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Aliases for MDH1 Gene

Aliases for MDH1 Gene

  • Malate Dehydrogenase 1, NAD (Soluble) 2 3
  • Cytosolic Malate Dehydrogenase 3 4
  • Diiodophenylpyruvate Reductase 3 4
  • EC 4 63
  • MDHA 3 4
  • Epididymis Secretory Protein Li 32 3
  • Soluble Malate Dehydrogenase 3
  • EC 4
  • HEL-S-32 3
  • MGC:1375 3
  • MDH-S 3
  • MOR2 3

External Ids for MDH1 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for MDH1 Gene

  • GC02P063944
  • GC02P063773
  • GC02P063790
  • GC02P063727
  • GC02P063669

Summaries for MDH1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for MDH1 Gene

  • This gene encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible oxidation of malate to oxaloacetate using the NAD/NADH cofactor system in the citric acid cycle. Two main isozymes are known to exist in eukaryotic cells: one found in the mitochondrial matrix and the other in the cytoplasm. This protein represents the cytosolic isozyme, which has a pivotal role in the malate-aspartate shuttle that operates in the metabolic coordination between cytosol and mitochondria. A recent study showed that two protein isoforms are produced from this mRNA by use of alternative in-frame translation termination codons via a stop codon readthrough mechanism, and that these C-terminally distinct isoforms have different subcellular localization. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have also been found for this gene. Pseudogenes have been identified on chromosomes X and 6. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2015]

GeneCards Summary for MDH1 Gene

MDH1 (Malate Dehydrogenase 1, NAD (Soluble)) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with MDH1 include anemia, sideroblastic, with ataxia and tetanus neonatorum. Among its related pathways are Regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis by SREBP (SREBF) and Metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include oxidoreductase activity and oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-OH group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor. An important paralog of this gene is MDH1B.

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for MDH1 Gene

Genomics for MDH1 Gene

Regulatory Elements for MDH1 Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for MDH1 Gene

63,588,609 bp from pter
63,607,197 bp from pter
18,589 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for MDH1 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for MDH1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for MDH1 Gene

Proteins for MDH1 Gene

  • Protein details for MDH1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Malate dehydrogenase, cytoplasmic
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2R5V5
    • B4DUN2
    • B7Z3I7
    • F5H098
    • Q6I9V0

    Protein attributes for MDH1 Gene

    334 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    36426 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer

    Alternative splice isoforms for MDH1 Gene


neXtProt entry for MDH1 Gene

Proteomics data for MDH1 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for MDH1 Gene

  • Acetylation at Lys-118 dramatically enhances enzymatic activity and promotes adipogenic differentiation.
  • ISGylated.
  • Ubiquitination at Lys 118, Lys 125, Lys 142, Lys 164, Lys 205, Lys 214, Lys 298, and Lys 318
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Antibody Products

Domains & Families for MDH1 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for MDH1 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the LDH/MDH superfamily. MDH type 2 family.
  • Belongs to the LDH/MDH superfamily. MDH type 2 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with MDH1: view

No data available for Gene Families for MDH1 Gene

Function for MDH1 Gene

Molecular function for MDH1 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
malate dehydrogenase,NAD,soluble,same as KETAR (keto acid reductase,alpha-1)
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
(S)-malate + NAD(+) = oxaloacetate + NADH.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
3-(3,5-diiodo-4-hydroxyphenyl)lactate + NAD(+) = 3-(3,5-diiodo-4-hydroxyphenyl)pyruvate + NADH.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for MDH1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for MDH1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003824 catalytic activity --
GO:0004470 malic enzyme activity TAS 8786100
GO:0016491 oxidoreductase activity --
GO:0016615 malate dehydrogenase activity --
GO:0016616 oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-OH group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MDH1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with MDH1: view

Animal Model Products

miRNA for MDH1 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target MDH1

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for MDH1

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for MDH1 Gene

Localization for MDH1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MDH1 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for MDH1 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for MDH1 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
cytoskeleton 4
cytosol 4
mitochondrion 3
chloroplast 2
peroxisome 2
lysosome 1
nucleus 1
vacuole 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for MDH1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005615 extracellular space IDA 22664934
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA --
GO:0005813 centrosome IDA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MDH1: view

Pathways & Interactions for MDH1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with MDH1: view

PCR Array Products

  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for MDH1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002230 positive regulation of defense response to virus by host IMP 22020285
GO:0005975 carbohydrate metabolic process TAS --
GO:0006006 glucose metabolic process TAS --
GO:0006094 gluconeogenesis TAS --
GO:0006099 tricarboxylic acid cycle IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MDH1: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for MDH1 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for MDH1 Gene

(5) Drugs for MDH1 Gene - From: NovoSeek, HMDB, and DrugBank

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
2'-Monophosphoadenosine 5'-Diphosphoribose Experimental Pharma Target 0
tartronate Experimental Pharma 0
NADH Nutra Target 0
malic acid Pharma Agonist, Activator 0
NAD Pharma Agonist, Activator 0

(11) Additional Compounds for MDH1 Gene - From: HMDB and NovoSeek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Hydrogen Ion
  • Hydrogen cation
  • Hydron
  • Proton
L-Malic acid
  • (-)-(S)-Malate
  • (-)-(S)-Malic acid
  • (-)-Hydroxysuccinate
  • (-)-Hydroxysuccinic acid
  • (-)-L-Malic acid
Oxalacetic acid
  • 2-Ketosuccinate
  • 2-Ketosuccinic acid
  • 2-Oxobutanedioate
  • 2-Oxobutanedioic acid
  • 2-Oxosuccinate
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with MDH1: view

Transcripts for MDH1 Gene

Unigene Clusters for MDH1 Gene

Malate dehydrogenase 1, NAD (soluble):
Representative Sequences:

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for MDH1

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for MDH1 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b · 7c · 7d ^ 8a · 8b · 8c ^ 9 ^ 10a · 10b ^ 11a · 11b ^ 12 ^ 13a · 13b · 13c
SP1: - - - - - -
SP2: - - - - -
SP3: - - - -
SP4: - - - - - - - -
SP5: - - - - - - - - - - -
SP6: - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP7: - - -
SP8: - - - -
SP9: - - - - - - - - -
SP10: - - - - -
SP11: - - -

Relevant External Links for MDH1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for MDH1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for MDH1 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for MDH1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Heart - Left Ventricle (x6.9) and Heart - Atrial Appendage (x4.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for MDH1 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for MDH1 Gene Hs.526521

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with MDH1: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for MDH1 Gene

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , Protein differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for MDH1 Gene

Orthologs for MDH1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for MDH1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia MDH1 35
  • 93.69 (n)
  • 95.5 (a)
MDH1 36
  • 95 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia MDH1 35
  • 93.59 (n)
  • 95.2 (a)
MDH1 36
  • 91 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Mdh1 35
  • 90.29 (n)
  • 96.4 (a)
Mdh1 16
Mdh1 36
  • 96 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia MDH1 35
  • 99.72 (n)
  • 99.72 (a)
MDH1 36
  • 99 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Mdh1 35
  • 89.19 (n)
  • 97 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia MDH1 36
  • 91 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia MDH1 36
  • 91 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves MDH1 35
  • 81.83 (n)
  • 90.66 (a)
MDH1 36
  • 90 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia MDH1 36
  • 88 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia mdh1 35
  • 79.09 (n)
  • 87.58 (a)
Str.84 35
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia MGC68659 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii mdh1b 35
  • 73.43 (n)
  • 79.39 (a)
wufk59d03 35
mdh1aa 36
  • 78 (a)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.3779 35
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG5362 37
  • 64 (a)
Mdh1 35
  • 62.44 (n)
  • 66.47 (a)
Mdh1 36
  • 65 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP009510 35
  • 60.56 (n)
  • 66.88 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea mdh-1 35
  • 59.43 (n)
  • 60.86 (a)
mdh-1 36
  • 59 (a)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons AT1G04410 35
  • 60.69 (n)
  • 62.01 (a)
Alicante grape
(Vitis vinifera)
eudicotyledons Vvi.7946 35
(Hordeum vulgare)
Liliopsida Hv.746 35
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os10g0478200 35
  • 60.99 (n)
  • 59.88 (a)
(Triticum aestivum)
Liliopsida Ta.24987 35
(Zea mays)
Liliopsida Zm.5727 35
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.4600 35
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.8282 36
  • 64 (a)
Species with no ortholog for MDH1:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)

Evolution for MDH1 Gene

Gene Tree for MDH1 (if available)
Gene Tree for MDH1 (if available)

Paralogs for MDH1 Gene

Paralogs for MDH1 Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for MDH1 Gene using alignment to 8 proteins: Pseudogenes for MDH1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with MDH1: view

Variants for MDH1 Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for MDH1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv7313 OTHER Inversion 18451855

Variation tolerance for MDH1 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 25.22% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.10; 22.45% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for MDH1 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for MDH1 Gene

Disorders for MDH1 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(3) MalaCards diseases for MDH1 Gene - From: DISEASES and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
anemia, sideroblastic, with ataxia
  • sideroblastic anemia with spinocerebellar ataxia
tetanus neonatorum
  • neonatal tetanus
retinitis pigmentosa
  • retinitis pigmentosa 1
- elite association
Search MDH1 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for MDH1

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with MDH1: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for MDH1 Gene

Publications for MDH1 Gene

  1. VEGF up-regulation by G93A superoxide dismutase and the role of malate-aspartate shuttle inhibition. (PMID: 20025971) Mali Y. … Zisapel N. (Neurobiol. Dis. 2010) 23 67
  2. A novel decoy that interrupts G93A-superoxide dismutase gain of interaction with malate dehydrogenase improves survival in an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cell model. (PMID: 19670830) Mali Y. … Zisapel N. (J. Med. Chem. 2009) 23 67
  3. Structure and function of Plasmodium falciparum malate dehydrogenase: role of critical amino acids in co-substrate binding pocket. (PMID: 19772885) Pradhan A. … Tekwani B.L. (Biochimie 2009) 23 67
  4. Metabolic enzymes, antioxidants, and cytoskeletal proteins are significantly altered in vastus lateralis muscle of K-depleted cadaveric subjects. (PMID: 19245216) Tavichakorntrakool R. … Thongboonkerd V. (J. Proteome Res. 2009) 23 67
  5. Availability of neurotransmitter glutamate is diminished when beta-hydroxybutyrate replaces glucose in cultured neurons. (PMID: 19457063) Lund T.M. … Waagepetersen H.S. (J. Neurochem. 2009) 23 67

Products for MDH1 Gene

Sources for MDH1 Gene

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