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Aliases for MDH2 Gene

Aliases for MDH2 Gene

  • Malate Dehydrogenase 2 2 3 5
  • Malate Dehydrogenase 2, NAD (Mitochondrial) 2 3
  • EC 4 61
  • Malate Dehydrogenase, Mitochondrial 3
  • Testicular Tissue Protein Li 120 3
  • MGC:3559 3
  • EC 1.1.1 61
  • M-MDH 3
  • MOR1 3
  • MDH 3

External Ids for MDH2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for MDH2 Gene

  • GC07P074212
  • GC07P075275
  • GC07P075289
  • GC07P075322
  • GC07P075515
  • GC07P075677
  • GC07P070763

Summaries for MDH2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for MDH2 Gene

  • Malate dehydrogenase catalyzes the reversible oxidation of malate to oxaloacetate, utilizing the NAD/NADH cofactor system in the citric acid cycle. The protein encoded by this gene is localized to the mitochondria and may play pivotal roles in the malate-aspartate shuttle that operates in the metabolic coordination between cytosol and mitochondria. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

GeneCards Summary for MDH2 Gene

MDH2 (Malate Dehydrogenase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with MDH2 include L-2-Hydroxyglutaric Aciduria and Anemia, Sideroblastic, With Ataxia. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Citrate cycle (TCA cycle). GO annotations related to this gene include poly(A) RNA binding and oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-OH group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor.

Gene Wiki entry for MDH2 Gene

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for MDH2 Gene

Genomics for MDH2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for MDH2 Gene

Enhancers for MDH2 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH07F076104 1.4 Ensembl ENCODE 27.8 +59.5 59494 5.1 HDGF PKNOX1 MLX ARNT CREB3L1 ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 YY1 STYXL1 MDH2 STAG3L1 SPDYE18 NSUN5P1 LOC100133091 ENSG00000230882 TRIM73 LOC100422695 SRRM3
GH07F076068 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE 24.4 +21.5 21473 1.5 BCOR CTCF PKNOX1 TBL1XR1 ZMYM3 SIN3A NFXL1 RAD21 ZNF121 GATA3 STYXL1 MDH2 CCL24 ENSG00000230882 SRRM3 LOC541473 GC07M076121 PIR44690 PIR46411
GH07F076008 1.3 Ensembl ENCODE 18.7 -37.5 -37455 4.7 ATF1 ZNF133 SIN3A GLI4 ZNF2 GLIS2 ZNF766 ZNF207 KLF7 ZNF263 STYXL1 MDH2 STAG3L1 ENSG00000230882 DTX2P1 NSUN5P1 SNORA14A MIR4651 POR RHBDD2
GH07F076162 1.8 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 12.6 +117.1 117119 4.9 HDGF PKNOX1 CREB3L1 ARNT ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A ZNF2 YY1 SLC30A9 STYXL1 ENSG00000230882 MDH2 STAG3L1 FAM185BP UPK3B POR RHBDD2 GTF2IP7 SRRM3
GH07F076070 0.8 Ensembl ENCODE 24.1 +23.4 23399 1.0 RING1 CBX1 CBX3 L3MBTL2 ZBTB33 TRIM28 STYXL1 MDH2 LOC100133091 NSUN5P1 SPDYE18 SRRM3 CCL24 TRIM73 STAG3L1 ENSG00000230882
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around MDH2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for MDH2 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

Genomic Location for MDH2 Gene

76,048,019 bp from pter
76,067,508 bp from pter
19,490 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for MDH2 Gene

Genes around MDH2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
MDH2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for MDH2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for MDH2 Gene

Proteins for MDH2 Gene

  • Protein details for MDH2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Malate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K414
    • B2RE78
    • B4DE44
    • E9PDB2
    • O43682

    Protein attributes for MDH2 Gene

    338 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    35503 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for MDH2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for MDH2 Gene


neXtProt entry for MDH2 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for MDH2 Gene


Post-translational modifications for MDH2 Gene

  • Acetylation is enhanced by up to 67% after treatment either with trichostin A (TSA) or with nicotinamide (NAM) with the appearance of tri-and tetraacetylations. Glucose also increases acetylation by about 60% (By similarity).
  • Ubiquitination at Lys 78 and Lys 301
  • Glycosylation at Ser 33
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for MDH2 Gene

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for MDH2 (MDH2)
  • Santa Cruz Biotechnology (SCBT) Antibodies for MDH2

Domains & Families for MDH2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the LDH/MDH superfamily. MDH type 1 family.
  • Belongs to the LDH/MDH superfamily. MDH type 1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with MDH2: view

No data available for Gene Families for MDH2 Gene

Function for MDH2 Gene

Molecular function for MDH2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
malate dehydrogenase,NAD,mitochondrial,catalyzing the eight step of citric acid cycle
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
(S)-malate + NAD(+) = oxaloacetate + NADH.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Enzyme activity is enhanced by acetylation.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for MDH2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for MDH2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0016491 oxidoreductase activity IEA --
GO:0016615 malate dehydrogenase activity IEA --
GO:0016616 oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-OH group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor IEA --
GO:0030060 L-malate dehydrogenase activity EXP,IMP 6576816
GO:0043621 protein self-association IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MDH2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with MDH2: view

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for MDH2

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for MDH2

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for MDH2 Gene

Localization for MDH2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MDH2 Gene

Mitochondrion matrix.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for MDH2 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
mitochondrion 5
nucleus 5
plasma membrane 2
cytosol 2
peroxisome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for MDH2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA 21630459
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm IDA --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA,IDA 16740313
GO:0005743 mitochondrial inner membrane IEA --
GO:0005759 mitochondrial matrix TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MDH2: view

Pathways & Interactions for MDH2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with MDH2: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for MDH2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005975 carbohydrate metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006094 gluconeogenesis TAS --
GO:0006099 tricarboxylic acid cycle TAS --
GO:0006107 oxaloacetate metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006108 malate metabolic process IMP 6576816
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MDH2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for MDH2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for MDH2 Gene

(24) Drugs for MDH2 Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Citric Acid Vet_approved Nutra Agonist, Activator, Target 1106
NADH Nutra Target 0
malic acid Pharma Agonist, Activator 0
NAD Pharma Full agonist, Agonist 0

(36) Additional Compounds for MDH2 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Hydrogen Ion
  • Hydrogen cation
  • Hydron
  • Proton
L-Malic acid
  • (-)-(S)-Malate
  • (-)-(S)-Malic acid
  • (-)-Hydroxysuccinate
  • (-)-Hydroxysuccinic acid
  • (-)-L-Malic acid
Oxalacetic acid
  • 2-Ketosuccinate
  • 2-Ketosuccinic acid
  • 2-Oxobutanedioate
  • 2-Oxobutanedioic acid
  • 2-Oxosuccinate
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with MDH2: view

Transcripts for MDH2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for MDH2 Gene

Malate dehydrogenase 2, NAD (mitochondrial):
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for MDH2

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for MDH2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for MDH2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for MDH2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for MDH2 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for MDH2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Muscle - Skeletal (x5.5).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for MDH2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver, secretome (7.7).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for MDH2 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for MDH2 Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of MDH2 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for MDH2 Gene:

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with MDH2: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for MDH2 Gene

Orthologs for MDH2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for MDH2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia MDH2 34 35
  • 99.51 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia MDH2 35
  • 92 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia MDH2 34 35
  • 87.87 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Mdh2 34
  • 85.4 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Mdh2 34 16 35
  • 85.21 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia MDH2 35
  • 79 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia MDH2 35
  • 73 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves MDH2 34 35
  • 78.93 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia MDH2 35
  • 80 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia mdh2 34
  • 74.46 (n)
Str.1699 34
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.26083 34
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii mdh2 34 35
  • 76.46 (n)
Dr.25868 34
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.5113 34
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP001903 34
  • 65.57 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Mdh2 34 35
  • 62.76 (n)
CG7998 36
  • 59 (a)
CG10749 36 35
  • 51 (a)
CG10748 36 35
  • 45 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea mdh-1 36
  • 59 (a)
mdh-2 34 35
  • 58.59 (n)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ADR152C 34
  • 57.22 (n)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0F25960g 34
  • 54.37 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes MDH1 34 35 37
  • 53.5 (n)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons mMDH1 34
  • 58.76 (n)
Alicante grape
(Vitis vinifera)
eudicotyledons Vvi.82 34
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os01g0649100 34
  • 58.86 (n)
Os.26206 34
(Hordeum vulgare)
Liliopsida Hv.702 34
(Triticum aestivum)
Liliopsida Ta.1039 34
(Zea mays)
Liliopsida Zm.2061 34
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU04899 34
  • 60.47 (n)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes SPCC306.08c 34
  • 54.61 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.4030 35
  • 54 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.4779 34
Species where no ortholog for MDH2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)

Evolution for MDH2 Gene

Gene Tree for MDH2 (if available)
Gene Tree for MDH2 (if available)

Paralogs for MDH2 Gene

No data available for Paralogs for MDH2 Gene

Variants for MDH2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for MDH2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 07 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs10216079 -- 76,061,670(+) GAGTG(A/C)GCAGG intron-variant
rs10231092 -- 76,048,112(+) CTTCC(C/G)CGTCA intron-variant, upstream-variant-2KB, utr-variant-5-prime
rs10243907 -- 76,048,486(+) AGATT(G/T)CCCAG intron-variant, upstream-variant-2KB
rs10250810 -- 76,058,225(+) GAGGT(C/T)GGGTG intron-variant
rs10251030 -- 76,052,498(+) ATTGT(C/T)TTGGC intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for MDH2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv528969 CNV gain 19592680
nsv428173 CNV gain 18775914
nsv1033450 CNV loss 25217958
esv3613754 CNV gain 21293372
dgv120n16 CNV deletion 17901297
dgv11459n54 CNV loss 21841781

Variation tolerance for MDH2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 53.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 3.12; 51.24% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for MDH2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MDH2 Gene

Disorders for MDH2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(4) MalaCards diseases for MDH2 Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
l-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria
  • combined d-2- and l-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria
anemia, sideroblastic, with ataxia
  • anemia, sideroblastic, and spinocerebellar ataxia
  • cholera morbus
sleeping sickness
  • african sleeping sickness
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search MDH2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for MDH2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with MDH2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for MDH2 Gene

Publications for MDH2 Gene

  1. Regulation of cellular metabolism by protein lysine acetylation. (PMID: 20167786) Zhao S. … Guan K.L. (Science 2010) 3 4 64
  2. Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score. (PMID: 20379614) Rose J.E. … Uhl G.R. (Mol. Med. 2010) 3 46 64
  3. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression. (PMID: 20877624) Hendrickson S.L. … O'Brien S.J. (PLoS ONE 2010) 3 46 64
  4. L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria, a defect of metabolite repair. (PMID: 17603759) Rzem R. … Veiga-da-Cunha M. (J. Inherit. Metab. Dis. 2007) 3 22 64
  5. Immunoaffinity profiling of tyrosine phosphorylation in cancer cells. (PMID: 15592455) Rush J. … Comb M.J. (Nat. Biotechnol. 2005) 3 4 64

Products for MDH2 Gene

  • Cloud-Clone Corp. Antibodies for MDH2
  • Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for MDH2
  • Cloud-Clone Corp Assay Kits for MDH2

Sources for MDH2 Gene

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