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Aliases for MARK2 Gene

Aliases for MARK2 Gene

  • Microtubule Affinity Regulating Kinase 2 2 3
  • MAP/Microtubule Affinity-Regulating Kinase 2 2 3 4 5
  • ELKL Motif Kinase 1 2 3 4
  • Ser/Thr Protein Kinase PAR-1B 2 3
  • PAR1 Homolog B 3 4
  • EC 2.7.11.1 4 63
  • Par-1b 3 4
  • EMK-1 3 4
  • Par1b 3 4
  • EMK1 3 4
  • Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase EMK 3
  • Testicular Tissue Protein Li 117 3
  • Protein-Serine/Threonine Kinase 2
  • Serine/Threonine Kinase 2
  • ELKL Motif Kinase 2
  • PAR1 Homolog 4
  • EC 2.7.11.26 4
  • EC 2.7.11 63
  • PAR-1 3

External Ids for MARK2 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for MARK2 Gene

  • EMK1

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for MARK2 Gene

  • GC11P066121
  • GC11P065286
  • GC11P063382
  • GC11P063431
  • GC11P063363
  • GC11P063606
  • GC11P059934

Summaries for MARK2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for MARK2 Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the Par-1 family of serine/threonine protein kinases. The protein is an important regulator of cell polarity in epithelial and neuronal cells, and also controls the stability of microtubules through phosphorylation and inactivation of several microtubule-associating proteins. The protein localizes to cell membranes. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2009]

GeneCards Summary for MARK2 Gene

MARK2 (Microtubule Affinity Regulating Kinase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with MARK2 include Asthenopia. Among its related pathways are Glucose / Energy Metabolism and Regulation of Microtubule Cytoskeleton. GO annotations related to this gene include poly(A) RNA binding and protein kinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is LOC102724428.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MARK2 Gene

  • Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in cell polarity and microtubule dynamics regulation. Phosphorylates CRTC2/TORC2, DCX, HDAC7, KIF13B, MAP2, MAP4, MAPT/TAU, and RAB11FIP2. Plays a key role in cell polarity by phosphorylating the microtubule-associated proteins MAP2, MAP4 and MAPT/TAU at KXGS motifs, causing detachment from microtubules, and their disassembly. Regulates epithelial cell polarity by phosphorylating RAB11FIP2. Involved in the regulation of neuronal migration through its dual activities in regulating cellular polarity and microtubule dynamics, possibly by phosphorylating and regulating DCX. Regulates axogenesis by phosphorylating KIF13B, promoting interaction between KIF13B and 14-3-3 and inhibiting microtubule-dependent accumulation of KIF13B. Also required for neurite outgrowth and establishment of neuronal polarity. Regulates localization and activity of some histone deacetylases by mediating phosphorylation of HDAC7, promoting subsequent interaction between HDAC7 and 14-3-3 and export from the nucleus. Also acts as a positive regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway, probably by mediating phosphorylation of dishevelled proteins (DVL1, DVL2 and/or DVL3). Modulates the developmental decision to build a columnar versus a hepatic epithelial cell apparently by promoting a switch from a direct to a transcytotic mode of apical protein delivery. Essential for the asymmetric development of membrane domains of polarized epithelial cells.

Gene Wiki entry for MARK2 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for MARK2 Gene

Genomics for MARK2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for MARK2 Gene

Enhancers for MARK2 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around MARK2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for MARK2 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around MARK2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for MARK2 Gene

Chromosome:
11
Start:
63,838,928 bp from pter
End:
63,911,020 bp from pter
Size:
72,093 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for MARK2 Gene

Genes around MARK2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
MARK2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for MARK2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for MARK2 Gene

Proteins for MARK2 Gene

  • Protein details for MARK2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q7KZI7-MARK2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Serine/threonine-protein kinase MARK2
    Protein Accession:
    Q7KZI7
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q15449
    • Q15524
    • Q5XGA3
    • Q68A18
    • Q96HB3
    • Q96RG0

    Protein attributes for MARK2 Gene

    Size:
    788 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    87911 Da
    Cofactor:
    Name=Mg(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:18420;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer. Interacts with PAK7/PAK5; leading to inhibit the protein kinase activity (By similarity). Interacts with MTCL1 isoform 1; the interaction is direct and increases MARK2 microtubule-binding ability. Interacts (when phosphorylated at Thr-596) with YWHAZ. In case of infection, interacts with H.pylori CagA, leading to inhibit kinase activity and junctional and polarity defects.
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=AAK82368.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for MARK2 Gene

neXtProt entry for MARK2 Gene

Proteomics data for MARK2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for MARK2 Gene

  • Autophosphorylated. Phosphorylated at Thr-208 by STK11/LKB1 in complex with STE20-related adapter-alpha (STRADA) pseudo kinase and CAB39. Phosphorylation at Thr-208 by TAOK1 activates the kinase activity, leading to phosphorylation and detachment of MAPT/TAU from microtubules. Phosphorylation at Ser-212 by GSK3-beta (GSK3B) inhibits the kinase activity. Phosphorylation by CaMK1 promotes activity and is required to promote neurite outgrowth. Phosphorylation at Thr-596 by PRKCZ/aPKC in polarized epithelial cells inhibits the kinase activity and promotes binding to 14-3-3 protein YWHAZ, leading to relocation from cell membrane to cytoplasm.
  • Ubiquitination at Lys 637
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for MARK2 (MARK2)

Domains & Families for MARK2 Gene

Gene Families for MARK2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for MARK2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q7KZI7

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

MARK2_HUMAN :
  • The UBA domain does not seem to bind ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like and might play a role in regulating the enzyme conformation and localization. Activation of the kinase activity following phosphorylation at Thr-208 is accompanied by a conformational change that alters the orientation of the UBA domain with respect to the catalytic domain.
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. CAMK Ser/Thr protein kinase family. SNF1 subfamily.
Domain:
  • The UBA domain does not seem to bind ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like and might play a role in regulating the enzyme conformation and localization. Activation of the kinase activity following phosphorylation at Thr-208 is accompanied by a conformational change that alters the orientation of the UBA domain with respect to the catalytic domain.
  • The KA1 domain mediates binding to phospholipids and targeting to membranes.
  • Contains 1 KA1 (kinase-associated) domain.
  • Contains 1 protein kinase domain.
  • Contains 1 UBA domain.
Family:
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. CAMK Ser/Thr protein kinase family. SNF1 subfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with MARK2: view

Function for MARK2 Gene

Molecular function for MARK2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + [tau protein] = ADP + [tau protein] phosphate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Inhibited by PAK7/PAK5; inhibition is independent of the kinase activity of PAK7/PAK5 (By similarity). Activated by phosphorylation on Thr-208. Inhibited by phosphorylation at Ser-212 and Thr-596. Inhibited by hymenialdisine. Specifically inhibited by the H.pylori CagA peptide FPLKRHDKVDDLSK that mimics host substrates and binds to the kinase substrate-binding site.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in cell polarity and microtubule dynamics regulation. Phosphorylates CRTC2/TORC2, DCX, HDAC7, KIF13B, MAP2, MAP4, MAPT/TAU, and RAB11FIP2. Plays a key role in cell polarity by phosphorylating the microtubule-associated proteins MAP2, MAP4 and MAPT/TAU at KXGS motifs, causing detachment from microtubules, and their disassembly. Regulates epithelial cell polarity by phosphorylating RAB11FIP2. Involved in the regulation of neuronal migration through its dual activities in regulating cellular polarity and microtubule dynamics, possibly by phosphorylating and regulating DCX. Regulates axogenesis by phosphorylating KIF13B, promoting interaction between KIF13B and 14-3-3 and inhibiting microtubule-dependent accumulation of KIF13B. Also required for neurite outgrowth and establishment of neuronal polarity. Regulates localization and activity of some histone deacetylases by mediating phosphorylation of HDAC7, promoting subsequent interaction between HDAC7 and 14-3-3 and export from the nucleus. Also acts as a positive regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway, probably by mediating phosphorylation of dishevelled proteins (DVL1, DVL2 and/or DVL3). Modulates the developmental decision to build a columnar versus a hepatic epithelial cell apparently by promoting a switch from a direct to a transcytotic mode of apical protein delivery. Essential for the asymmetric development of membrane domains of polarized epithelial cells.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for MARK2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for MARK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000287 magnesium ion binding IDA 14976552
GO:0004674 protein serine/threonine kinase activity IEA,TAS 24522549
GO:0050321 tau-protein kinase activity ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MARK2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with MARK2: view

Animal Models for MARK2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for MARK2:

miRNA for MARK2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target MARK2

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for MARK2 Gene

Localization for MARK2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MARK2 Gene

Cell membrane; Peripheral membrane protein. Cytoplasm. Lateral cell membrane. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton. Note=Phosphorylation at Thr-596 by PRKCZ/aPKC and subsequent interaction with 14-3-3 protein YWHAZ promotes relocation from the cell membrane to the cytoplasm.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for MARK2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for MARK2 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytoskeleton 5
plasma membrane 5
mitochondrion 4
nucleus 4
cytosol 3
golgi apparatus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for MARK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005739 mitochondrion NAS 24522549
GO:0016020 membrane IMP 14976552
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MARK2: view

Pathways & Interactions for MARK2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with MARK2: view

Pathways by source for MARK2 Gene

SIGNOR curated interactions for MARK2 Gene

Activates:
Inactivates:
Is activated by:
Is inactivated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for MARK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000422 mitophagy NAS 24522549
GO:0006468 protein phosphorylation IEA,NAS 8274451
GO:0016055 Wnt signaling pathway IEA --
GO:0018107 peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation TAS 24522549
GO:0032147 activation of protein kinase activity TAS 24522549
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MARK2: view

Drugs & Compounds for MARK2 Gene

(2) Drugs for MARK2 Gene - From: HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Adenosine triphosphate Approved Nutra 0
Magnesium Nutra 0

(2) Additional Compounds for MARK2 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
ADP
  • Adenosindiphosphorsaeure
  • Adenosine 5'-pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine diphosphate
  • Adenosine pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine-5'-diphosphate
Full agonist, Agonist 58-64-0
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with MARK2: view

Transcripts for MARK2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for MARK2 Gene

MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 2:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for MARK2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10 ^ 11a · 11b ^ 12 ^ 13a · 13b ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16a · 16b ^ 17 ^ 18a · 18b ^
SP1: - -
SP2: -
SP3: - - - - - - -
SP4: - - - - - - -
SP5: - - - - - -
SP6: - - - -
SP7:
SP8:
SP9:
SP10:
SP11:

ExUns: 19a · 19b ^ 20 ^ 21 ^ 22 ^ 23 ^ 24
SP1: - -
SP2: -
SP3: - - -
SP4: - -
SP5:
SP6:
SP7: - - -
SP8:
SP9:
SP10:
SP11: - -

Relevant External Links for MARK2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
MARK2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
MARK2

Expression for MARK2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for MARK2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for MARK2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (x4.6).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for MARK2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Lung (10.3) and CD8 Tcells (9.5).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for MARK2 Gene



SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for MARK2 Gene Hs.567261

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for MARK2 Gene

Q7KZI7-MARK2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: High levels of expression in heart, brain, skeletal muscle and pancreas, lower levels observed in lung, liver and kidney.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with MARK2: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for MARK2 Gene

- Elite partner

Primer Products

Orthologs for MARK2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for MARK2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia MARK2 35
  • 93.39 (n)
  • 97.83 (a)
MARK2 36
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia MARK2 35
  • 94.29 (n)
  • 98.32 (a)
MARK2 36
  • 98 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Mark2 35
  • 93.08 (n)
  • 98.32 (a)
Mark2 16
Mark2 36
  • 98 (a)
OneToOne
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia MARK2 35
  • 99.7 (n)
  • 99.78 (a)
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Mark2 35
  • 91.87 (n)
  • 97.09 (a)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia MARK2 36
  • 95 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia MARK2 36
  • 78 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia mark2 35
  • 75.51 (n)
  • 85.41 (a)
Str.11090 35
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii mark2b 35
  • 70.63 (n)
  • 76.64 (a)
mark2a 36
  • 71 (a)
OneToMany
mark2b 36
  • 72 (a)
OneToMany
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta par-1 36
  • 35 (a)
OneToMany
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea par-1 36
  • 35 (a)
OneToMany
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 48 (a)
OneToMany
Species with no ortholog for MARK2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for MARK2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for MARK2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for MARK2 (if available)

Paralogs for MARK2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with MARK2: view

Variants for MARK2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for MARK2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 11 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs923247 -- 63,869,644(+) GTGCT(A/G)CTGCT intron-variant
rs928948 -- 63,872,409(-) TGCTT(C/T)GCCGG intron-variant
rs958333 -- 63,876,576(+) GCCAC(C/T)CAGCT intron-variant
rs1057176 -- 63,902,245(+) GATCT(A/G)ACCAA nc-transcript-variant, reference, synonymous-codon
rs1057177 -- 63,902,262(+) CGCCC(A/C/T)ATCCC nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for MARK2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2671472 CNV Deletion 23128226
dgv1155n71 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv1156n71 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv1157n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv897634 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv1158n71 CNV Loss 21882294
esv2660413 CNV Deletion 23128226

Variation tolerance for MARK2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 5.48% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.56; 12.13% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Relevant External Links for MARK2 Gene

Disorders for MARK2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(1) MalaCards diseases for MARK2 Gene - From: DISEASES

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
asthenopia
  • accommodative strain
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search MARK2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for MARK2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
MARK2
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
MARK2
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
MARK2
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with MARK2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for MARK2 Gene

Publications for MARK2 Gene

  1. Human serine/threonine protein kinase EMK1: genome structure and cDNA cloning of isoforms produced by alternative splicing. (PMID: 9730619) Espinosa L. … Navarro E. (Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 1998) 2 3 4 23 67
  2. High loading dose of clopidogrel is unable to satisfactorily inhibit platelet reactivity in patients with glycoprotein IIIA gene polymorphism: a genetic substudy of PRAGUE-8 trial. (PMID: 19530321) Motovska Z. … Kala P. (Blood Coagul. Fibrinolysis 2009) 3 23
  3. Activation of PAR-1 kinase and stimulation of tau phosphorylation by diverse signals require the tumor suppressor protein LKB1. (PMID: 17234589) Wang J.W. … Lu B. (J. Neurosci. 2007) 3 23
  4. Polarity-regulating kinase partitioning-defective 1/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 2 negatively regulates development of dendrites on hippocampal neurons. (PMID: 18045904) Terabayashi T. … Miki H. (J. Neurosci. 2007) 3 23
  5. GSK-3beta directly phosphorylates and activates MARK2/PAR-1. (PMID: 16257959) Kosuga S. … Imoto M. (J. Biol. Chem. 2005) 3 23

Products for MARK2 Gene

Sources for MARK2 Gene

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