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MDK Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 66
GCID: GC11P046402

Midkine (Neurite Growth-Promoting Factor 2)


(Previous symbol: NEGF2)
  See MDK-related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Midkine (Neurite Growth-Promoting Factor 2)1 2     MK2 3
NEGF21 2 3 5     midkine2
Amphiregulin-Associated Protein2 3     Retinoic Acid Inducible Factor2
Midgestation And Kidney Protein2 3     MK13
Neurite Outgrowth-Promoting Factor 22 3     Neurite Outgrowth-Promoting Protein3
ARAP2 3     

External Ids:    HGNC: 69721   Entrez Gene: 41922   Ensembl: ENSG000001104927   OMIM: 1620965   UniProtKB: P217413   

Export aliases for MDK gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC11P048187 GC11P047092 GC11P046434 GC11P046367 GC11P046359 GC11P046109


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for MDK Gene:
This gene encodes a member of a small family of secreted growth factors that binds heparin and responds to
retinoic acid. The encoded protein promotes cell growth, migration, and angiogenesis, in particular during
tumorigenesis. This gene has been targeted as a therapeutic for a variety of different disorders. Alternatively
spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed. (provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012)

GeneCards Summary for MDK Gene:
MDK (midkine (neurite growth-promoting factor 2)) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with MDK include mesomelic dysplasia kantaputra type, and periapical granuloma. GO annotations related to this gene include growth factor activity and heparin binding. An important paralog of this gene is PTN.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: MK_HUMAN, P21741
Function: Developmentally regulated, secreted growth factor homologous to pleiotrophin (PTN), which has heparin
binding activity. Binds anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) which induces ALK activation and subsequent
phosphorylation of the insulin receptor substrate (IRS1), followed by the activation of mitogen-activated protein
kinase (MAPK) and PI3-kinase, and the induction of cell proliferation. Involved in neointima formation after
arterial injury, possibly by mediating leukocyte recruitment. Also involved in early fetal adrenal gland
development (By similarity)

Gene Wiki entry for MDK (Midkine) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000011.9  NC_018922.2  NT_009237.19  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the MDK gene promoter:
         STAT3   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids (see all 2): MDK promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for MDK

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat MDK


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 11p11.2   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  11p11.2   HGNC cytogenetic band: 11p11.2

MDK Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
MDK gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 11         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC11P046402:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
46,402,306 bp from pter      End:
46,405,375 bp from pter
Size:
3,070 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: MK_HUMAN, P21741 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Midkine precursor  
Size: 143 amino acids; 15585 Da
Subunit: Homodimer. Interacts with ALK
2 PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for MDK:
1MKC (3D)        1MKN (3D)    
Secondary accessions: Q2LEK4 Q9UCC7
Alternative splicing: 2 isoforms:  P21741-1   P21741-2   (Found in cancer tissues with expression in the tumor bodies and surrounding normal cells)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for MDK: NX_P21741

Explore proteomics data for MDK at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Glycosylation2 at Thr119
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See MDK Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (6 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001012333.1  NP_001012334.1  NP_001257479.1  NP_001257480.1  NP_001257481.1  NP_002382.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000385451   ENSP00000416241   ENSP00000352852   ENSP00000432649   ENSP00000378936  
     ENSP00000378933   ENSP00000433240   ENSP00000384034   ENSP00000378932  
    Reactome Protein details: P21741

    MDK Human Recombinant Protein Products:

    EMD Millipore Purified and/or Recombinant MDK Protein
    R&D Systems Recombinant & Natural Proteins for MDK (Midkine)
    Browse recombinant and purified proteins available from Enzo Life Sciences
    OriGene Purified Proteins for MDK
    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for MDK
    OriGene MassSpec for MDK
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for MDK
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for MDK
    Novus Biologicals MDK Proteins
    Novus Biologicals MDK Lysates
    Sino Biological Recombinant Protein for MDK
    Sino Biological Cell Lysate for MDK
    ProSpec Recombinant Protein for MDK
    Browse Proteins at Cloud-Clone Corp.

     
    Search eBioscience for Proteins for MDK 

    MDK Antibody Products:

    Browse EMD Millipore's Extensive Line of Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies
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    Novus Biologicals MDK Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for MDK
    Browse Antibodies at Cloud-Clone Corp.
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    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for MDK

    MDK Assay Products:

    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
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    R&D Systems ELISAs for MDK (Midkine)         (see all)
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    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Browse ELISAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    Browse CLIAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    Search eBioscience for ELISAs for MDK 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    5 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR020089 PTN/MK_N_dom
     IPR020091 PTN/MK_diS
     IPR000762 Midkine_heparin-bd_GF
     IPR020092 PTN_MK_heparin-bd_GF_CS
     IPR020090 PTN/MK_C_dom

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P21741

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P21741

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB000762 PTN/MK heparin-binding protein

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: MK_HUMAN, P21741
    Similarity: Belongs to the pleiotrophin family


    Find genes that share domains with MDK           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: MK_HUMAN, P21741
    Function: Developmentally regulated, secreted growth factor homologous to pleiotrophin (PTN), which has heparin
    binding activity. Binds anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) which induces ALK activation and subsequent
    phosphorylation of the insulin receptor substrate (IRS1), followed by the activation of mitogen-activated protein
    kinase (MAPK) and PI3-kinase, and the induction of cell proliferation. Involved in neointima formation after
    arterial injury, possibly by mediating leukocyte recruitment. Also involved in early fetal adrenal gland
    development (By similarity)
    Induction: By heparin and retinoic acid

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for MDK:
    neurite growth promoting factor 2,retinoic acid responsive,heparin binding cytokine family

         Gene Ontology (GO): 2 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0008083growth factor activity NAS1639750
    GO:0008201heparin binding IDA9384573
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with MDK           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         11 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 1 allele(MGI details for Mdk):
     behavior/neurological  cardiovascular system  cellular  hearing/vestibular/ear  hematopoietic system 
     homeostasis/metabolism  immune system  liver/biliary system  nervous system  renal/urinary system 
     reproductive system 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with MDK           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-out Mdktm1Tmu for MDK

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for MDK
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for MDK

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for MDK
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for MDK

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target MDK:
    hsa-mir-1229-3p (MIRT036299), hsa-mir-124-3p (MIRT022440), hsa-mir-17-5p (MIRT050887), hsa-mir-92b-3p (MIRT040730)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat MDK using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate MDK (see all 9):
    hsa-miR-320a hsa-miR-4286 hsa-miR-188-5p hsa-miR-320d hsa-miR-124 hsa-miR-320b hsa-miR-656 hsa-miR-506
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidMDK 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for MDK
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat MDK

    Gene Editing
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    Clone
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    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for MDK
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 3): MDK (NM_002391)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for MDK
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for MDK
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat MDK

    Cell Line
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    In Situ Assay
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for MDK

    Flow Cytometry
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    eBioscience FlowRNA Probe Sets ( VA1-12670) for MDK 


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    MK_HUMAN, P21741: Secreted
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    extracellular5
    nucleus2
    cytoskeleton1
    plasma membrane1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 1 cellular component term:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005576extracellular region TAS--

    Find genes that share ontologies with MDK           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for MDK About   (see all 17)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathSelected contained pathways About (see all per SuperPath)
    1Apoptotic Pathways in Synovial Fibroblasts
    Mitochondrial Apoptosis0.85
    Rac1 Pathway0.65
    Cellular Apoptosis Pathway0.85
    Glioma Invasiveness0.64
    Apoptotic Pathways in Synovial Fibroblasts0.84
    Actin-Based Motility by Rho Family GTPases0.62
    p53 Mediated Apoptosis0.84
    ERK5 Signaling0.61
    2GPCR Pathway
    Ras Pathway0.73
    Breast Cancer Regulation by Stathmin10.58
    Paxillin Interactions0.73
    NFAT in Immune Response0.58
    GPCR Pathway0.62
    Estrogen Pathway0.55
    Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma0.59
    3ERK Signaling
    Rho Family GTPases0.61
    Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer0.51
    ERK Signaling0.61
    ILK Signaling0.49
    MAPK Signaling0.58
    4Nanog in Mammalian ESC Pluripotency
    Nanog in Mammalian ESC Pluripotency0.61
    14-3-3 Induced Intracellular Signaling0.59
    GSK3 Signaling0.61
    eNOS Signaling0.48
    5TGF-Beta Pathway
    TGF-Beta Pathway0.60
    JAK-STAT Pathway0.57
    MAPK Family Pathway0.60
    JNK Pathway0.51


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with MDK           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    Selected Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for MDK (see all 54)
        Nuclear Receptor Activation by Vitamin-A
    Paxillin Interactions
    Telomerase Components in Cell Signaling
    Mitochondrial Apoptosis
    Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer

    2 BioSystems Pathways for MDK
        Syndecan-4-mediated signaling events
    Glypican 2 network


    1 Reactome Pathway for MDK
        NOTCH2 Activation and Transmission of Signal to the Nucleus


        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including MDK: 
              Neurogenesis in human mouse rat
              Growth Factors in human mouse rat
              Angiogenic Growth Factors in human mouse rat
              Angiogenesis in human mouse rat
              Inflammatory Response & Autoimmunity 384HT in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for MDK

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for MDK (P217412, 3 ENSP000003528524) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 27)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    RPL18AQ025432, 3MINT-64037 I2D: score=5 
    UBQLN4Q9NRR52, 3, ENSP000003572924MINT-2860827 MINT-2860846 I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000357292
    MAPK6Q166592, 3, ENSP000002618454MINT-8261428 I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000261845
    LRP1Q079543, ENSP000002430774I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000243077
    NCLP193383, ENSP000003181954I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000318195
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 22):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001662behavioral fear response IEA--
    GO:0007165signal transduction NAS7835084
    GO:0007219Notch signaling pathway TAS--
    GO:0007399nervous system development NAS9384573
    GO:0007614short-term memory IEA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with MDK           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for MDK (MK)

    1 HMDB Compound for MDK    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    HeparinArteven (see all 17)9005-49-6--

    6 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for MDK gene    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    heparan sulfate 42.4 3 16474431 (1), 11277697 (1), 12147681 (1)
    retinoic acid 37.7 25 10931510 (7), 19698107 (4), 8434639 (2), 1768439 (1) (see all 5)
    ganciclovir 29.4 4 11267987 (2), 10363587 (1)
    bromodeoxyuridine 19.5 3 15734764 (2)
    heparin 13 5 9562618 (4), 1768439 (1)
    lipid 0 3 16474431 (1), 12147681 (1)



    Find genes that share compounds with MDK           About GenesLikeMe



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for MDK gene (6 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001012333.2  NM_001012334.2  NM_001270550.1  NM_001270551.1  NM_001270552.1  NM_002391.4  

    Unigene Cluster for MDK:

    Midkine (neurite growth-promoting factor 2)
    Hs.82045  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: AK309963
    12 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000405308 ENST00000441869 ENST00000490240 ENST00000359803(uc001nco.3)
    ENST00000533952 ENST00000395569(uc009yla.3) ENST00000395566(uc001ncp.3 uc009ylb.3)
    ENST00000533283 ENST00000481047 ENST00000489525(uc009ykz.1) ENST00000407067
    ENST00000395565(uc001ncq.3)
    miRNA
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    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate MDK (see all 9):
    hsa-miR-320a hsa-miR-4286 hsa-miR-188-5p hsa-miR-320d hsa-miR-124 hsa-miR-320b hsa-miR-656 hsa-miR-506
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidMDK 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat MDK
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    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 3): MDK (NM_002391)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for MDK
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat MDK
    Primer
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    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for MDK
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for MDK
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat MDK
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat MDK
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat MDK
    Flow Cytometry
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    eBioscience FlowRNA Probe Sets ( VA1-12670) for MDK 

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AK130889.1 AK308210.1 AK309963.1 BC011704.2 DQ323888.1 DQ323889.1 DQ323890.1 M69148.1 
    NR_073039.1 X55110.1 

    15 DOTS entries:

    DT.449955  DT.95337920  DT.101978137  DT.100809669  DT.95128982  DT.102837247  DT.95339012  DT.100809671 
    DT.100712006  DT.120714646  DT.100809661  DT.100809672  DT.102837249  DT.40228938  DT.92462040 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 359):

    N25317 BM838414 BG683279 BQ021188 BM789652 CB111177 BG110190 AA340693 
    BM782137 BQ267839 BQ070699 BM688870 AI633889 BQ029211 AA402271 BM760397 
    BG339806 BM791426 BQ787607 BM913540 W25583 BQ706596 AA330721 AA720944 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    Selected Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for MDK (see all 10)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d · 1e · 1f ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7a · 7b · 7c · 7d · 7e · 7f
    SP1:                          -     -     -     -     -                             -                                       
    SP2:                                -     -     -     -                             -                                       
    SP3:                                                  -                             -                                       
    SP4:                                                                                -                                       
    SP5:                          -     -     -     -     -                                                                     


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for MDK

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

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    MDK expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: CCCTGCCTTG
    MDK Expression
    About this image


    MDK expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 22) fully expand
     
     Tooth (Integumentary System)    fully expand to see all 9 entries
             Odontoblasts Dentin
             Dentin
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 5 entries
             Endothelial Cells Blood Brain Barrier
             Midbrain tegmentum
     
     Epithelial Cells
             Early Ameloblasts Dental Enamel
     
     Neural Tube (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             Metencephalon
     
     Endothelium (Cardiovascular System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Angioblasts Embryonic Blood Islands
    MDK Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    MDK Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.82045

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: MK_HUMAN, P21741
    Tissue specificity: Expressed in various tumor cell lines. In insulinoma tissue predominantly expressed in
    precancerous lesions

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including MDK: 
              Neurogenesis in human mouse rat
              Growth Factors in human mouse rat
              Angiogenic Growth Factors in human mouse rat
              Angiogenesis in human mouse rat
              Inflammatory Response & Autoimmunity 384HT in human mouse rat

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

    Orthologs for MDK gene from Selected species (see all 9)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Mdk1 , 5 midkine1, 5 88.98(n)1
    87.9(a)1
      2 (50.63 cM)5
    172421  NM_010784.41  NP_034914.11 
     919298055 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves MDK1 midkine (neurite growth-promoting factor 2) 73.05(n)
    62.77(a)
      423196  NM_001113289.1  NP_001106760.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia MDK6
    midkine (neurite growth-promoting factor 2)
    61(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    1(42613104-42623675)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia Xl.8992 Xenopus laevis mRNA for pleiotrophic factor-alpha2, more 78.56(n)    D42057.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii mdka2 midkine-related growth factor 77.35(n)   30277  AF149802.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for MDK (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for MDK (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for MDK gene
    PTN2  
    1 SIMAP similar gene for MDK using alignment to 6 protein entries:     MK_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    PTN

    Find genes that share paralogs with MDK           About GenesLikeMe



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for MDK (see all 67)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 11 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs115573641,2
    C--46402668(+) GGGCGA/CCCGGG 7 -- us2k1 ut51 ese32Minor allele frequency- C:0.00NA 4
    rs1154130031,2
    F--46402749(+) CCCCCT/GCCCCA 7 -- us2k1 int1 ut511Minor allele frequency- G:0.10WA 118
    rs1875544601,2
    --46402763(+) GCCAGC/TAGGGC 7 -- us2k1 int1 ut510--------
    rs353242231,2
    C--46402852(+) AGCTGA/GGGCCT 7 -- us2k1 int13Minor allele frequency- G:0.12NA CSA EA 123
    rs1117903561,2
    C,F--46402988(+) CCGCTC/TGGAAG 7 -- us2k1 int11Minor allele frequency- T:0.50NA 2
    rs342615021,2
    C,F,H--46403484(+) CCGCCG/ACCACC 7 -- int1 ut516Minor allele frequency- A:0.02NS NA 728
    rs205421,2
    C,F--46403649(+) GCCCTG/ACTGGC 13 /L syn1 int19Minor allele frequency- A:0.10MN NS NA WA EU 5793
    rs115573661,2
    C--46403658(-) GAGGTG/AAGCGC 13 /L syn1 int12Minor allele frequency- A:0.00NA 4
    rs2005633381,2
    --46403724(+) GCAGGC/TGAGGC 7 -- int10--------
    rs2021103301,2
    --46403728(+) CGAGG-/CCCCCCT 7 -- int10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for MDK (46402306 - 46405375 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 5 variations for MDK:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv897318CNV Loss21882294
    nsv309CNV Loss18451855
    dgv1089n71CNV Loss21882294
    dgv1090n71CNV Loss21882294
    nsv825867CNV Gain20364138

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
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    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 162096    OMIM disorders: --

    3 diseases for MDK:    
    About MalaCards
    mesomelic dysplasia kantaputra type    periapical granuloma    hepatocellular carcinoma

    1 disease from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for MDK:
    Cancer

    Find genes that share disorders with MDK           About GenesLikeMe

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for MDK gene (see all 11)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    gastric cancer 28.3 16 17484808 (4), 19250738 (4), 17665317 (1), 8434639 (1)
    carcinoma 23.9 8 10408712 (3), 11731432 (1), 17484808 (1), 8434639 (1) (see all 5)
    hepatocellular carcinoma 22.3 1 11977631 (1)
    tumors 16 26 11731432 (4), 17484808 (4), 11267987 (4), 8434639 (3) (see all 10)
    herpes simplex 9.71 2 11267987 (1), 10363587 (1)
    inflammation 0 3 17607302 (2), 9562618 (1)
    breast cancer 0 3 9065593 (2), 8434639 (1)
    adenocarcinoma 0 1 8434639 (1)
    metastasis 0 3 11977631 (2)
    hiv infections 0 1 16474431 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): MDK
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: MDK (1 document)

    Export disorders for MDK gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for MDK gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 149):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with MDK)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Cloning, characterization and developmental regulation of two members of a novel human gene family of neurite outgrowth-promoting proteins. (PubMed id 1768439)1, 2, 9 Kretschmer P.J.... Kovesdi I. (Growth Factors 1991)
    2. Amphiregulin-associated protein: complete amino acid sequence of a protein produced by the 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-treated human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MCF-7. (PubMed id 1883381)1, 2, 9 Shoyab M.... Plowman G.D. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1991)
    3. Midkine gene (MDK), a gene for prenatal differentiation and neuroregulation, maps to band 11p11.2 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. (PubMed id 8406506)1, 3, 9 Kaname T....Kajii T. (Genomics 1993)
    4. Abnormal expression, highly efficient detection and novel truncations of midkine in human tumors, cancers and cell lines. (PubMed id 17379400)1, 2 Tao P.... Li Z. (Cancer Lett. 2007)
    5. Signal peptide prediction based on analysis of experimentally verified cleavage sites. (PubMed id 15340161)1, 2 Zhang Z. and Henzel W.J. (Protein Sci. 2004)
    6. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    7. Association of an intronic polymorphism in the midkine (MK) gene with human sporadic colorectal cancer. (PubMed id 12175547)1, 4 Ahmed K.M....Shinozawa T. (Cancer Lett. 2002)
    8. Midkine binds to anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and acts as a growth factor for different cell types. (PubMed id 12122009)1, 2 Stoica G.E....Wellstein A. (J. Biol. Chem. 2002)
    9. Solution structure of midkine, a new heparin-binding growth factor. (PubMed id 9384573)1, 2 Iwasaki W.... Inagaki F. (EMBO J. 1997)
    10. Identification of novel heparin-releasable proteins, as well as the cytokines midkine and pleiotrophin, in human postheparin plasma. (PubMed id 8241100)1, 2 Novotny W.F.... Milner P.G. (Arterioscler. Thromb. 1993)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 4192 HGNC: 6972 AceView: MDK Ensembl:ENSG00000110492 euGenes: HUgn4192
    ECgene: MDK H-InvDB: MDK

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for MDK Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for MDK Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for MDK gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving MDK

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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