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MAPK9 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 75
GCID: GC05M179661

Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 9


(Previous symbol: PRKM9)
  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 91 2     EC 2.7.11.243 8
PRKM91 2 3 5     JNK2A2
JNK22 3 5     JNK2ALPHA2
Jun Kinase1 2     JNK2B2
Stress-Activated Protein Kinase 1a2 3     JNK2BETA2
Stress-Activated Protein Kinase JNK22 3     SAPK2
JNK-552 3     C-Jun Kinase 22
SAPK1a2 3     p54a2
C-Jun N-Terminal Kinase 22 3     p54aSAPK2
MAP Kinase 92 3     SAPK1A3
MAPK 92 3     EC 2.7.118

External Ids:    HGNC: 68861   Entrez Gene: 56012   Ensembl: ENSG000000507487   OMIM: 6028965   UniProtKB: P459843   

Export aliases for MAPK9 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC05M179777 GC05M180640 GC05M179772 GC05M179595 GC05M174385


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for MAPK9 Gene:
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases act as an integration point for
multiple biochemical signals, and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation,
differentiation, transcription regulation and development. This kinase targets specific transcription factors,
and thus mediates immediate-early gene expression in response to various cell stimuli. It is most closely related
to MAPK8, both of which are involved in UV radiation induced apoptosis, thought to be related to the cytochrome
c-mediated cell death pathway. This gene and MAPK8 are also known as c-Jun N-terminal kinases. This kinase blocks
the ubiquitination of tumor suppressor p53, and thus it increases the stability of p53 in nonstressed cells.
Studies of this gene's mouse counterpart suggest a key role in T-cell differentiation. Several alternatively
spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. (provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008)

GeneCards Summary for MAPK9 Gene:
MAPK9 (mitogen-activated protein kinase 9) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with MAPK9 include acute liver failure, and multiple endocrine neoplasia. GO annotations related to this gene include transcription factor binding and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase binding. An important paralog of this gene is MAPK12.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: MK09_HUMAN, P45984
Function: Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in various processes such as cell proliferation,
differentiation, migration, transformation and programmed cell death. Extracellular stimuli such as
proinflammatory cytokines or physical stress stimulate the stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal
kinase (SAP/JNK) signaling pathway. In this cascade, two dual specificity kinases MAP2K4/MKK4 and MAP2K7/MKK7
phosphorylate and activate MAPK9/JNK2. In turn, MAPK9/JNK2 phosphorylates a number of transcription factors,
primarily components of AP-1 such as JUN and ATF2 and thus regulates AP-1 transcriptional activity. In response
to oxidative or ribotoxic stresses, inhibits rRNA synthesis by phosphorylating and inactivating the RNA
polymerase 1-specific transcription initiation factor RRN3. Promotes stressed cell apoptosis by phosphorylating
key regulatory factors including TP53 and YAP1. In T-cells, MAPK8 and MAPK9 are required for polarized
differentiation of T-helper cells into Th1 cells. Upon T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation, is activated by CARMA1,
BCL10, MAP2K7 and MAP3K7/TAK1 to regulate JUN protein levels. Plays an important role in the osmotic
stress-induced epithelial tight-junctions disruption. When activated, promotes beta-catenin/CTNNB1 degradation
and inhibits the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. Participates also in neurite growth in spiral ganglion neurons
Function: MAPK9 isoforms display different binding patterns: alpha-1 and alpha-2 preferentially bind to JUN,
whereas beta-1 and beta-2 bind to ATF2. However, there is no correlation between binding and phosphorylation,
which is achieved at about the same efficiency by all isoforms. JUNB is not a substrate for JNK2 alpha-2, and
JUND binds only weakly to it

summary for MAPK9 Gene:
MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinases) are serine-threonine kinases that regulate a wide variety of
cellular functions. Six groups of MAPK have so far been identified: Extracellular signal-regulated kinases
(ERK1, ERK2), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), p38 isoforms (MAPK11, MAPK12, MAPK13, MAPK14), ERK5 (MAPK7),
ERK3 (MAPK6) and ERK4 (MAPK4) and ERK7/8 (MAPK15). ERK 1 and ERK 2 transduce signals from growth factors and
are key in regulating differentiation and proliferation in many cell types. Upon activation by MEK, ERK1 and
2 translocate to the nucleus where they phosphorylate transcription factors such as Elk1 and downstream
kinases such as p90 RSK. JNK 1,2 and 3 (sometimes known as SAPKs or stress-activated kinases) and the p38
MAPKs (alpha-, beta-, delta and gamma- isoforms) are activated by UV irradiation, inflammatory cytokines and
hyperosmolarity. The p38 MAPKs are also activated by lipopolysaccharide. Dysregulation of MAPK kinase
pathways has been associated with various diseases including cancer (ERK), neurodegeneration (JNK) and
inflammation (p38).

Gene Wiki entry for MAPK9 (Mitogen-activated protein kinase 9) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000005.10  NT_023133.14  NC_018916.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the MAPK9 gene promoter:
         TBP   TFIID   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidMAPK9 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for MAPK9

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat MAPK9


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 5q35   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  5q35.3   HGNC cytogenetic band: 5q35

MAPK9 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
MAPK9 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 5         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC05M179661:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
179,660,143 bp from pter      End:
179,719,099 bp from pter
Size:
58,957 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: MK09_HUMAN, P45984 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Mitogen-activated protein kinase 9  
Size: 424 amino acids; 48139 Da
Cofactor: Magnesium
Subunit: Interacts with MECOM and DCLK2 (By similarity). Binds to at least four scaffolding proteins,
MAPK8IP1/JIP-1, MAPK8IP2/JIP-2, MAPK8IP3/JIP-3/JSAP1 and SPAG9/MAPK8IP4/JIP-4. These proteins also bind other
components of the JNK signaling pathway. Interacts with NFATC4. Interacts with ATF7; the interaction does not
phosphorylate ATF7 but acts as a docking site for ATF7-associated partners such as JUN. Interacts with BCL10.
Interacts with CTNNB1 and GSK3B
2 PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for MAPK9:
3E7O (3D)        3NPC (3D)    
Secondary accessions: A8K0S3 B5BU66 B5M0B4 D3DWQ8 D3DWQ9 Q15708 Q15710 Q15711 Q8N5C5
Alternative splicing: 5 isoforms:  P45984-1   P45984-2   P45984-3   P45984-4   P45984-5   

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for MAPK9: NX_P45984

Explore proteomics data for MAPK9 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Dually phosphorylated on Thr-183 and Tyr-185 by MAP2K7 and MAP2K4, which activates the enzyme. Autophosphorylated
    in vitro1
  • Ubiquitination2 at Lys166, Lys353
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Selected DME Specific Peptides for MAPK9 (P45984) (see all 27)
     KELIYKE  ILDFGLA  LDFGLAR  LLSKMLV 


    See MAPK9 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (5 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001128516.1  NP_002743.3  NP_620707.1  NP_620708.1  NP_620709.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000394560   ENSP00000377028   ENSP00000389338   ENSP00000345524   ENSP00000321410  
     ENSP00000377029   ENSP00000397422   ENSP00000430608   ENSP00000443149   ENSP00000380262  
    Reactome Protein details: P45984

    MAPK9 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

    EMD Millipore Purified and/or Recombinant MAPK9 Protein
    Browse R&D Systems for human recombinant proteins
    Browse recombinant and purified proteins available from Enzo Life Sciences
    OriGene Purified Proteins for MAPK9
    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for MAPK9
    OriGene MassSpec for MAPK9
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for MAPK9
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for MAPK9
    Novus Biologicals MAPK9 Proteins
    Novus Biologicals MAPK9 Lysates
    Sino Biological Recombinant Protein for MAPK9
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
    ProSpec Recombinant Protein for MAPK9
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for MAPK9

    MAPK9 Antibody Products:

    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of MAPK9
    R&D Systems Antibodies for MAPK9 (JNK2)
    Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for MAPK9  (JNK2)
    OriGene Antibodies for MAPK9
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for MAPK9
    Novus Biologicals MAPK9 Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for MAPK9 (P45983, P53779, P45984)
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Antibodies for MAPK9
    ThermoFisher Antibody for MAPK9
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for MAPK9

    MAPK9 Assay Products:

    EMD Millipore Kits and Assays for the Analysis of MAPK9
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for MAPK9
    R&D Systems ELISAs for MAPK9 (JNK2)         (see all)
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for MAPK9
    Enzo Life Sciences assays for MAPK9
    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for MAPK9
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for MAPK9


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    MAPK: Mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade / Kinases

    IUPHAR Guide to PHARMACOLOGY protein family classification: mitogen-activated protein kinase 9
    JNK subfamily
    Mitogen-activated protein kinases

    Selected InterPro protein domains (see all 6):
     IPR008351 MAPK_JNK
     IPR002290 Ser/Thr_dual-sp_kinase_dom
     IPR011009 Kinase-like_dom
     IPR008271 Ser/Thr_kinase_AS
     IPR003527 MAP_kinase_CS

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P45984

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P45984

    2 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB003527 MAP kinase
    IPB008351 JNK MAP kinase signature


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: MK09_HUMAN, P45984
    Domain: The TXY motif contains the threonine and tyrosine residues whose phosphorylation activates the MAP kinases
    Similarity: Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. CMGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. MAP kinase subfamily
    Similarity: Contains 1 protein kinase domain


    MAPK9 for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, and Vector BioLabs, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: MK09_HUMAN, P45984
    Function: Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in various processes such as cell proliferation,
    differentiation, migration, transformation and programmed cell death. Extracellular stimuli such as
    proinflammatory cytokines or physical stress stimulate the stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal
    kinase (SAP/JNK) signaling pathway. In this cascade, two dual specificity kinases MAP2K4/MKK4 and MAP2K7/MKK7
    phosphorylate and activate MAPK9/JNK2. In turn, MAPK9/JNK2 phosphorylates a number of transcription factors,
    primarily components of AP-1 such as JUN and ATF2 and thus regulates AP-1 transcriptional activity. In response
    to oxidative or ribotoxic stresses, inhibits rRNA synthesis by phosphorylating and inactivating the RNA
    polymerase 1-specific transcription initiation factor RRN3. Promotes stressed cell apoptosis by phosphorylating
    key regulatory factors including TP53 and YAP1. In T-cells, MAPK8 and MAPK9 are required for polarized
    differentiation of T-helper cells into Th1 cells. Upon T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation, is activated by CARMA1,
    BCL10, MAP2K7 and MAP3K7/TAK1 to regulate JUN protein levels. Plays an important role in the osmotic
    stress-induced epithelial tight-junctions disruption. When activated, promotes beta-catenin/CTNNB1 degradation
    and inhibits the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. Participates also in neurite growth in spiral ganglion neurons
    Function: MAPK9 isoforms display different binding patterns: alpha-1 and alpha-2 preferentially bind to JUN,
    whereas beta-1 and beta-2 bind to ATF2. However, there is no correlation between binding and phosphorylation,
    which is achieved at about the same efficiency by all isoforms. JUNB is not a substrate for JNK2 alpha-2, and
    JUND binds only weakly to it
    Catalytic activity: ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein
    Enzyme regulation: Activated by threonine and tyrosine phosphorylation by either of two dual specificity kinases,
    MAP2K4 and MAP2K7. MAP2K4 shows a strong preference for Tyr-185 while MAP2K7 phosphorylates Tyr-183
    preferentially. Inhibited by dual specificity phosphatases, such as DUSP1

         Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB): EC 2.7.11.241 2 EC 2.7.112

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 13):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0003824catalytic activity ----
    GO:0004672protein kinase activity ----
    GO:0004705JUN kinase activity IDA8654373
    GO:0004707MAP kinase activity ----
    GO:0004713protein tyrosine kinase activity ----
         
    MAPK9 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         2 GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for MAPK9:
     Increased cell death in breast  Increased mitotic index 

         Selected MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 3 alleles(MGI details for Mapk9) (see all 20):
     behavior/neurological  cardiovascular system  cellular  craniofacial  digestive/alimentary 
     embryogenesis  growth/size/body  hematopoietic system  homeostasis/metabolism  immune system 
     integument  liver/biliary system  mortality/aging  muscle  nervous system 

    MAPK9 for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-out Mapk9tm1Flv for MAPK9

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for MAPK9
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for MAPK9

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for MAPK9
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for MAPK9

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target MAPK9:
    hsa-mir-27b-3p (MIRT046207), hsa-mir-141-3p (MIRT021647), hsa-mir-215-5p (MIRT024284), hsa-mir-20a-5p (MIRT005856), hsa-mir-7-5p (MIRT025800), hsa-mir-17-5p (MIRT004359), hsa-mir-199a-3p (MIRT003982), hsa-mir-106b-5p (MIRT005864), hsa-mir-92a-3p (MIRT049753), hsa-mir-192-5p (MIRT026550), hsa-mir-93-5p (MIRT003240)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat MAPK9 using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate MAPK9 (see all 61):
    hsa-let-7d hsa-miR-429 hsa-miR-106a hsa-miR-218-1* hsa-miR-138-2* hsa-miR-764 hsa-miR-29b-1* hsa-miR-548l
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidMAPK9 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for MAPK9
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat MAPK9

    Gene Editing
    Products:
    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for MAPK9

    Clone
    Products:
         
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for MAPK9 (see all 29)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for MAPK9
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 5): MAPK9 (NM_002752)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for MAPK9
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for MAPK9
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat MAPK9

    Cell Line
    Products:
         
    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for MAPK9
    Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for MAPK9 
    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for MAPK9


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    MK09_HUMAN, P45984: Cytoplasm. Nucleus
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    nucleus5
    cytosol4
    cytoskeleton2
    extracellular2
    mitochondrion2
    endoplasmic reticulum1
    plasma membrane1

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected cellular component terms (see all 6):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005634nucleus ----
    GO:0005654nucleoplasm TAS--
    GO:0005737cytoplasm ----
    GO:0005739mitochondrion IEA--
    GO:0005829cytosol TAS--

    MAPK9 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for MAPK9 About   (see all 142)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathSelected contained pathways About (see all per SuperPath)
    1NOD-like Receptor Signaling Pathways
    Toll-Like receptor Signaling Pathways0.58
    Mucin expression in CF via TLRs, EGFR signaling pathways0.42
    NOD-like Receptor Signaling Pathways0.58
    Immune response IL 1 signaling pathway0.42
    Inflammasome Activation Pathways0.51
    Pathogen or Damage-activated C-Type Lectin Receptor Signaling Pathways0.31
    IL-1 Family Signaling Pathways0.44
    2RANK Signaling in Osteoclasts
    BAFF in B-Cell Signaling0.92
    Apoptosis and survival APRIL and BAFF signaling0.39
    APRIL Pathway0.92
    RANKL/RANK Signaling Pathway0.31
    RANK Signaling in Osteoclasts0.45
    3G protein signaling Ras family GTPases in kinase cascades scheme
    G protein signaling Ras family GTPases in kinase cascades scheme 0.44
    Oncostatin M Signaling Pathway0.37
    Immune response Oncostatin M signaling via MAPK in human cells0.39
    Activation of the AP-1 family of transcription factors0.00
    4TWEAK Pathway
    Apoptosis and survival TNFR1 signaling pathway0.52
    Apoptosis through Death Receptors0.42
    Apoptotic Pathways Triggered By HIV10.42
    TWEAK Signaling Pathway0.31
    5Wnt signaling pathway (KEGG)
    Wnt signaling pathway0.40
    Wnt Signaling Pathway NetPath0.37
    Wnt Signaling Pathways0.40

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    Selected R&D Systems Pathways for MAPK9 (see all 7)
        NOD-like Receptor Signaling Pathways
    Wnt Signaling Pathways
    Inflammasome Activation Pathways
    IL-1 Family Signaling Pathways
    Toll-Like receptor Signaling Pathways

    Selected Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for MAPK9 (see all 108)
        Fc-GammaR Pathway
    Toll-Like Receptors Pathway
    UVB-Induced MAPK Signaling
    Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer
    JNK Pathway

    1 Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Pathway for MAPK9
        MAP Kinase Signaling

    5 Tocris Bioscience Pathways for MAPK9
        Akt Pathway
    Insulin Pathway
    Toll-like Receptor Pathway
    VEGF Pathway
    MAPK Pathway

    Selected GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathways for MAPK9 (see all 33)
        Development A2A receptor signaling
    Immune response MIF in innate immunity response
    Apoptosis and survival Anti-apoptotic action of membrane-bound ESR1
    Development EGFR signaling pathway
    Development Endothelin-1/EDNRA signaling

    Selected BioSystems Pathways for MAPK9 (see all 44)
        MAPK signaling pathway
    Focal Adhesion
    TGF Beta Signaling Pathway
    Wnt Signaling Pathway
    Insulin Signaling

    5 Sino Biological Pathways for MAPK9
        EGFR Signaling Pathway
    Non-Canonical Wnt Pathway
    p53 Pathway
    Death Receptor Signaling
    TGF-beta Signaling Pathway

    4 Reactome Pathways for MAPK9
        Oxidative Stress Induced Senescence
    JNK (c-Jun kinases) phosphorylation and activation mediated by activated human TAK1
    FCERI mediated MAPK activation
    Activation of the AP-1 family of transcription factors

    1 PharmGKB Pathway for MAPK9
        VEGF Signaling Pathway

    Selected Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for MAPK9) (see all 40):
        MAPK signaling pathway
    ErbB signaling pathway
    Ras signaling pathway
    FoxO signaling pathway
    Protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum


    MAPK9 for pathways           About GeneDecksing

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including MAPK9 (see all 9): 
              Parkinson's Disease in human mouse rat
              Toll-Like Receptor Signaling Pathway in human mouse rat
              Inflammasomes in human mouse rat
              Insulin Resistance in human mouse rat
              Th1/Th2 Response in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for MAPK9

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for MAPK9 (P459841, 2, 3 ENSP000003214104) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 214)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    MAP2K4P459852, 3, ENSP000002624454MINT-8259844 I2D: score=5 STRING: ENSP00000262445
    WDR62O433792, 3, ENSP000003847924MINT-68376 I2D: score=5 STRING: ENSP00000384792
    ACP5P136862, 3, ENSP000002187584MINT-64907 I2D: score=4 STRING: ENSP00000218758
    XPO7Q9UIA92, 3, ENSP000004048534MINT-64910 I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000404853
    DUSP1P285622, 3, ENSP000002392234MINT-8217423 I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000239223
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 52):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001836release of cytochrome c from mitochondria IEA--
    GO:0001934positive regulation of protein phosphorylation IEA--
    GO:0002224toll-like receptor signaling pathway TAS--
    GO:0002755MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway TAS--
    GO:0002756MyD88-independent toll-like receptor signaling pathway TAS--

    MAPK9 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Enzo Life Sciences drugs & compounds for MAPK9
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Compounds for MAPK9 available from Tocris Bioscience    About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    TCS JNK 6oSelective JNK inhibitor[894804-07-0]
    SP 600125Novel and selective JNK inhibitor[129-56-6]
    TCS JNK 5aSelective inhibitor of JNK2 and JNK3[312917-14-9]
    SU 3327Selective JNK inhibitor[40045-50-9]
    BI 78D3 Selective, competitive JNK inhibitor [883065-90-5]

    3 HMDB Compounds for MAPK9    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    ADPadenosindiphosphorsaeure (see all 8)58-64-0--
    Adenosine triphosphate5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate) Adenosine (see all 24)56-65-5--
    MagnesiumMagnesium (see all 2)7439-95-4--

    1 DrugBank Compound for MAPK9    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    N-{3-[5-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)-1H-indazol-3-yl]phenyl}furan-2-carboxamide-- --target--10592235

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for MAPK9 gene (see all 31)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    sp 600125 85 17 18565136 (1), 20200402 (1), 18336852 (1), 12898508 (1) (see all 14)
    pd 98,059 58.4 2 9837893 (1), 9731042 (1)
    helenalin 55.6 1 18336852 (1), 20167866 (1)
    olomoucine 46.1 1 9792443 (1)
    tyrosine 45.5 6 16619289 (2), 11775830 (1), 12393636 (1), 9501008 (1) (see all 5)
    threonine 43.2 1 10648385 (1)
    sb 203580 38.8 1 9731042 (1)
    n acetylcysteine 36.5 1 20188821 (1)
    wortmannin 32 2 16619289 (1), 16257269 (1)
    serine 28.4 2 15228592 (1), 10648385 (1)



    MAPK9 for compounds           About GeneDecksing



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN )
    About This Section

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    REFSEQ mRNAs for MAPK9 gene (5 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001135044.1  NM_002752.4  NM_139068.2  NM_139069.2  NM_139070.2  

    Unigene Cluster for MAPK9:

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase 9
    Hs.484371  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_139069
    13 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000452135(uc003mls.4 uc003mlt.4) ENST00000393360(uc021yjk.1)
    ENST00000455781(uc010jlc.3 uc021yjj.1) ENST00000343111(uc003mlv.4)
    ENST00000347470 ENST00000520212 ENST00000393362 ENST00000524170 ENST00000425491(uc021yjl.1 uc011dgx.2)
    ENST00000523135 ENST00000523583 ENST00000539014 ENST00000397072(uc021yji.1)

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    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate MAPK9 (see all 61):
    hsa-let-7d hsa-miR-429 hsa-miR-106a hsa-miR-218-1* hsa-miR-138-2* hsa-miR-764 hsa-miR-29b-1* hsa-miR-548l
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidMAPK9 3' UTR sequence
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      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat MAPK9

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AB451302.1 AB451355.1 AB451433.1 AK289638.1 BC032539.1 CR536580.1 EU927388.1 HM036706.1 
    HM036707.1 HM036708.1 HM036709.1 L31951.1 U09759.1 U34821.1 U35002.1 U35003.1 

    13 DOTS entries:

    DT.447229  DT.75108965  DT.75119000  DT.95167728  DT.95167726  DT.95218885  DT.100023600  DT.91968163 
    DT.92430382  DT.40123550  DT.120848971  DT.121378762  DT.87015975 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 305):

    U34821 CK299570 AI671226 CA428635 F36318 BQ772823 AA857225 AA468704 
    CR614221 BX383056 Z42391 AI672817 CK300221 CR536580 AA349851 BX643243 
    BI765324 AA862471 BM449888 CR612106 AI253147 BQ022913 AI369455 BM725392 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    Selected Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for MAPK9 (see all 6)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13a · 13b · 13c · 13d
    SP1:                    -                                   -           -                                                   
    SP2:                    -                                   -           -                                                   
    SP3:                    -                                         -     -                                                   
    SP4:                    -                                         -     -                                                   
    SP5:                                                        -                                                               


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for MAPK9

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

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    MAPK9 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: TGACCACAAA
    MAPK9 Expression
    About this image

    MAPK9 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    MAPK9 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.484371
        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including MAPK9 (see all 9): 
              Parkinson's Disease in human mouse rat
              Toll-Like Receptor Signaling Pathway in human mouse rat
              Inflammasomes in human mouse rat
              Insulin Resistance in human mouse rat
              Th1/Th2 Response in human mouse rat

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

    Orthologs for MAPK9 gene from Selected species (see all 15)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Mapk91 , 5 mitogen-activated protein kinase 91, 5 91.41(n)1
    99.05(a)1
      11 (29.96 cM)5
    264201  NM_207692.21  NP_997575.21 
     498467535 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves MAPK91 mitogen-activated protein kinase 9 84.53(n)
    98.94(a)
      395983  NM_205095.1  NP_990426.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia MAPK96
    mitogen-activated protein kinase 9
    97(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    2(141216262-141258529)
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii mapk91 mitogen-activated protein kinase 9 73.33(n)
    85.78(a)
      100149273  XM_001919653.3  XP_001919688.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta bsk3 JNK cascade protein serine/threonine
    kinase
    75(a)   2 31B3   --
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea jnk-13 MAP kinase 69(a)
    (best of 5)
      IV(6957865-6963780)   --
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes HOG16
    Mitogen-activated protein kinase involved in osmor...
    34(a)
    1 → many
    XII(371620-372927) YLR113W
    wheat
    (Triticum aestivum)
    Liliopsida BE444612.12   -- 70.65(n)    BE444612.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for MAPK9 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for MAPK9 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for MAPK9 gene
    MAPK122  MAPK132  MAPK112  MAPK142  MAPK82  MAPK102  
    Selected SIMAP similar genes for MAPK9 using alignment to 8 protein entries:     MK09_HUMAN (see all proteins) (see all similar genes):
    MAPK8    MAPK10    MAPK14    MAPK11    MAPK13    MAPK12
    MAPK4    TXK    MAPK1    DKFZp686O0215    DYRK4    MAPK3
    STK25    NLK    MAPK7    DKFZp686M02159    CDK7    STK11

    MAPK9 for paralogs           About GeneDecksing



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
    About This Section

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    Selected SNPs for MAPK9 (see all 1341)    About this table    
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 5 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    VAR_0422604
    A colorectal adenocarcinoma sample4--see VAR_0422602 V M mis40--------
    VAR_0422614
    A head & Neck squamous cell carcinoma sample4--see VAR_0422612 K N mis40--------
    rs1139174651,2
    C,F--179665019(+) GTAATC/TCCACC 4 -- int11Minor allele frequency- T:0.50NA 2
    rs350818781,2
    C--179676518(+) TCATGCTCT/-  
            
    CTGTC
    5 -- int12Minor allele frequency- -:0.25NA CSA 4
    rs675659711,2
    C--179676519(+) CATGC-/CTCT  
            
    TGTCA
    5 -- int10--------
    rs348646901,2
    C,F--179676520(-) CTGAC-/AG    
       
    /AGAG
    AGCAT
    5 -- int15NS 190
    rs345621451,2
    C,F--179677985(-) TACTC-/TTTTGA 5 -- int15Minor allele frequency- T:0.02NS 190
    rs347152821,2
    C,F--179680897(-) TGGGT-/GTCTCTT 5 -- int15Minor allele frequency- GT:0.47NS 190
    rs666226461,2
    C--179680963(+) TCTCT-/T/T   
       T
    /TTT
    TTTTT
    10 -- int1 cds10--------
    rs355329101,2
    C--179686034(+) GTTTC-/AAAAAA 5 -- int12Minor allele frequency- A:0.25NA CSA 4

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for MAPK9 (179660143 - 179719099 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 7 variations for MAPK9:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2678619CNV Deletion23128226
    esv2731323CNV Deletion23290073
    nsv883290CNV Loss21882294
    nsv830563CNV Loss17160897
    nsv823363CNV Loss20364138
    nsv10787CNV Gain18304495
    dgv1881e1CNV Complex17122850

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
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    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section

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    OMIM gene information: 602896    OMIM disorders: --

    Selected diseases for MAPK9 (see all 58):    
    About MalaCards
    acute liver failure    multiple endocrine neoplasia    essential thrombocythemia    shigellosis
    cystitis    trypanosomiasis    toxoplasmosis    hypospadias
    chagas disease    sporadic breast cancer    endocarditis    pheochromocytoma
    acute promyelocytic leukemia    pertussis    brain disease    cholestasis
    hyperglycemia    chronic myeloid leukemia    gingivitis    myeloid leukemia


    MAPK9 for disorders           About GeneDecksing

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for MAPK9 gene (see all 21)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    necrosis 38.5 5 12417721 (2), 12143039 (1), 8702671 (1), 12610149 (1)
    tumors 29.2 10 12417721 (2), 12538493 (1), 9162025 (1), 12143039 (1) (see all 9)
    glioma 24.1 2 17637567 (1), 14673001 (1)
    myeloid leukemia chronic 22.1 2 17949234 (2)
    glioblastoma 19.5 1 17047065 (1)
    pheochromocytoma 18.8 3 10470855 (1), 9589393 (1), 14673001 (1)
    multiple endocrine neoplasia 17.1 1 9393766 (1)
    cancer 13.9 3 15217928 (1), 11825878 (1), 12860462 (1)
    leukemia 9.55 1 8524841 (1)
    skin cancer 4.47 1 19204086 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): MAPK9
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: MAPK9 (5 documents)

    Export disorders for MAPK9 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for MAPK9 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 430):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with MAPK9)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. JNK2 contains a specificity-determining region responsible for efficient c-Jun binding and phosphorylation. (PubMed id 8001819)1, 2, 3, 9 Kallunki T.... Karin M. (Genes Dev. 1994)
    2. The CARMA1-Bcl10 signaling complex selectively regulates JNK2 kinase in the T cell receptor-signaling pathway. (PubMed id 17189706)1, 2, 9 Blonska M.... Lin X. (Immunity 2007)
    3. The crystal structure of JNK2 reveals conformational flexibility in the MAP kinase insert and indicates its involvement in the regulation of catalytic activity. (PubMed id 18801372)1, 2, 9 Shaw D.... Kuglstatter A. (J. Mol. Biol. 2008)
    4. Characterization of a novel human sperm-associated antigen 9 (SPAG9) having structural homology with c-Jun N-terminal kinase-interacting protein. (PubMed id 15693750)1, 2, 9 Jagadish N.... Suri A. (Biochem. J. 2005)
    5. Role of the ATFa/JNK2 complex in Jun activation. (PubMed id 10376527)1, 2, 9 De Graeve F.... Chatton B. (Oncogene 1999)
    6. Selective interaction of JNK protein kinase isoforms with transcription factors. (PubMed id 8654373)1, 2, 9 Gupta S.... Davis R.J. (EMBO J. 1996)
    7. Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score. (PubMed id 20379614)1, 4 Rose J.E....Uhl G.R. (Mol. Med. 2010)
    8. Molecular cloning and characterization of novel human JNK2 (MAPK9) transcript variants that show different stimulation activities on AP- 1. (PubMed id 21110917)1, 2 Wang P.... Ma D. (BMB Rep. 2010)
    9. JNK phosphorylates Yes-associated protein (YAP) to regulate apoptosis. (PubMed id 21364637)1, 2 Tomlinson V....Basu S. (Cell Death Dis. 2010)
    10. Polymorphisms in innate immunity genes and patients response to dendritic cell-based HIV immuno-treatment. (PubMed id 20056178)1, 4 Segat L....Crovella S. (Vaccine 2010)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 5601 HGNC: 6886 AceView: MAPK9 Ensembl:ENSG00000050748 euGenes: HUgn5601
    ECgene: MAPK9 Kegg: 5601 H-InvDB: MAPK9

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section

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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section

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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for MAPK9 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for MAPK9 Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
    NIEHS-SNPshttp://egp.gs.washington.edu/data/mapk9/

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for MAPK9 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving MAPK9

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Animal models from inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway)
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