylation at Thr-167 is not mediated by STK11/LKB1 but via autophosphorylation instead. Inhibited by calcium-binding. Kinase activity is also regulated by reducing agents: dithiothreitol (DTT) or reduced glutathione are required for kinase activity in vitro; such dependence is however not due to the presence of disulfide bonds.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in various processes such as cell cycle regulation, self-renewal of stem cells, apoptosis and splicing regulation. Has a broad substrate specificity; phosphorylates BCL2L14, CDC25B, MAP3K5/ASK1 and ZNF622. Acts as an activator of apoptosis by phosphorylating and activating MAP3K5/ASK1. Acts as a regulator of cell cycle, notably by mediating phosphorylation of CDC25B, promoting localization of CDC25B to the centrosome and the spindle poles during mitosis. Plays a key role in cell proliferation and carcinogenesis. Required for proliferation of embryonic and postnatal multipotent neural progenitors. Phosphorylates and inhibits BCL2L14, possibly leading to affect mammary carcinogenesis by mediating inhibition of the pro-apoptotic function of BCL2L14. Also involved in the inhibition of spliceosome assembly during mitosis by phosphorylating ZNF622, thereby contributing to its redirection to the nucleus. May also play a role in primitive hematopoiesis.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction: Up-regulated in many cancers cells. Up-regulated upon treatment with radiation or 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in colorectal cancer cells, suggesting that it might be associated with increased resistance of colorectal cells against radiation and 5-FU. Down-regulated upon siomycin A, a thiazole antibiotic, treatment, leading to inhibit tumor growth in vivo.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for MELK Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for MELK Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004672 protein kinase activity --
GO:0004674 protein serine/threonine kinase activity IDA 12400006
GO:0004713 protein tyrosine kinase activity --
GO:0004715 non-membrane spanning protein tyrosine kinase activity IDA 16216881
GO:0005509 calcium ion binding IDA 16216881
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MELK: view

Phenotypes for MELK Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with MELK: view

miRNA for MELK Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target MELK

No data available for Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for MELK Gene

Localization for MELK Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MELK Gene

Cell membrane; Peripheral membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for MELK Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for MELK gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
cytosol 3
endoplasmic reticulum 1
golgi apparatus 1
mitochondrion 1
nucleus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for MELK Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IBA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane IDA 21145462
GO:0005938 cell cortex IDA 16159311
GO:0016020 membrane IDA 19946888
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MELK: view

Pathways for MELK Gene

SuperPathways for MELK Gene

Superpath Contained pathways
1 Neuroscience
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with MELK: view

Pathways by source for MELK Gene

1 Cell Signaling Technology pathway for MELK Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for MELK Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000086 G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle TAS 12400006
GO:0006468 protein phosphorylation --
GO:0006915 apoptotic process IDA 17280616
GO:0008283 cell proliferation IDA 17280616
GO:0008631 intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in response to oxidative stress IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MELK: view

Compounds for MELK Gene

(2) HMDB Compounds for MELK Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
Adenosine triphosphate
  • 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate) Adenosine
56-65-5
ADP
  • adenosindiphosphorsaeure
58-64-0

(1) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for MELK Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
leucine 69.8 11
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with MELK: view

Transcripts for MELK Gene

Unigene Clusters for MELK Gene

Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for MELK Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b · 6c · 6d ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16 ^ 17 ^ 18 ^ 19 ^ 20
SP1: - - - -
SP2: - - -
SP3: - - - -
SP4:
SP5: -
SP6: - - -

Relevant External Links for MELK Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
MELK
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
MELK

Expression for MELK Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for MELK Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for MELK Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Testis (5.2) and Esophagus - Mucosa (5.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for MELK Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for MELK Gene Hs.184339

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for MELK Gene

Q14680-MELK_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Expressed in placenta, kidney, thymus, testis, ovary and intestine.
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with MELK: view

Orthologs for MELK Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for MELK Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia MELK 36
  • 99.39 (n)
  • 99.54 (a)
MELK 37
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia MELK 36
  • 90.97 (n)
  • 89.54 (a)
MELK 37
  • 90 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia MELK 36
  • 92.68 (n)
  • 91.71 (a)
MELK 37
  • 92 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Melk 36
  • 84.19 (n)
  • 84.29 (a)
Melk 16
Melk 37
  • 84 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia MELK 37
  • 71 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia MELK 37
  • 71 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Melk 36
  • 88.25 (n)
  • 91.62 (a)
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves -- 37
  • 80 (a)
OneToMany
MELK 36
  • 67.7 (n)
  • 62.89 (a)
MELK 37
  • 61 (a)
OneToMany
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia MELK 37
  • 59 (a)
OneToOne
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia LOC397927 36
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia melk 36
  • 67.08 (n)
  • 66.77 (a)
Str.7658 36
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii melk 36
  • 61.06 (n)
  • 60.85 (a)
melk 37
  • 57 (a)
OneToOne
wufb71b01 36
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG3105 38
  • 32 (a)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea pig-1 36
  • 49.56 (n)
  • 43.06 (a)
pig-1 37
  • 38 (a)
OneToOne
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes SNF1 37
  • 23 (a)
OneToMany
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons CIPK7 36
  • 50.91 (n)
  • 44.53 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.11515 36
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 37
  • 46 (a)
OneToOne
Species with no ortholog for MELK:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for MELK Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for MELK (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for MELK (if available)

Paralogs for MELK Gene

Paralogs for MELK Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for MELK Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with MELK: view

Variants for MELK Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for MELK Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 09 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs329354 -- 36,571,764(-) ccggg(C/T)ttggt upstream-variant-2KB
rs329355 -- 36,571,476(-) AGAAa(G/T)aaatt upstream-variant-2KB
rs766315 -- 36,678,107(-) ATTGG(G/T)GAAAT downstream-variant-500B
rs1137377 -- 36,651,832(+) TCTTC(C/T)TTCTC synonymous-codon, reference, nc-transcript-variant
rs1547309 -- 36,603,910(+) TTTAT(C/T)CCTCT intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for MELK Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv831550 CNV Loss 17160897
esv2738428 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2667249 CNV Deletion 23128226
nsv6530 CNV Loss 18451855
esv272822 CNV Insertion 20981092

Relevant External Links for MELK Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
MELK
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
MELK

Disorders for MELK Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

MELK_HUMAN
  • Note=Defects in MELK are associated with some cancers, such as brain or breast cancers. Expression is dramatically increased in aggressive undifferentiated tumors, correlating with poor patient outcome in breast and brain cancers, suggesting a role in tumor-initiating cells and proliferation via its function in cell proliferation regulation.

(1) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for MELK Gene

Relevant External Links for MELK

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
MELK
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with MELK: view

Publications for MELK Gene

  1. Human pEg3 kinase associates with and phosphorylates CDC25B phosphatase: a potential role for pEg3 in cell cycle regulation. (PMID: 12400006) Davezac N. … Tassan J.P. (Oncogene 2002) 3 4 23
  2. Inhibition of spliceosome assembly by the cell cycle-regulated protein kinase MELK and involvement of splicing factor NIPP1. (PMID: 14699119) Vulsteke V. … Bollen M. (J. Biol. Chem. 2004) 3 4 23
  3. CDC25B phosphorylated by pEg3 localizes to the centrosome and the spindle poles at mitosis. (PMID: 15908796) Mirey G. … Ducommun B. (Cell Cycle 2005) 3 4 23
  4. Substrate specificity and activity regulation of protein kinase MELK. (PMID: 16216881) Beullens M. … Bollen M. (J. Biol. Chem. 2005) 3 4 23
  5. Involvement of maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) in mammary carcinogenesis through interaction with Bcl-G, a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family. (PMID: 17280616) Lin M.L. … Katagiri T. (Breast Cancer Res. 2007) 3 4 23

Products for MELK Gene

Sources for MELK Gene

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