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Aliases for MDK Gene

Aliases for MDK Gene

  • Midkine (Neurite Growth-Promoting Factor 2) 2 3 5
  • Neurite Outgrowth-Promoting Factor 2 3 4
  • Amphiregulin-Associated Protein 3 4
  • Midgestation And Kidney Protein 3 4
  • NEGF2 3 4
  • ARAP 3 4
  • MK 3 4
  • Neurite Outgrowth-Promoting Protein 4
  • Retinoic Acid Inducible Factor 3
  • MK1 4

External Ids for MDK Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for MDK Gene

  • NEGF2

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for MDK Gene

  • GC11P048187
  • GC11P047092
  • GC11P046434
  • GC11P046367
  • GC11P046359
  • GC11P046109

Summaries for MDK Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for MDK Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of a small family of secreted growth factors that binds heparin and responds to retinoic acid. The encoded protein promotes cell growth, migration, and angiogenesis, in particular during tumorigenesis. This gene has been targeted as a therapeutic for a variety of different disorders. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

GeneCards Summary for MDK Gene

MDK (Midkine (Neurite Growth-Promoting Factor 2)) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with MDK include mesomelic dysplasia, kantaputra type. Among its related pathways are Nanog in Mammalian ESC Pluripotency and Apoptotic Pathways in Synovial Fibroblasts. GO annotations related to this gene include growth factor activity and heparin binding. An important paralog of this gene is PTN.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MDK Gene

  • Developmentally regulated, secreted growth factor homologous to pleiotrophin (PTN), which has heparin binding activity. Binds anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) which induces ALK activation and subsequent phosphorylation of the insulin receptor substrate (IRS1), followed by the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and PI3-kinase, and the induction of cell proliferation. Involved in neointima formation after arterial injury, possibly by mediating leukocyte recruitment. Also involved in early fetal adrenal gland development (By similarity).

Gene Wiki entry for MDK Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for MDK Gene

Genomics for MDK Gene

Regulatory Elements for MDK Gene

Enhancers for MDK Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around MDK on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for MDK Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around MDK on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the MDK gene promoter:

Genomic Location for MDK Gene

Chromosome:
11
Start:
46,380,756 bp from pter
End:
46,383,837 bp from pter
Size:
3,082 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for MDK Gene

Genes around MDK on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
MDK Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for MDK Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for MDK Gene

Proteins for MDK Gene

  • Protein details for MDK Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P21741-MK_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Midkine
    Protein Accession:
    P21741
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q2LEK4
    • Q9UCC7

    Protein attributes for MDK Gene

    Size:
    143 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    15585 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer. Interacts with ALK.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for MDK Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for MDK Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for MDK Gene

Proteomics data for MDK Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for MDK Gene

  • Glycosylation at Thr 119
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for MDK Gene

Domains & Families for MDK Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for MDK Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P21741

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

MK_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the pleiotrophin family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the pleiotrophin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with MDK: view

No data available for Gene Families for MDK Gene

Function for MDK Gene

Molecular function for MDK Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
neurite growth promoting factor 2,retinoic acid responsive,heparin binding cytokine family
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Developmentally regulated, secreted growth factor homologous to pleiotrophin (PTN), which has heparin binding activity. Binds anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) which induces ALK activation and subsequent phosphorylation of the insulin receptor substrate (IRS1), followed by the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and PI3-kinase, and the induction of cell proliferation. Involved in neointima formation after arterial injury, possibly by mediating leukocyte recruitment. Also involved in early fetal adrenal gland development (By similarity).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
By heparin and retinoic acid.
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with MDK: view

Animal Models for MDK Gene

MGI Knock Outs for MDK:
  • Mdk tm1Tmu
  • Mdk tm1.1(KOMP)Mbp

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for MDK

miRNA for MDK Gene

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for MDK Gene

Localization for MDK Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MDK Gene

Secreted.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for MDK Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for MDK gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
cytoskeleton 1
cytosol 1
nucleus 1
plasma membrane 1

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for MDK Gene

Pathways & Interactions for MDK Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with MDK: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for MDK Gene

Activates:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for MDK Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001662 behavioral fear response IEA --
GO:0007165 signal transduction NAS 7835084
GO:0007219 Notch signaling pathway TAS --
GO:0007614 short-term memory IEA --
GO:0009611 response to wounding ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MDK: view

Drugs & Compounds for MDK Gene

(3) Drugs for MDK Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Heparin Approved, Investigational Pharma Antagonist 761,246

(3) Additional Compounds for MDK Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with MDK: view

Transcripts for MDK Gene

Unigene Clusters for MDK Gene

Midkine (neurite growth-promoting factor 2):
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for MDK Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d · 1e · 1f ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7a · 7b · 7c · 7d · 7e · 7f
SP1: - - - - - -
SP2: - - - - -
SP3: - -
SP4: -
SP5: - - - - -
SP6: -
SP7: - - -
SP8:
SP9: -
SP10: - - -

Relevant External Links for MDK Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
MDK
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
MDK

Expression for MDK Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for MDK Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for MDK Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Ovary (x7.8), Pituitary (x4.7), and Cervix - Ectocervix (x4.3).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for MDK Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Amniocyte (47.8).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for MDK Gene



SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for MDK Gene Hs.82045

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for MDK Gene

P21741-MK_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Expressed in various tumor cell lines. In insulinoma tissue predominantly expressed in precancerous lesions.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with MDK: view

No data available for Protein tissue co-expression partners for MDK Gene

Orthologs for MDK Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for MDK Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia MDK 35
  • 92.45 (n)
  • 92.97 (a)
BMK 36
  • 94 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Mdk 35
  • 88.98 (n)
  • 87.9 (a)
Mdk 16
Mdk 36
  • 88 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Mdk 35
  • 88.71 (n)
  • 87.9 (a)
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves MDK 35
  • 73.05 (n)
  • 62.77 (a)
MDK 36
  • 61 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia MDK 36
  • 61 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia mdk 35
  • 69.5 (n)
  • 65.96 (a)
MGC75716 35
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.899 35
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii mdka 35
  • 66.67 (n)
  • 63.92 (a)
mdka 36
  • 53 (a)
OneToMany
mdkb 36
  • 46 (a)
OneToMany
Species with no ortholog for MDK:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • dog (Canis familiaris)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for MDK Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for MDK (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for MDK (if available)

Paralogs for MDK Gene

Paralogs for MDK Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for MDK Gene using alignment to 6 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with MDK: view

Variants for MDK Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for MDK Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 11 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1051037 -- 46,383,557(+) TCCCT(C/T)TCCCA nc-transcript-variant, utr-variant-3-prime
rs11557364 -- 46,381,118(+) GGGCG(A/C)CCGGG upstream-variant-2KB, utr-variant-5-prime
rs11557366 -- 46,382,108(-) GAGGT(A/G)AGCGC intron-variant, reference, synonymous-codon
rs11557367 -- 46,382,121(-) TTTGG(C/G)GACCG intron-variant, reference, missense
rs7481848 -- 46,382,319(+) CCGGG(G/T)AGCGA intron-variant, nc-transcript-variant, reference, synonymous-codon

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for MDK Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv825867 CNV Gain 20364138
dgv1089n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv897318 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv1090n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv309 CNV Loss 18451855

Variation tolerance for MDK Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 45.6% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.15; 3.49% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for MDK Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
MDK

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MDK Gene

Disorders for MDK Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(1) MalaCards diseases for MDK Gene - From: OMIM

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
mesomelic dysplasia, kantaputra type
  • mesomelic dysplasia kantaputra type
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search MDK in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for MDK

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
MDK
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
MDK
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
MDK
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with MDK: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for MDK Gene

Publications for MDK Gene

  1. Cloning, characterization and developmental regulation of two members of a novel human gene family of neurite outgrowth-promoting proteins. (PMID: 1768439) Kretschmer P.J. … Kovesdi I. (Growth Factors 1991) 3 4 23 67
  2. Midkine gene (MDK), a gene for prenatal differentiation and neuroregulation, maps to band 11p11.2 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. (PMID: 8406506) Kaname T. … Kajii T. (Genomics 1993) 2 3 23
  3. Midkine prevents ventricular remodeling and improves long-term survival after myocardial infarction. (PMID: 19060126) Takenaka H. … Kadomatsu K. (Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 2009) 3 23
  4. Midkine positively regulates the proliferation of human gastric cancer cells. (PMID: 19250738) Xu Y. … Liu Y. (Cancer Lett. 2009) 3 23
  5. The angiogenic factor midkine is regulated by dexamethasone and retinoic acid during alveolarization and in alveolar epithelial cells. (PMID: 19698107) Zhang H. … Savani R.C. (Respir. Res. 2009) 3 23

Products for MDK Gene

Sources for MDK Gene

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