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Aliases for MDK Gene

Aliases for MDK Gene

  • Midkine (Neurite Growth-Promoting Factor 2) 2 3 5
  • Neurite Outgrowth-Promoting Factor 2 3 4
  • Amphiregulin-Associated Protein 3 4
  • Midgestation And Kidney Protein 3 4
  • NEGF2 3 4
  • ARAP 3 4
  • MK 3 4
  • Neurite Outgrowth-Promoting Protein 4
  • Retinoic Acid Inducible Factor 3
  • Midkine 3
  • MK1 4

External Ids for MDK Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for MDK Gene

  • NEGF2

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for MDK Gene

  • GC11P048187
  • GC11P047092
  • GC11P046434
  • GC11P046367
  • GC11P046359
  • GC11P046109

Summaries for MDK Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for MDK Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of a small family of secreted growth factors that binds heparin and responds to retinoic acid. The encoded protein promotes cell growth, migration, and angiogenesis, in particular during tumorigenesis. This gene has been targeted as a therapeutic for a variety of different disorders. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

GeneCards Summary for MDK Gene

MDK (Midkine (Neurite Growth-Promoting Factor 2)) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Activation of cAMP-Dependent PKA and GPCR Pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include growth factor activity and heparin binding. An important paralog of this gene is PTN.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MDK Gene

  • Developmentally regulated, secreted growth factor homologous to pleiotrophin (PTN), which has heparin binding activity. Binds anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) which induces ALK activation and subsequent phosphorylation of the insulin receptor substrate (IRS1), followed by the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and PI3-kinase, and the induction of cell proliferation. Involved in neointima formation after arterial injury, possibly by mediating leukocyte recruitment. Also involved in early fetal adrenal gland development (By similarity).

Gene Wiki entry for MDK Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for MDK Gene

Genomics for MDK Gene

Regulatory Elements for MDK Gene

Enhancers for MDK Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH11F046344 1 Ensembl ENCODE 12.6 -30.9 -30851 10.4 HDGF CREB3L1 ZNF133 ARID4B SIN3A ZNF2 GLIS2 ZNF143 KLF13 ZNF263 C11orf49 LOC105376662 LOC101928894 SNORD67 LOC105376659 ENSG00000254514 MDK CHRM4 CREB3L1 LOC101928919
GH11F046335 1 ENCODE 11.8 -40.8 -40773 8.7 HDGF PKNOX1 SIN3A ZNF766 ZNF143 FOS DEK ZNF263 ZHX2 REST MDK C11orf49 ZNF408 MADD DGKZ GC11P046351
GH11F046520 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE 11.6 +141.4 141400 3.3 PKNOX1 ARNT ZNF2 RAD21 GATA2 ZNF366 SCRT2 FOS MIXL1 CEBPB ATG13 MDK DGKZ CHRM4 HARBI1 C11orf49 ZNF408 AMBRA1 MIR3160-1
GH11F046527 1.2 Ensembl ENCODE 11.6 +147.9 147945 2.2 CBX3 PKNOX1 TBL1XR1 WRNIP1 ZNF2 RAD21 RFX5 GLIS2 ZNF143 RCOR1 MDK DGKZ CHRM4 HARBI1 ATG13 PACSIN3 LARGE2 AMBRA1 MIR3160-1
GH11F046519 0.7 Ensembl 11.6 +138.8 138845 0.8 SOX13 ELF3 ESRRA SAP130 CEBPG CHAMP1 RARA KAT2B GATA2 POLR2A MDK DGKZ CHRM4 HARBI1 ATG13 MIR3160-1 AMBRA1
- Elite enhancer/Elite enhancer-gene association Download Table
Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around MDK on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for MDK Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00000562005 744 2601 PKNOX1 ZFP64 SIN3A ARID4B GLIS2 ZNF263 SP3 SP5 REST PPARG
ENSR00001768484 -856 201 SOX13 CTCF TFAP4 ZNF792 ZFP64 ARID4B UBTF ZNF48 ZIC2 ZFHX2

Genomic Location for MDK Gene

Chromosome:
11
Start:
46,380,756 bp from pter
End:
46,383,837 bp from pter
Size:
3,082 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for MDK Gene

Genes around MDK on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
MDK Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for MDK Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for MDK Gene

Proteins for MDK Gene

  • Protein details for MDK Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P21741-MK_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Midkine
    Protein Accession:
    P21741
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q2LEK4
    • Q9UCC7

    Protein attributes for MDK Gene

    Size:
    143 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    15585 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer. Interacts with ALK.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for MDK Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for MDK Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for MDK Gene

Post-translational modifications for MDK Gene

  • Glycosylation at Thr 119
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Antibody Products

  • Santa Cruz Biotechnology (SCBT) Antibodies for MDK

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for MDK Gene

Domains & Families for MDK Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for MDK Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P21741

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

MK_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the pleiotrophin family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the pleiotrophin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with MDK: view

No data available for Gene Families for MDK Gene

Function for MDK Gene

Molecular function for MDK Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
neurite growth promoting factor 2,retinoic acid responsive,heparin binding cytokine family
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Developmentally regulated, secreted growth factor homologous to pleiotrophin (PTN), which has heparin binding activity. Binds anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) which induces ALK activation and subsequent phosphorylation of the insulin receptor substrate (IRS1), followed by the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and PI3-kinase, and the induction of cell proliferation. Involved in neointima formation after arterial injury, possibly by mediating leukocyte recruitment. Also involved in early fetal adrenal gland development (By similarity).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
By heparin and retinoic acid.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for MDK Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0008083 growth factor activity NAS 1639750
GO:0008201 heparin binding IEA,IDA 9384573
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MDK: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with MDK: view

Animal Models for MDK Gene

MGI Knock Outs for MDK:
  • Mdk tm1Tmu
  • Mdk tm1.1(KOMP)Mbp

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for MDK

miRNA for MDK Gene

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for MDK Gene

Localization for MDK Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MDK Gene

Secreted.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for MDK Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for MDK gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
cytoskeleton 1
cytosol 1
nucleus 1
plasma membrane 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for MDK Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region IEA,TAS --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0042995 cell projection IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MDK: view

Pathways & Interactions for MDK Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with MDK: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for MDK Gene

Activates:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for MDK Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001662 behavioral fear response IEA --
GO:0007165 signal transduction NAS 7835084
GO:0007219 Notch signaling pathway TAS --
GO:0007275 multicellular organism development IEA --
GO:0007399 nervous system development NAS 9384573
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MDK: view

Drugs & Compounds for MDK Gene

(3) Drugs for MDK Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Heparin Approved, Investigational Pharma Antagonist 812,256

(3) Additional Compounds for MDK Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with MDK: view

Transcripts for MDK Gene

Unigene Clusters for MDK Gene

Midkine (neurite growth-promoting factor 2):
Representative Sequences:

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for MDK Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d · 1e · 1f ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7a · 7b · 7c · 7d · 7e · 7f
SP1: - - - - - -
SP2: - - - - -
SP3: - -
SP4: -
SP5: - - - - -
SP6: -
SP7: - - -
SP8:
SP9: -
SP10: - - -

Relevant External Links for MDK Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
MDK
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
MDK

Expression for MDK Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for MDK Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for MDK Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Ovary (x7.8), Pituitary (x4.7), and Cervix - Ectocervix (x4.3).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for MDK Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Amniocyte (47.8).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for MDK Gene



NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of MDK Gene:

MDK

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for MDK Gene:

Hs.82045

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for MDK Gene:

P21741-MK_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Expressed in various tumor cell lines. In insulinoma tissue predominantly expressed in precancerous lesions.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with MDK: view

Primer Products

No data available for Protein tissue co-expression partners for MDK Gene

Orthologs for MDK Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for MDK Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia BMK 35
  • 94 (a)
OneToOne
MDK 34
  • 92.45 (n)
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Mdk 34 16 35
  • 88.98 (n)
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Mdk 34
  • 88.71 (n)
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves MDK 34 35
  • 73.05 (n)
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia MDK 35
  • 61 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia mdk 34
  • 69.5 (n)
MGC75716 34
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.899 34
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii mdka 34 35
  • 66.67 (n)
mdkb 35
  • 46 (a)
OneToMany
Species where no ortholog for MDK was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • dog (Canis familiaris)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for MDK Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for MDK (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for MDK (if available)

Paralogs for MDK Gene

Paralogs for MDK Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for MDK Gene using alignment to 6 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with MDK: view

Variants for MDK Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for MDK Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 11 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1051037 -- 46,383,557(+) TCCCT(C/T)TCCCA nc-transcript-variant, utr-variant-3-prime
rs111790356 -- 46,381,438(+) CCGCT(C/T)GGAAG intron-variant, upstream-variant-2KB
rs112695639 -- 46,382,387(+) TTTCC(G/T)CGAGG intron-variant, nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense
rs113928050 -- 46,383,700(+) AGCTT(A/G)AGCCT nc-transcript-variant, utr-variant-3-prime
rs113964465 -- 46,382,749(+) CAAAG(C/G)TCAGC splice-donor-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for MDK Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv3626183 CNV gain 21293372
esv3626185 CNV loss 21293372
nsv309 CNV deletion 18451855
nsv554201 CNV loss 21841781
nsv554202 CNV loss 21841781
nsv554203 CNV loss 21841781
nsv825867 CNV gain 20364138
nsv951610 CNV deletion 24416366

Variation tolerance for MDK Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 45.6% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.15; 3.49% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for MDK Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
MDK

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MDK Gene

Disorders for MDK Gene

Relevant External Links for MDK

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
MDK
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
MDK
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
MDK

No disorders were found for MDK Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for MDK Gene

Publications for MDK Gene

  1. Midkine gene (MDK), a gene for prenatal differentiation and neuroregulation, maps to band 11p11.2 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. (PMID: 8406506) Kaname T. … Kajii T. (Genomics 1993) 2 3 22 64
  2. Cloning, characterization and developmental regulation of two members of a novel human gene family of neurite outgrowth-promoting proteins. (PMID: 1768439) Kretschmer P.J. … Kovesdi I. (Growth Factors 1991) 3 4 22 64
  3. Amphiregulin-associated protein: complete amino acid sequence of a protein produced by the 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-treated human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MCF-7. (PMID: 1883381) Shoyab M. … Plowman G.D. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1991) 3 4 22 64
  4. Midkine prevents ventricular remodeling and improves long-term survival after myocardial infarction. (PMID: 19060126) Takenaka H. … Kadomatsu K. (Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 2009) 3 22 64
  5. Midkine positively regulates the proliferation of human gastric cancer cells. (PMID: 19250738) Xu Y. … Liu Y. (Cancer Lett. 2009) 3 22 64

Products for MDK Gene

Sources for MDK Gene

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