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Aliases for MARS Gene

Aliases for MARS Gene

  • Methionyl-TRNA Synthetase 2 3 4 5
  • EC 4 63
  • METRS 3 4
  • Cytosolic Methionyl-TRNA Synthetase 3
  • Methionine TRNA Ligase 1 2
  • Cytoplasmic 2
  • CMT2U 3
  • ILFS2 3
  • MTRNS 3
  • SPG70 3
  • ILLD 3
  • MRS 3

External Ids for MARS Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for MARS Gene

  • GC12M059209
  • GC12P058025
  • GC12P057598
  • GC12P056168
  • GC12P056167
  • GC12P057881
  • GC12P054919

Summaries for MARS Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for MARS Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the class I family of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. These enzymes play a critical role in protein biosynthesis by charging tRNAs with their cognate amino acids. The encoded protein is a component of the multi-tRNA synthetase complex and catalyzes the ligation of methionine to tRNA molecules. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]

GeneCards Summary for MARS Gene

MARS (Methionyl-TRNA Synthetase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with MARS include Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease, Axonal, Type 2U and Interstitial Lung And Liver Disease. Among its related pathways are tRNA Aminoacylation and Gene Expression. GO annotations related to this gene include nucleotide binding and aminoacyl-tRNA ligase activity.

Gene Wiki entry for MARS Gene

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for MARS Gene

Genomics for MARS Gene

Regulatory Elements for MARS Gene

Enhancers for MARS Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around MARS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for MARS Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around MARS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for MARS Gene

57,475,445 bp from pter
57,517,569 bp from pter
42,125 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for MARS Gene

Genes around MARS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
MARS Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for MARS Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for MARS Gene

Proteins for MARS Gene

  • Protein details for MARS Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Methionine--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B3KVK7
    • Q14895
    • Q53H14
    • Q96A15
    • Q96BZ0
    • Q9NSE0

    Protein attributes for MARS Gene

    900 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    101116 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Component of the multisynthetase complex which is comprised of a bifunctional glutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetase, the monospecific isoleucyl, leucyl, glutaminyl, methionyl, lysyl, arginyl, and aspartyl-tRNA synthetases as well as three auxiliary proteins, p18, p48 and p43.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for MARS Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for MARS Gene


neXtProt entry for MARS Gene

Proteomics data for MARS Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for MARS Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys 191, Lys 375, Lys 500, Lys 663, and Lys 726
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Domains & Families for MARS Gene

Gene Families for MARS Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Contains 1 GST C-terminal domain.
  • Belongs to the class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family.
  • Contains 1 GST C-terminal domain.
  • Contains 1 WHEP-TRS domain.
  • Belongs to the class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with MARS: view

Function for MARS Gene

Molecular function for MARS Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
methionine tRNA synthetase
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + L-methionine + tRNA(Met) = AMP + diphosphate + L-methionyl-tRNA(Met).

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for MARS Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for MARS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004812 aminoacyl-tRNA ligase activity IEA --
GO:0004825 methionine-tRNA ligase activity IEA,TAS --
GO:0005524 ATP binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MARS: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with MARS: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for MARS Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for MARS

No data available for Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for MARS Gene

Localization for MARS Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MARS Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for MARS Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for MARS gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
extracellular 5
mitochondrion 3
peroxisome 2
endoplasmic reticulum 1
golgi apparatus 1
plasma membrane 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for MARS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA,IDA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MARS: view

Pathways & Interactions for MARS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with MARS: view

Pathways by source for MARS Gene

SIGNOR curated interactions for MARS Gene

Is inactivated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for MARS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006418 tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation IEA,TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MARS: view

Drugs & Compounds for MARS Gene

(10) Drugs for MARS Gene - From: DrugBank, ClinicalTrials, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
L-Methionine Approved Nutra Enzyme, substrate 0
Adenosine monophosphate Approved Nutra 0
Adenosine triphosphate Approved Nutra 0
Diphosphate Experimental Pharma 0
Liver Extracts Pharma 3644

(11) Additional Compounds for MARS Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
phosphoric acid
  • Acide phosphorique (FRENCH)
  • Acido fosforico [Italian]
  • Acidum phosphoricum
  • Diphosphate tetrasodium
  • Fosforzuuroplossingen [Dutch]
  • (+-)-Selenomethionine
  • (2S)-2-amino-4-(methylseleno)butanoate
  • (2S)-2-amino-4-(methylseleno)butanoic acid
  • (S)-2-amino-4-(methylseleno)-Butanoate
  • (S)-2-amino-4-(methylseleno)-Butanoic acid
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with MARS: view

Transcripts for MARS Gene

Unigene Clusters for MARS Gene

Methionyl-tRNA synthetase:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for MARS Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3a · 3b · 3c ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b · 7c ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10 ^ 11a · 11b ^ 12a · 12b · 12c ^ 13 ^ 14a ·
SP8: - - - - - - - - - -
SP9: - - -
SP12: - - - - - - - - - - -

ExUns: 14b ^ 15a · 15b · 15c ^ 16 ^ 17a · 17b · 17c ^ 18 ^ 19a · 19b ^ 20 ^ 21a · 21b · 21c ^ 22a · 22b ^ 23 ^ 24a · 24b ^ 25a · 25b
SP5: -
SP10: - - - - -

Relevant External Links for MARS Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for MARS Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for MARS Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for MARS Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Bone (10.2) and Lymph node (6.5).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for MARS Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for MARS Gene Hs.632707

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with MARS: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for MARS Gene

- Elite partner

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for MARS Gene

Orthologs for MARS Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for MARS Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia MARS 35
  • 90.09 (n)
  • 92.98 (a)
  • 93 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia MARS 35
  • 89.98 (n)
  • 94.1 (a)
  • 94 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Mars 35
  • 86.89 (n)
  • 89.67 (a)
Mars 16
Mars 36
  • 89 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia MARS 35
  • 99.7 (n)
  • 99.56 (a)
  • 100 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Mars 35
  • 87.26 (n)
  • 91 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia MARS 36
  • 77 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves MARS 35
  • 66.89 (n)
  • 66.97 (a)
  • 76 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia MARS 36
  • 68 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia mars 35
  • 66.63 (n)
  • 68.67 (a)
Str.16107 35
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia MGC69150 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii mars 35
  • 63.66 (n)
  • 64.99 (a)
mars 36
  • 61 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP007891 35
  • 55.04 (n)
  • 52.33 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG15100 35
  • 54.76 (n)
  • 52.81 (a)
CG15100 36
  • 44 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea mrs-1 37
  • 60 (a)
mars-1 36
  • 40 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AGR332C 35
  • 55.44 (n)
  • 53.09 (a)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0A09647g 35
  • 52.25 (n)
  • 49.51 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes MES1 35
  • 53.97 (n)
  • 52.03 (a)
MES1 36
  • 43 (a)
MES1 38
(Hordeum vulgare)
Liliopsida Hv.795 35
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os10g0400100 35
  • 58.23 (n)
  • 56.86 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.55 35
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU07451 35
  • 54.52 (n)
  • 48.71 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes rar1 35
  • 54.11 (n)
  • 52.37 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.2777 36
  • 65 (a)
Species with no ortholog for MARS:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for MARS Gene

Gene Tree for MARS (if available)
Gene Tree for MARS (if available)

Paralogs for MARS Gene

No data available for Paralogs for MARS Gene

Variants for MARS Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for MARS Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 12 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1054403 - 57,514,800(+) GCTGG(A/C/G/T)CCATG reference, missense
VAR_070872 Interstitial lung and liver disease (ILLD)
VAR_070873 Interstitial lung and liver disease (ILLD)
VAR_073377 Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease 2U (CMT2U)
VAR_073378 Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease 2U (CMT2U)

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for MARS Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv899117 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv899118 CNV Gain 21882294
dgv513e1 CNV Complex 17122850
nsv428283 CNV Gain 18775914
nsv469411 CNV Loss 19166990
nsv899119 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv819781 CNV Loss 19587683
nsv899120 CNV Loss 21882294
esv1408918 CNV Insertion 17803354

Variation tolerance for MARS Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 29.9% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.25; 40.46% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for MARS Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MARS Gene

Disorders for MARS Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(14) MalaCards diseases for MARS Gene - From: OMIM, ClinVar, GeneTests, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, and GeneCards

- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search MARS in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease 2U (CMT2U) [MIM:616280]: An axonal form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, a disorder of the peripheral nervous system, characterized by progressive weakness and atrophy, initially of the peroneal muscles and later of the distal muscles of the arms. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is classified in two main groups on the basis of electrophysiologic properties and histopathology: primary peripheral demyelinating neuropathies (designated CMT1 when they are dominantly inherited) and primary peripheral axonal neuropathies (CMT2). Neuropathies of the CMT2 group are characterized by signs of axonal degeneration in the absence of obvious myelin alterations, normal or slightly reduced nerve conduction velocities, and progressive distal muscle weakness and atrophy. CMT2U is a slowly progressive, autosomal dominant form characterized by late-adult onset. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:23729695, ECO:0000269 PubMed:24354524}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Interstitial lung and liver disease (ILLD) [MIM:615486]: An autosomal recessive, life-threatening disorder characterized by respiratory insufficiency and progressive liver disease with onset in infancy or early childhood. Clinical features include failure to thrive, hypotonia, intermittent lactic acidosis, aminoaciduria, hypothyroidism, interstitial lung disease, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, anemia, and liver canalicular cholestasis, steatosis, and iron deposition. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:24103465, ECO:0000269 PubMed:25913036}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Relevant External Links for MARS

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with MARS: view

No data available for Genatlas for MARS Gene

Publications for MARS Gene

  1. CHOP/GADD153 and methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MetRS) genes overlap in a conserved region that controls mRNA stability. (PMID: 10448063) Ubeda M. … Habener J.F. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1999) 2 3 23 67
  2. Mutations in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase or cystathionine beta-synthase gene, or a high-methionine diet, increase homocysteine thiolactone levels in humans and mice. (PMID: 17327360) Chwatko G. … Jakubowski H. (FASEB J. 2007) 23 25 26
  3. Pathophysiological consequences of homocysteine excess. (PMID: 16702349) Jakubowski H. (J. Nutr. 2006) 23 25 26
  4. Exome sequencing links corticospinal motor neuron disease to common neurodegenerative disorders. (PMID: 24482476) Novarino G. … Gleeson J.G. (Science 2014) 2 3
  5. Investigation of bioisosteric effects on the interaction of substrates/ inhibitors with the methionyl-tRNA synthetase from Escherichia coli. (PMID: 16787318) Vaughan M.D. … Honek J.F. (Med Chem 2005) 25 26

Products for MARS Gene

Sources for MARS Gene