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Aliases for MELK Gene

Aliases for MELK Gene

  • Maternal Embryonic Leucine Zipper Kinase 2 3 5
  • Tyrosine-Protein Kinase MELK 3 4
  • Protein Kinase PK38 3 4
  • Protein Kinase Eg3 3 4
  • PEg3 Kinase 3 4
  • EC 2.7.11.1 4 61
  • HPK38 3 4
  • EC 2.7.10.2 4
  • EC 2.7.11 61
  • KIAA0175 4
  • HMELK 4

External Ids for MELK Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for MELK Gene

  • GC09P036885
  • GC09P036742
  • GC09P036562

Summaries for MELK Gene

GeneCards Summary for MELK Gene

MELK (Maternal Embryonic Leucine Zipper Kinase) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Neuroscience. GO annotations related to this gene include calcium ion binding and protein kinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is SNRK.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MELK Gene

  • Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in various processes such as cell cycle regulation, self-renewal of stem cells, apoptosis and splicing regulation. Has a broad substrate specificity; phosphorylates BCL2L14, CDC25B, MAP3K5/ASK1 and ZNF622. Acts as an activator of apoptosis by phosphorylating and activating MAP3K5/ASK1. Acts as a regulator of cell cycle, notably by mediating phosphorylation of CDC25B, promoting localization of CDC25B to the centrosome and the spindle poles during mitosis. Plays a key role in cell proliferation and carcinogenesis. Required for proliferation of embryonic and postnatal multipotent neural progenitors. Phosphorylates and inhibits BCL2L14, possibly leading to affect mammary carcinogenesis by mediating inhibition of the pro-apoptotic function of BCL2L14. Also involved in the inhibition of spliceosome assembly during mitosis by phosphorylating ZNF622, thereby contributing to its redirection to the nucleus. May also play a role in primitive hematopoiesis.

Gene Wiki entry for MELK Gene

No data available for Entrez Gene Summary , CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for MELK Gene

Genomics for MELK Gene

Regulatory Elements for MELK Gene

Enhancers for MELK Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH09G036419 1 ENCODE 12.3 -152.9 -152888 1.6 FOXA2 ZFP64 ARID4B ZNF48 YY1 FOS ZNF263 SP5 KAT8 NFIL3 RNF38 MELK GNE MRPS21P4
GH09G036415 0.5 ENCODE 11.2 -156.5 -156545 1.7 CTCF KDM1A NR2F6 MELK MRPS21P4 RNF38
GH09G036924 0.8 FANTOM5 dbSUPER 2.3 +352.2 352174 0.1 CTCF KLF1 POLR2A TCF7L2 MELK MIR4476 LOC105376032
GH09G036572 1.3 Ensembl ENCODE 0.7 +1.4 1449 4.2 HDGF PKNOX1 FOXA2 ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF766 ZNF143 ZNF207 MELK GC09M036678
GH09G036571 0.5 ENCODE 0.7 -0.8 -844 0.2 HMG20B NFYC KDM1A MELK GC09P036567
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around MELK on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for MELK Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00000234793 238 1801 HDGF ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF48 ZNF121 GLIS2 ZNF766 ELK1 ZNF143

Genomic Location for MELK Gene

Chromosome:
9
Start:
36,572,862 bp from pter
End:
36,677,683 bp from pter
Size:
104,822 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for MELK Gene

Genes around MELK on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
MELK Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for MELK Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for MELK Gene

Proteins for MELK Gene

  • Protein details for MELK Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q14680-MELK_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase
    Protein Accession:
    Q14680
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A6P3A7
    • A6P3A8
    • B1AMQ6
    • B7Z1E6
    • B7Z5M5
    • B7Z6Q7
    • B7Z6R8
    • B7Z6Y0
    • B7Z7Q1
    • D3DRP8
    • F5H0Y0
    • F5H2R4
    • F5H689
    • Q7L3C3

    Protein attributes for MELK Gene

    Size:
    651 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    74642 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer. Interacts with ZNF622 and PPP1R8.
    Miscellaneous:
    • Potential therapeutic target for treatment of somatic tumors, such as brain and breast cancers, down-regulation of MELK inhibiting tumorigenesis (PubMed:17960622, PubMed:20861186).
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=BAA11492.2; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally shortened.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for MELK Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for MELK Gene

neXtProt entry for MELK Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for MELK Gene

Q14680:
  • FRQIVSA
  • FAKVKLA
  • RQIVSAV
  • LKPENLL
  • RDLKPEN

Post-translational modifications for MELK Gene

  • Autophosphorylated: autophosphorylation of the T-loop at Thr-167 and Ser-171 is required for activation. Thr-478 phosphorylation during mitosis promotes interaction with PPP1R8 (Probable).
  • Ubiquitination at Lys44, posLast=395395, posLast=406406, Lys434, Lys536, Lys597, and posLast=650650
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for MELK (MELK)
  • Abcam antibodies for MELK
  • Santa Cruz Biotechnology (SCBT) Antibodies for MELK

Domains & Families for MELK Gene

Gene Families for MELK Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q14680

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

MELK_HUMAN :
  • The KA1 domain mediates binding to phospholipids and targeting to membranes.
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. CAMK Ser/Thr protein kinase family. SNF1 subfamily.
Domain:
  • The KA1 domain mediates binding to phospholipids and targeting to membranes.
Family:
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. CAMK Ser/Thr protein kinase family. SNF1 subfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with MELK: view

Function for MELK Gene

Molecular function for MELK Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + a [protein]-L-tyrosine = ADP + a [protein]-L-tyrosine phosphate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Activated by autophosphorylation of the T-loop at Thr-167 and Ser-171: in contrast to other members of the SNF1 subfamily, phosphorylation at Thr-167 is not mediated by STK11/LKB1 but via autophosphorylation instead. Inhibited by calcium-binding. Kinase activity is also regulated by reducing agents: dithiothreitol (DTT) or reduced glutathione are required for kinase activity in vitro; such dependence is however not due to the presence of disulfide bonds.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in various processes such as cell cycle regulation, self-renewal of stem cells, apoptosis and splicing regulation. Has a broad substrate specificity; phosphorylates BCL2L14, CDC25B, MAP3K5/ASK1 and ZNF622. Acts as an activator of apoptosis by phosphorylating and activating MAP3K5/ASK1. Acts as a regulator of cell cycle, notably by mediating phosphorylation of CDC25B, promoting localization of CDC25B to the centrosome and the spindle poles during mitosis. Plays a key role in cell proliferation and carcinogenesis. Required for proliferation of embryonic and postnatal multipotent neural progenitors. Phosphorylates and inhibits BCL2L14, possibly leading to affect mammary carcinogenesis by mediating inhibition of the pro-apoptotic function of BCL2L14. Also involved in the inhibition of spliceosome assembly during mitosis by phosphorylating ZNF622, thereby contributing to its redirection to the nucleus. May also play a role in primitive hematopoiesis.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
Up-regulated in many cancers cells. Up-regulated upon treatment with radiation or 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in colorectal cancer cells, suggesting that it might be associated with increased resistance of colorectal cells against radiation and 5-FU. Down-regulated upon siomycin A, a thiazole antibiotic, treatment, leading to inhibit tumor growth in vivo.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for MELK Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for MELK Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000166 nucleotide binding IEA --
GO:0004672 protein kinase activity IEA --
GO:0004674 protein serine/threonine kinase activity IDA 12400006
GO:0004715 non-membrane spanning protein tyrosine kinase activity IEA,IDA 16216881
GO:0005509 calcium ion binding IDA 16216881
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MELK: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with MELK: view

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for MELK

CRISPR Products

miRNA for MELK Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target MELK

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Applied Biological Materials Clones for MELK

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for MELK Gene

Localization for MELK Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MELK Gene

Cell membrane; Peripheral membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for MELK gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
nucleus 4
cytosol 3
cytoskeleton 1
mitochondrion 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
golgi apparatus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for MELK Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IBA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane IEA,IDA 21145462
GO:0005938 cell cortex IDA 16159311
GO:0016020 membrane IEA,IDA 19946888
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MELK: view

Pathways & Interactions for MELK Gene

SuperPathway Contained pathways
1 Neuroscience
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with MELK: view

Pathways by source for MELK Gene

1 Cell Signaling Technology pathway for MELK Gene

SIGNOR curated interactions for MELK Gene

Activates:
Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for MELK Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000086 G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle TAS 12400006
GO:0000226 microtubule cytoskeleton organization IEA --
GO:0006468 protein phosphorylation IEA --
GO:0006915 apoptotic process IDA,IEA 17280616
GO:0007049 cell cycle IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MELK: view

Drugs & Compounds for MELK Gene

(4) Drugs for MELK Gene - From: ApexBio, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Adenosine triphosphate Approved Nutra 0
OTSSP167 Pharma MELK inhibitor 0
OTSSP167 hydrochloride Pharma MELK inhibitor,highly potent and selective 0

(1) Additional Compounds for MELK Gene - From: HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
ADP
  • Adenosindiphosphorsaeure
  • Adenosine 5'-pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine diphosphate
  • Adenosine pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine-5'-diphosphate
Full agonist, Agonist 58-64-0

(2) ApexBio Compounds for MELK Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
OTSSP167 MELK inhibitor 1431697-89-0
OTSSP167 hydrochloride MELK inhibitor,highly potent and selective
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with MELK: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for MELK Gene

Unigene Clusters for MELK Gene

Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Applied Biological Materials Clones for MELK

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for MELK Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b · 6c · 6d ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16 ^ 17 ^ 18 ^ 19 ^ 20
SP1: - - - -
SP2: - - -
SP3: - - - -
SP4:
SP5: -
SP6: - - -

Relevant External Links for MELK Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
MELK
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
MELK

Expression for MELK Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for MELK Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for MELK Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Testis (x5.2) and Esophagus - Mucosa (x5.0).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for MELK Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Lung (68.7).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for MELK Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for MELK Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of MELK Gene:

MELK

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for MELK Gene:

Hs.184339

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for MELK Gene:

Q14680-MELK_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Expressed in placenta, kidney, thymus, testis, ovary and intestine.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for MELK Gene

  • Intestine(4.3)
  • Bone marrow(4.2)
  • Skin(4.1)
  • Spleen(4.1)
  • Nervous system(2.1)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with MELK: view

Primer Products

No data available for Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for MELK Gene

Orthologs for MELK Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for MELK Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia MELK 34 35
  • 99.39 (n)
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia MELK 34 35
  • 92.68 (n)
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia MELK 34 35
  • 90.97 (n)
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Melk 34
  • 88.25 (n)
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Melk 34 16 35
  • 84.19 (n)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia MELK 35
  • 71 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia MELK 35
  • 71 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves -- 35
  • 80 (a)
OneToMany
MELK 34 35
  • 67.7 (n)
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia MELK 35
  • 59 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia melk 34
  • 67.08 (n)
Str.7658 34
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia LOC397927 34
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii melk 34 35
  • 61.06 (n)
wufb71b01 34
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG3105 36
  • 32 (a)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea pig-1 34 35
  • 49.56 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes SNF1 35
  • 23 (a)
OneToMany
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons CIPK7 34
  • 50.91 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 35
  • 46 (a)
OneToOne
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.11515 34
Species where no ortholog for MELK was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for MELK Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for MELK (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for MELK (if available)

Paralogs for MELK Gene

Paralogs for MELK Gene

(22) SIMAP similar genes for MELK Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with MELK: view

Variants for MELK Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for MELK Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 09 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs144052967 An ovarian mucinous carcinoma sample 36,665,552(+) CACTA(C/T)GCCAA nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense
rs1000016897 -- 36,582,620(+) ATATA(C/T)GTATA intron-variant
rs1000030738 -- 36,572,192(+) CTATT(G/T)TGGTT upstream-variant-2KB
rs1000035641 -- 36,658,857(+) CCATC(A/G)TGCCT intron-variant
rs1000053014 -- 36,635,323(+) CAATG(A/G)CACGA intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for MELK Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2667249 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2738428 CNV deletion 23290073
esv3308549 CNV mobile element insertion 20981092
esv3386783 CNV insertion 20981092
esv3408641 CNV insertion 20981092
esv3620400 CNV loss 21293372
nsv1124413 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1125318 OTHER inversion 24896259
nsv1134924 CNV tandem duplication 24896259
nsv1136014 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv614211 CNV loss 21841781
nsv6530 CNV deletion 18451855
nsv831550 CNV loss 17160897

Variation tolerance for MELK Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 29.9% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 4.61; 65.39% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for MELK Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
MELK
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
MELK

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MELK Gene

Disorders for MELK Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

MELK_HUMAN
  • Note=Defects in MELK are associated with some cancers, such as brain or breast cancers. Expression is dramatically increased in aggressive undifferentiated tumors, correlating with poor patient outcome in breast and brain cancers, suggesting a role in tumor-initiating cells and proliferation via its function in cell proliferation regulation.

Relevant External Links for MELK

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
MELK
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
MELK

No disorders were found for MELK Gene.

No data available for MalaCards and Genatlas for MELK Gene

Publications for MELK Gene

  1. Dysregulated expression of Fau and MELK is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer. (PMID: 19671159) Pickard M.R. … Williams G.T. (Breast Cancer Res. 2009) 3 4 22 64
  2. Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase transcript abundance correlates with malignancy grade in human astrocytomas. (PMID: 17960622) Marie S.K. … Caballero O.L. (Int. J. Cancer 2008) 3 4 22 64
  3. Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase is a key regulator of the proliferation of malignant brain tumors, including brain tumor stem cells. (PMID: 17722061) Nakano I. … Kornblum H.I. (J. Neurosci. Res. 2008) 3 4 22 64
  4. Involvement of maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) in mammary carcinogenesis through interaction with Bcl-G, a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family. (PMID: 17280616) Lin M.L. … Katagiri T. (Breast Cancer Res. 2007) 3 4 22 64
  5. CDC25B phosphorylated by pEg3 localizes to the centrosome and the spindle poles at mitosis. (PMID: 15908796) Mirey G. … Ducommun B. (Cell Cycle 2005) 3 4 22 64

Products for MELK Gene

Sources for MELK Gene

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