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MAP1LC3C Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 50
GCID: GC01M242158

Microtubule-Associated Protein 1 Light Chain 3 Gamma

  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Microtubule-Associated Protein 1 Light Chain 3 Gamma1 2 3     ATG8J2
Autophagy-Related Protein LC3 C2 3     LC3C2
Autophagy-Related Ubiquitin-Like Modifier LC3 C2 3     LC3-Like Protein 22
MAP1 Light Chain 3-Like Protein 32 3     MAP1 Light Chain 3-Like Protein 22
MAP1A/MAP1B LC3 C2 3     Microtubule-Associated Proteins 1A/1B Light Chain 3C2
MAP1A/MAP1B Light Chain 3 C2 3     

External Ids:    HGNC: 133531   Entrez Gene: 4407382   Ensembl: ENSG000001977697   OMIM: 6096055   UniProtKB: Q9BXW43   

Export aliases for MAP1LC3C gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC01M238485 GC01M240225 GC01M212618


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for MAP1LC3C Gene:
Autophagy is a highly regulated bulk degradation process that plays an important role in cellular maintenance and
development. MAP1LC3C is an ortholog of the yeast autophagosome protein Atg8 (He et al., 2003 (PubMed
12740394)).(supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010)

GeneCards Summary for MAP1LC3C Gene:
MAP1LC3C (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 gamma) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with MAP1LC3C include leiomyomatosis, and renal clear cell carcinoma. An important paralog of this gene is GABARAPL2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: MLP3C_HUMAN, Q9BXW4
Function: Ubiquitin-like modifier that plays a crucial role in antibacterial autophagy (xenophagy) through the
selective binding of CALCOCO2. Recruites all ATG8 family members to infecting bacteria such as S.Typhimurium




(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000001.11  NT_167186.2  NC_018912.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the MAP1LC3C gene promoter:
         Bach1   Spz1   AML1a   Ik-3   Roaz   PPAR-gamma1   GCNF-1   PPAR-gamma2   LyF-1   GCNF-2   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidMAP1LC3C promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for MAP1LC3C

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat MAP1LC3C


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 1q43   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  1q43   HGNC cytogenetic band: 1q43

MAP1LC3C Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
MAP1LC3C gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 1         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC01M242158:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
242,158,792 bp from pter      End:
242,162,385 bp from pter
Size:
3,594 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: MLP3C_HUMAN, Q9BXW4 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3C precursor  
Size: 147 amino acids; 16852 Da
Subunit: 3 different light chains, LC1, LC2 and LC3, can associate with MAP1A and MAP1B proteins (By similarity).
Interacts with TP53INP1 and TP53INP2. Interacts with CALCOCO2. Interacts with TECPR2
3 PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for MAP1LC3C:
3VVW (3D)        3WAM (3D)        3WAP (3D)    
Secondary accessions: A0PJY8 A2RUP0

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for MAP1LC3C: NX_Q9BXW4

Explore proteomics data for MAP1LC3C at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • The precursor molecule is cleaved by ATG4B to form the cytosolic form, LC3-I. This is activated by APG7L/ATG7,
    transferred to ATG3 and conjugated to phospholipid to form the membrane-bound form, LC3-II1
  • The Legionella effector RavZ is a deconjugating enzyme that produces an ATG8 product that would be resistant to
    reconjugation by the host machinery due to the cleavage of the reactive C-terminal glycine1
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

  • See MAP1LC3C Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_001004343.1  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000349785  

    MAP1LC3C Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for MAP1LC3C


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    2 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR004241 Atg8_like
     IPR027731 MAP1A/MAP1B_LC3C

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q9BXW4

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q9BXW4

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB004241 Light chain 3 (LC3)

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: MLP3C_HUMAN, Q9BXW4
    Similarity: Belongs to the ATG8 family


    MAP1LC3C for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, and Vector BioLabs, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: MLP3C_HUMAN, Q9BXW4
    Function: Ubiquitin-like modifier that plays a crucial role in antibacterial autophagy (xenophagy) through the
    selective binding of CALCOCO2. Recruites all ATG8 family members to infecting bacteria such as S.Typhimurium

         Gene Ontology (GO): 1 molecular function term:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI19250911
         
    MAP1LC3C for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         2 GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for MAP1LC3C:
     Bright nuclei  Decreased melanin production 

    Animal Models:
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for MAP1LC3C
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    miRTarBase miRNAs that target MAP1LC3C:
    hsa-mir-26b-5p (MIRT029586)

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    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    MLP3C_HUMAN, Q9BXW4: Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton. Endomembrane system; Lipid-anchor. Cytoplasmic vesicle,
    autophagosome membrane; Lipid-anchor. Note=LC3-II binds to the autophagic membranes
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    cytoskeleton5
    vacuole5
    mitochondrion3
    cytosol2
    nucleus1

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected cellular component terms (see all 7):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000421autophagic vacuole membrane IEA--
    GO:0005737cytoplasm ----
    GO:0005776autophagic vacuole ISS12740394
    GO:0005874microtubule IEA--
    GO:0012505endomembrane system IEA--

    MAP1LC3C for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for MAP1LC3C About    
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Senescence and Autophagy
    Senescence and Autophagy


    1 BioSystems Pathway for MAP1LC3C
        Senescence and Autophagy


        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for MAP1LC3C
    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for MAP1LC3C

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for MAP1LC3C (Q9BXW41, 3 ENSP000003497854) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 254)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    ENSG00000212866P081073I2D: score=1 
    ENSG00000215328P081073I2D: score=1 
    ENSG00000224501P081073I2D: score=1 
    ENSG00000231555P081073I2D: score=1 
    ENSG00000232804P081073I2D: score=1 
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 2 biological process terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000045autophagic vacuole assembly ----
    GO:0006914autophagy IEA--

    MAP1LC3C for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for MAP1LC3C (MLP3C)



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for MAP1LC3C gene: 
    NM_001004343.2  

    Unigene Cluster for MAP1LC3C:

    Microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 gamma
    Hs.534971  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_001004343
    1 Ensembl transcript including schematic representation, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000357246(uc001hzk.2)
    miRNA
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      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat MAP1LC3C

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AF276659.1 BC127722.1 BC132986.1 BC132988.1 

    2 DOTS entries:

    DT.95149060  DT.40261247 

    4 AceView cDNA sequences:

    NM_001004343 BX282224 AF276659 AA424268 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    MAP1LC3C expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: TGGGCAGGTG
    MAP1LC3C Expression
    About this image

    MAP1LC3C Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    MAP1LC3C Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.534971

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: MLP3C_HUMAN, Q9BXW4
    Tissue specificity: Most abundant in placenta, lung and ovary

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    In Situ
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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

    Orthologs for MAP1LC3C gene from Selected species (see all 10)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    dog
    (Canis familiaris)
    Mammalia MAP1LC3C1 microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 gamma 87.95(n)
    86.92(a)
      611659  XM_005622581.1  XP_005622638.1 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves MAP1LC3C1 microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 gamma 74.93(n)
    80.99(a)
      421504  XM_419549.4  XP_419549.2 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia MAP1LC3C6
    microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 gam...
    70(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    1(216290405-216299813)
    tropical clawed frog
    (Xenopus tropicalis)
    Amphibia map1lc3c1 microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 gamma 68.68(n)
    76.72(a)
      733779  NM_001044522.1  NP_001037987.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii map1lc3c1 microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 gamma 72.22(n)
    72.22(a)
      393268  NM_200298.2  NP_956592.1 
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes ATG86
    Component of autophagosomes and Cvt vesicles; unde...
    38(a)
    1 → many
    II(80378-80731) YBL078C


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for MAP1LC3C (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for MAP1LC3C (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for MAP1LC3C gene
    GABARAPL22  MAP1LC3B2  MAP1LC3A2  GABARAP2  GABARAPL32  MAP1LC3B22  GABARAPL12  
    8 SIMAP similar genes for MAP1LC3C using alignment to 1 protein entry:     MLP3C_HUMAN:
    MAP1LC3A    MAP1LC3B    DKFZp762B153    MAP1LC3B2    GABARAPL2    GABARAPL1
    GABARAP    GABARAPL3

    MAP1LC3C for paralogs           About GeneDecksing



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for MAP1LC3C (see all 182)    About this table    
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 1 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs284615641,2
    C--242158338(+) CTTACT/GTGTTA 1 -- ds500112Minor allele frequency- G:0.05NA WA CSA EA 374
    rs1417531581,2
    --242158399(+) CGTCAC/TCCACC 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1462356901,2
    C--242158529(+) AGCTTC/GGCACA 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs743251861,2
    C,F--242158550(+) GCACAT/CGGTTT 1 -- ds50013Minor allele frequency- C:0.21WA NA EA 358
    rs741510941,2
    C,F--242158692(+) GATAAG/AAGCAC 1 -- ds50013Minor allele frequency- A:0.16WA CSA 122
    rs1381423001,2
    --242158752(+) AGACAA/GCCTAC 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs781020001,2
    C,F--242158873(+) ATATTA/GTCTCT 1 -- ut311Minor allele frequency- G:0.03EA 120
    rs731417501,2
    C,F--242158903(+) TCACAC/TAAGCC 1 -- ut313Minor allele frequency- T:0.05WA CSA 122
    rs1495455881,2
    C--242158932(+) ATACGG/TTTATA 1 -- ut310--------
    rs1441220061,2
    C--242158979(+) ACTTTA/GGGAGG 1 -- ut310--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for MAP1LC3C (242158792 - 242162385 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 4 variations for MAP1LC3C:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv508703CNV Loss20534489
    nsv873368CNV Gain21882294
    dgv16e55CNV Gain17911159
    nsv873372CNV Gain21882294

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    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 609605    OMIM disorders: --

    3 diseases for MAP1LC3C:    
    About MalaCards
    leiomyomatosis    renal clear cell carcinoma    hiv-1

    1 disease from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for MAP1LC3C:
    Leiomyomatosis

    MAP1LC3C for disorders           About GeneDecksing


    Export disorders for MAP1LC3C gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for MAP1LC3C gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 14):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with MAP1LC3C)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Post-translational modifications of three members of the human MAP1LC3 family and detection of a novel type of modification for MAP1LC3B. (PubMed id 12740394)1, 2, 3 He H.... Yu L. (J. Biol. Chem. 2003)
    2. LC3C, bound selectively by a noncanonical LIR motif in NDP52, is required for antibacterial autophagy. (PubMed id 23022382)1, 2 von Muhlinen N.... Randow F. (Mol. Cell 2012)
    3. Network organization of the human autophagy system. (PubMed id 20562859)1, 2 Behrends C....Harper J.W. (Nature 2010)
    4. The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1. (PubMed id 16710414)1, 2 Gregory S.G.... Bentley D.R. (Nature 2006)
    5. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    6. HsAtg4B/HsApg4B/autophagin-1 cleaves the carboxyl termini of three human Atg8 homologues and delipidates microtubule-associated protein light chain 3- and GABAA receptor-associated protein-phospholipid conjugates. (PubMed id 15187094)1, 2 Tanida I....Kominami E. (J. Biol. Chem. 2004)
    7. The Legionella effector RavZ inhibits host autophagy through irreversible Atg8 deconjugation. (PubMed id 23112293)2 Choy A....Roy C.R. (Science 2012)
    8. ATG8 family proteins act as scaffolds for assembly of the ULK complex: sequence requirements for LC3-interacting region (LIR) motifs. (PubMed id 23043107)1 Alemu E.A.... Johansen T. (J. Biol. Chem. 2012)
    9. DOR/Tp53inp2 and Tp53inp1 constitute a metazoan gene family encoding dual regulators of autophagy and transcription. (PubMed id 22470510)2 Sancho A.... Zorzano A. (PLoS ONE 2012)
    10. A role for NBR1 in autophagosomal degradation of ubiquitinated substrates. (PubMed id 19250911)1 Kirkin V.... Johansen T. (Mol. Cell 2009)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Free Text  

      Query String
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    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 440738 HGNC: 13353 AceView: LOC440738 Ensembl:ENSG00000197769 euGenes: HUgn440738
    ECgene: MAP1LC3C H-InvDB: MAP1LC3C

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for MAP1LC3C Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for MAP1LC3C gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving MAP1LC3C

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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