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Category   Symbol Source: HGNC EntrezGene Ensembl GeneCards RNA genes CroW21
GIFtS

LTF Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 69
GCID: GC03M046477

Lactotransferrin

Microbiology & Infectious Diseases Congress
  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
About This Section

Aliases
lactotransferrin1 2     talalactoferrin2
Growth-Inhibiting Protein 122 3     EC 3.4.21.-3
GIG122 3     Lactoferrin3
LF2 3     Talalactoferrin3
HLF22     EC 3.4.218
Neutrophil Lactoferrin2     

External Ids:    HGNC: 67201   Entrez Gene: 40572   Ensembl: ENSG000000122237   OMIM: 1502105   UniProtKB: P027883   

Export aliases for LTF gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC03M045718 GC03M046296 GC03M046438 GC03M046452


(According to Entrez Gene, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

Entrez Gene summary for LTF Gene:
This gene is a member of the transferrin family of genes and its protein product is found in the secondary
granules of neutrophils. The protein is a major iron-binding protein in milk and body secretions with an
antimicrobial activity, making it an important component of the non-specific immune system. The protein
demonstrates a broad spectrum of properties, including regulation of iron homeostasis, host defense against a
broad range of microbial infections, anti-inflammatory activity, regulation of cellular growth and
differentiation and protection against cancer development and metastasis. Alternatively spliced transcript
variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. (provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010)

GeneCards Summary for LTF Gene: 
LTF (lactotransferrin) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with LTF include clostridium difficile, and radiation proctitis, and among its related super-pathways are Insulin receptor recycling and Response of Mtb to phagocytosis. GO annotations related to this gene include ferric iron binding and serine-type endopeptidase activity. An important paralog of this gene is MFI2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TRFL_HUMAN, P02788
Function: Transferrins are iron binding transport proteins which can bind two Fe(3+) ions in association with the
binding of an anion, usually bicarbonate
Function: Lactotransferrin is a major iron-binding and multifunctional protein found in exocrine fluids such as
breast milk and mucosal secretions. Has antimicrobial activity, which depends on the extracellular cation
concentration. Antimicrobial properties include bacteriostasis, which is related to its ability to sequester free
iron and thus inhibit microbial growth, as well as direct bactericidal properties leading to the release of
lipopolysaccharides from the bacterial outer membrane. Can also prevent bacterial biofilm development in
P.aeruginosa infection. Has weak antifungal activity against C.albicans. Has anabolic, differentiating and
anti-apoptotic effects on osteoblasts and can also inhibit osteoclastogenesis, possibly playing a role in the
regulation of bone growth. Promotes binding of species C adenoviruses to epithelial cells, promoting adenovirus
infection. Can inhibit papillomavirus infections. Stimulates the TLR4 signaling pathway leading to NF-kappa-B
activation and subsequent pro-inflammatory cytokine production while also interfering with the lipopolysaccharide
(LPS)-stimulated TLR4 signaling. Inhibits neutrophil granulocyte migration to sites of apoptosis, when secreted
by apoptotic cells. Stimulates VEGFA-mediated endothelial cell migration and proliferation. Binds heparin,
chondroitin sulfate and possibly other glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Also binds specifically to pneumococcal surface
protein A (pspA), the lipid A portion of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lysozyme and DNA
Function: Lactoferricin binds to the bacterial surface and is crucial for the bactericidal functions. Has some
antiviral activity against papillomavirus infection. N-terminal region shows strong antifungal activity against
C.albicans. Contains two BBXB heparin-binding consensus sequences that appear to form the predominate functional
GAG-binding site
Function: Kaliocin-1 has antimicrobial activity and is able to permeabilize different ions through liposomal
membranes
Function: Lactoferroxins A, B and C have opioid antagonist activity. Lactoferroxin A shows preference for
mu-receptors, while lactoferroxin B and C have somewhat higher degrees of preference for kappa-receptors than for
mu-receptors
Function: The lactotransferrin transferrin-like domain 1 functions as a serine protease of the peptidase S60
family that cuts arginine rich regions. This function contributes to the antimicrobial activity
Function: Isoform DeltaLf: transcription factor with antiproliferative properties and ability to induce cell cycle
arrest. Binds to the DeltaLf response element found in the SKP1, BAX, DCPS, and SELH promoters

Gene Wiki entry for LTF (Lactoferrin) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 73), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, SABiosciences, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
About This Section
RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000003.11  NT_022517.18  NC_018914.2  
Regulatory elements:
   SABiosciences Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the LTF gene promoter:
         CREB   AP-1   deltaCREB   ATF-2   STAT3   c-Jun   STAT5A   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidLTF promoter sequence
   Search SABiosciences Chromatin IP Primers for LTF

Epigenetics:
QIAGEN PyroMark CpG Assay predesigned Pyrosequencing DNA Methylation assays in human, mouse, rat LTF


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 3p21.31   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  3p21.31   HGNC cytogenetic band: 3p21.31

LTF Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
LTF gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 3         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC03M046477:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
46,477,136 bp from pter      End:
46,526,724 bp from pter
Size:
49,589 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to UniProtKB, HORDE, neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MAXQB RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 and Entrez Gene, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
About This Section

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TRFL_HUMAN, P02788 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Lactotransferrin precursor  
Size: 710 amino acids; 78182 Da
Subunit: Monomer. Found in a complex with LTF, CLU, EPPIN and SEMG1
Subcellular location: Isoform 1: Secreted. Cytoplasmic granule. Note=Secreted into most exocrine fluids by various
endothelial cells. Stored in the secondary granules of neutrophils
Subcellular location: Isoform DeltaLf: Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Note=Mainly localized in the cytoplasm
Mass spectrometry: Mass=5737.8; Method=Electrospray; Range=20-67; Source=PubMed:16048952;
6/32 PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for LTF (see all 32):
1B0L (3D)        1BKA (3D)        1CB6 (3D)        1DSN (3D)        1EH3 (3D)        1FCK (3D)    
Secondary accessions: B2MV13 B7Z4X2 E7EQH5 O00756 Q16780 Q16785 Q16786 Q16789 Q5DSM0 Q8IU92
Q8IZH6 Q8TCD2 Q96KZ4 Q96KZ5 Q9H1Z3 Q9UCY5
Alternative promoter usage: 2 isoforms:  P02788-1   P02788-2   (Phosphorylated at Ser-10. Glycosylated at Ser-10. O-GlcNAcylation at Ser-10 inhibits DNA binding and negatively regulates DeltaLf transcriptional activity, whereas phosphorylation activates it. Phosphorylation at Ser-10 also promotes proteasomal degradation)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for LTF: NX_P02788

Explore proteomics data for LTF at MOPED 

Post-translational modifications:

  • UniProtKB: Isoform DeltaLf: Ubiquitinated at Lys-379 and Lys-391
  • UniProtKB: Poly-N-acetyllactosaminic carbohydrate moiety seems to be needed for TLR4 activation
  • View modification sites using PhosphoSitePlus
  • View neXtProt modification sites for NX_P02788

  • 4/11 DME Specific Peptides for LTF (P02788) (see all 11)
     RKPVTEA  SSQEPYF  GKKSCHT  LLCPDNT 

    LTF Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MAXQB3 :    About this image 

    LTF Protein Expression
    REFSEQ proteins (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001186078.1  NP_002334.2  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000231751   ENSP00000405546   ENSP00000397427   ENSP00000395234   ENSP00000400254  
     ENSP00000405719  
    Reactome Protein details: P02788
    Human Recombinant Protein Products for LTF: 
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    OriGene MassSpec for LTF 
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    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for LTF
    Novus Biologicals LTF Proteins
    Novus Biologicals LTF Lysate
    Sino Biological Recombinant Protein for LTF
    Sino Biological Cell Lysate for LTF 
    ProSpec Recombinant Protein for LTF
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for LTF 

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5 cellular component terms (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005576extracellular region TAS--
    GO:0005634nucleus IEA--
    GO:0005737cytoplasm ----
    GO:0030141secretory granule IDA11907569
    GO:0097013phagocytic vesicle lumen TAS--

    LTF for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    LTF Antibody Products: 
    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of LTF
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    Novus Biologicals LTF Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for LTF
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Antibodies for LTF 
    ThermoFisher Antibodies for LTF
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for LTF 

    Assay Products for LTF: 
    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for LTF
    Browse R&D Systems for biochemical assays
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for LTF
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for LTF 
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for LTF


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
    About This Section
    3 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR018195 Transferrin_Fe_BS
     IPR016357 Transferrin
     IPR001156 Transferrin_fam

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P02788

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P02788

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB001156 Transferrin

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TRFL_HUMAN, P02788
    Similarity: Belongs to the transferrin family
    Similarity: Contains 2 transferrin-like domains


    LTF for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    bound targets from SABiosciences, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, RNAi from EMD Millipore, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and Sirion Biotech, Cell Lines from GenScript, LifeMap BioReagents, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene.)
    About This Section

    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: TRFL_HUMAN, P02788
    Function: Transferrins are iron binding transport proteins which can bind two Fe(3+) ions in association with the
    binding of an anion, usually bicarbonate
    Function: Lactotransferrin is a major iron-binding and multifunctional protein found in exocrine fluids such as
    breast milk and mucosal secretions. Has antimicrobial activity, which depends on the extracellular cation
    concentration. Antimicrobial properties include bacteriostasis, which is related to its ability to sequester free
    iron and thus inhibit microbial growth, as well as direct bactericidal properties leading to the release of
    lipopolysaccharides from the bacterial outer membrane. Can also prevent bacterial biofilm development in
    P.aeruginosa infection. Has weak antifungal activity against C.albicans. Has anabolic, differentiating and
    anti-apoptotic effects on osteoblasts and can also inhibit osteoclastogenesis, possibly playing a role in the
    regulation of bone growth. Promotes binding of species C adenoviruses to epithelial cells, promoting adenovirus
    infection. Can inhibit papillomavirus infections. Stimulates the TLR4 signaling pathway leading to NF-kappa-B
    activation and subsequent pro-inflammatory cytokine production while also interfering with the lipopolysaccharide
    (LPS)-stimulated TLR4 signaling. Inhibits neutrophil granulocyte migration to sites of apoptosis, when secreted
    by apoptotic cells. Stimulates VEGFA-mediated endothelial cell migration and proliferation. Binds heparin,
    chondroitin sulfate and possibly other glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Also binds specifically to pneumococcal surface
    protein A (pspA), the lipid A portion of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lysozyme and DNA
    Function: Lactoferricin binds to the bacterial surface and is crucial for the bactericidal functions. Has some
    antiviral activity against papillomavirus infection. N-terminal region shows strong antifungal activity against
    C.albicans. Contains two BBXB heparin-binding consensus sequences that appear to form the predominate functional
    GAG-binding site
    Function: Kaliocin-1 has antimicrobial activity and is able to permeabilize different ions through liposomal
    membranes
    Function: Lactoferroxins A, B and C have opioid antagonist activity. Lactoferroxin A shows preference for
    mu-receptors, while lactoferroxin B and C have somewhat higher degrees of preference for kappa-receptors than for
    mu-receptors
    Function: The lactotransferrin transferrin-like domain 1 functions as a serine protease of the peptidase S60
    family that cuts arginine rich regions. This function contributes to the antimicrobial activity
    Function: Isoform DeltaLf: transcription factor with antiproliferative properties and ability to induce cell cycle
    arrest. Binds to the DeltaLf response element found in the SKP1, BAX, DCPS, and SELH promoters
    Catalytic activity: Preferential at -Arg-Ser-Arg-Arg- - and -Arg-Arg-Ser-Arg- -, and of Z-Phe-Arg-
    -aminomethylcoumarin

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for LTF:
    lactotransferrin,80kDa,iron binding protein present in milk and a variety of secretions derived from glandular
    epithelium cells,also expressed in secondary granules of neutrophils,involved in iron transport,storage and
    chelation,and host defense mechanisms

         Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB): EC 3.4.212 EC 3.4.21.-1

         Gene Ontology (GO): 5/7 molecular function terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 7):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0003677DNA binding IEA--
    GO:0004252serine-type endopeptidase activity TAS9770539
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI1544444
    GO:0008199ferric iron binding IEA--
    GO:0008201heparin binding IDA11907569
         
    LTF for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for LTF:
     Increased gamma-H2AX phosphory 

         4 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 1 allele(MGI details for Ltf):
     hematopoietic system  homeostasis/metabolism  immune system  liver/biliary system 

    LTF for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-out Ltftm1Omc for LTF

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated mouse model solutions for LTF 
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated inducible mouse model solutions for LTF

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for LTF 
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for LTF 

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    QIAGEN Custom miScript Target Protector blocks miRNA-binding site of human, mouse, rat LTF
    2 QIAGEN miScript miRNA Assays for microRNAs that regulate LTF:
    hsa-miR-214 hsa-miR-761
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidLTF 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    Browse for Gene Knock-down Tools from EMD Millipore
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for LTF
    QIAGEN FlexiTube/FlexiPlate siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat LTF

    Gene Editing
    Products:
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    Sirion Biotech Customized adenovirus for overexpression of LTF

    Clone
    Products:
         
    Browse Clones for the Expression of Recombinant Proteins Available from EMD Millipore
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    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for LTF
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 2): LTF (NM_001199149)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for LTF
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for LTF
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat LTF
    Sirion Biotech Customized lentivirus for stable overexpression of LTF 
                         Customized lentivirus expression plasmids for stable overexpression of LTF 

    Cell Line
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    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for LTF
    Search LifeMap BioReagents cell lines for LTF
    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for LTF


    (Pathways according to EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to SABiosciences, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene).
    About This Section

    SuperPaths for LTF About   (see all 6)                                                                                              See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Insulin receptor recycling
    Latent infection of Homo sapiens with Mycobacterium tuberculosis0.64
    Phagosomal maturation (early endosomal stage)0.64
    2Mtb iron assimilation by chelation
    Response of Mtb to phagocytosis1.00
    Mtb iron assimilation by chelation1.00
    3Packaging Of Telomere Ends
    Amyloids0.41
    4Selected targets of ESR1
    Selected targets of ESR1
    5Disease
    Disease

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    2 EMD Millipore Pathways for LTF
        Selected targets of ESR1
    Selected targets of C/EBPalpha



    5/6        Reactome Pathways for LTF (see all 6)
        Amyloids
    Mtb iron assimilation by chelation
    Phagosomal maturation (early endosomal stage)
    Response of Mtb to phagocytosis
    Latent infection of Homo sapiens with Mycobacterium tuberculosis



    LTF for pathways           About GeneDecksing

    Interactions:

        SABiosciences Gene Network CentralTM Interacting Genes and Proteins Network for LTF

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    5/39 Interacting proteins for LTF (P027881, 2, 3 ENSP000002317514) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 39)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    NCLP193382, 3, ENSP000003181954MINT-8176174 I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000318195
    CALM1P621583, ENSP000003494674I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000349467
    CALM2P621583I2D: score=2 
    CALM3P621583I2D: score=2 
    LYZP616263, ENSP000002612674I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000261267
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5/20 biological process terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 20):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001503ossification IEA--
    GO:0001817regulation of cytokine production IDA--
    GO:0006351transcription, DNA-dependent IEA--
    GO:0006355regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent ----
    GO:0006508proteolysis IEA--

    LTF for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB, with drugs/clinical trials/news search links to CenterWatch)
    About This Section

    LTF for compounds           About GeneDecksing

    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
    Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences

    Browse Tocris compounds for LTF (TRFL)

    2 HMDB Compounds for LTF    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    Hydrogen carbonateBicarbonate (see all 19)71-52-3--
    IronArmco iron (see all 19)7439-89-6--

    7 DrugBank Compounds for LTF    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    3h-Indole-5,6-Diol-- 3131-52-0target--17139284 17016423 10592235
    Alpha-D-Fucose-- --target--17139284 17016423 10592235
    Nitrilotriacetic Acid-- --target--17139284 17016423 10592235
    2-(4-(2-HYDROXY-3-(ISOPROPYLAMINO)PROPOXY)PHENYL)ETHANAMIDE-- --target--10592235
    Alpha-D-Mannose-- 3458-28-4target--10592235
    Nimesulide-- 51803-78-2target--10592235
    parecoxib-- --target--10592235

    10/151 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for LTF gene (see all 151)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    iron 79.1 1054 8662718 (8), 16469988 (8), 7874020 (7), 11397094 (6) (see all 99)
    whey 70.6 66 17369245 (3), 17517705 (3), 20308020 (2), 8763041 (2) (see all 39)
    l-bpa 68.5 6 7752881 (1), 9620956 (1), 20155302 (1), 15222471 (1) (see all 6)
    ipabc 68.4 3 12508150 (2), 11787716 (1)
    hypothiocyanite 67.1 9 8478785 (2), 9437402 (1), 1644785 (1), 8764554 (1) (see all 8)
    apotransferrin 63.7 6 11683638 (1), 2230644 (1), 15563106 (1), 15897999 (1) (see all 6)
    fe3+ 61.5 25 16266273 (2), 19820086 (2), 7490743 (1), 17416063 (1) (see all 19)
    fmlp 61.1 32 8695817 (5), 8338131 (3), 1849951 (2), 1647754 (2) (see all 17)
    n-formylmethionyl-leucylphenylalanine 57.3 9 8975881 (1), 11830497 (1), 8724704 (1), 8338131 (1) (see all 8)
    edda 48.3 4 7553361 (1), 8704995 (1)

    Search CenterWatch for drugs/clinical trials and news about LTF / TRFL

    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    RNAi Products from EMD Millipore,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN )
    About This Section

    REFSEQ mRNAs for LTF gene (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001199149.1  NM_002343.3  

    Unigene Cluster for LTF:

    Lactotransferrin
    Hs.529517  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: AK093852
    10 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000231751(uc003cpq.3 uc010hjh.3) ENST00000417439 ENST00000443496(uc003cpr.3)
    ENST00000493056 ENST00000478874 ENST00000462667 ENST00000431944 ENST00000415180
    ENST00000498301 ENST00000426532(uc003fzr.3)
    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:  
    European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID) 10 - 13 May 2014

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    2 QIAGEN miScript miRNA Assays for microRNAs that regulate LTF:
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    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidLTF 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 2): LTF (NM_001199149)
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    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat LTF
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    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for LTF
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      QIAGEN QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat LTF
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    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AF332168.1 AK093852.1 AK126237.1 AK290859.1 AK292813.1 AK298035.1 AK303889.1 AK303995.1 
    AK316330.1 AY137470.1 AY165046.1 AY178998.2 AY360320.1 AY493417.1 AY875691.1 BC015822.1 
    BC015823.1 BC022347.1 DQ522304.1 EU779935.1 M18642.1 M83202.1 M83205.1 M93150.1 
    U07643.1 U84119.1 X52941.1 X53961.1 

    24/40 DOTS entries (see all 40):

    DT.95290797  DT.91779287  DT.120841139  DT.120841167  DT.120841202  DT.120841183  DT.120841210  DT.120841194 
    DT.120841178  DT.95112836  DT.95290880  DT.120841201  DT.95290798  DT.91873587  DT.95290884  DT.91729222 
    DT.95290875  DT.95357232  DT.120841140  DT.120841144  DT.95302187  DT.120841119  DT.120841150  DT.120841155 

    24/625 AceView cDNA sequences (see all 625):

    CK430227 BI021334 CA946385 AI357629 CA946362 CD724188 CK429806 CD722014 
    CK430793 CK431042 CK430412 CD723749 CD723201 CD723948 CD722782 CK430386 
    CK429525 CD722394 CD723547 CK430051 CD724233 CA946400 CK430537 CK430671 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, plus additional links to Genevestigator, and/or SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

    LTF expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)      LTF embryonic expression: see
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: GCAAAACAAC
    LTF Expression
    About this image


    LTF expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database 
     5/9 selected tissues (see all 9) fully expand
     
     Skeletal Muscle (Muscoskeletal System)    fully expand to see all 4 entries
             Mononuclear Myocytes Hyoid Arch Muscles
     
     Blood (Hematopoietic System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Neutrophils Peripheral Blood
             Bone Marrow CD33+ Cells   
     
     Lung (Respiratory System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             trachea   
     
     Bone (Muscoskeletal System)
             Bone Marrow
     
     Oral Cavity (Gastrointestinal Tract)
             Salivary gland   

    See LTF Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED and PaxDB
    Genevestigator expression for LTF

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.529517

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TRFL_HUMAN, P02788
    Tissue specificity: High levels are found in saliva and tears, intermediate levels in serum and plasma, and low
    levels in urine. In kidney, detected in the distal collecting tubules in the medulla but not in the cortical
    region or in blood vessels. Detected in peripheral blood neutrophils (at protein level). Isoform 1 and isoform
    DeltaLf are expressed in breast, prostate, spleen, pancreas, kidney, small intestine, lung, skeletal muscle,
    uterus, thymus and fetal liver. Isoform 1 is expressed in brain, testis and peripheral blood leukocytes; isoform
    DeltaLf is barely detectable in these tissues. Isoform DeltaLf is expressed in placenta, liver and ovary; isoform
    1 is barely detectable in these tissues. In kidney, isoform 1 is expressed at high levels in the collecting
    tubules of the medulla but at very low levels in the cortex

        SABiosciences Expression via Pathway-Focused PCR Array including LTF: 
              Antibacterial Response in human mouse rat

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    In Situ
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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

    Orthologs for LTF gene from 6/12 species (see all 12)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Ltf1 , 5 lactotransferrin1, 5 76.22(n)1
    71.06(a)1
      9 (60.79 cM)5
    170021  NM_008522.31  NP_032548.21 
     1110192925 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves LTF6
    ovotransferrin precursor
    50(a)
    1 → many
    9(4096869-4107617)
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia --
    --
    50(a)
    1 → many
    3(30949265-30974075)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia MGC643062 hypothetical protein MGC64306 74.93(n)    BC043632.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii BC054944.12   -- 74.9(n)   321190  BC054944.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta Tsf26
    Tsf16
    (see all 3)
    Transferrin 1
    (see all 3)
    26(a)
    21(a)
    (see all 3)
    many ↔ many
    many ↔ many
    (see all 3)
    3L(12523536-12526824)
    X(18281965-18284377)


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for LTF (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for LTF (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
    About This Section
    Paralogs for LTF gene
    MFI22  TF2  
    2 SIMAP similar genes for LTF using alignment to 6 protein entries:     TRFL_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    TF    MFI2

    LTF for paralogs           About GeneDecksing



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers from QIAGEN, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays and Copy Number PCR Arrays from SABiosciences)
    About This Section

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TRFL_HUMAN, P02788
    Polymorphism: The sequence shown corresponds to the reference genome sequence and is likely to represent the minor
    allele, whereas most publications refer to the longer sequence containing variant Arg-22 ins. Insertion of the
    additional arginine in variant Arg-22 ins creates an N-terminal basic cluster of four arginines, all of which
    appear to be important for the full functionality of the protein, including bactericidal and antifungal
    activities as well as binding to glycosaminoglycans, pspA, LPS, lysozyme and DNA


    10/916 SNPs in LTF are shown (see all 916)    About this table     
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 3 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1487545891,2
    --46407698(+) TTATAC/GCAAAC 2 -- ds50010--------
    rs1131724831,2
    C,F--46407746(+) ACTGAT/ACCTAC 2 -- ds50011Minor allele frequency- A:0.50CSA 2
    rs342783441,2
    C,F--46407777(+) GCTTGC/TTCTTC 2 -- ds50014Minor allele frequency- T:0.20NA 126
    rs1462887431,2
    --46407854(+) GTGAAC/TAACCA 2 -- ds50010--------
    rs760198271,2
    C--46407857(+) AATAAA/CCAACA 2 -- ds50010--------
    rs1834344631,2
    --46407949(+) GGAGGG/TGCTGG 2 -- ds50010--------
    rs1444691411,2
    --46408113(+) GAATTC/GTAAGC 2 -- ut310--------
    rs1489077551,2
    C--46408252(+) CCTGAG/AGAATT 4 /L /F mis11Minor allele frequency- A:0.00NA 4544
    rs1870022371,2
    C--46408346(+) CAATAA/CATCAA 2 -- int10--------
    rs560639101,2
    C--46408381(+) CCCTTC/TTCCCA 2 -- int11Minor allele frequency- T:0.50CSA 2

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for LTF (46477136 - 46526724 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 1 variation for LTF:    About this table     
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2725234CNV Deletion23290073


    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): LTF
    SABiosciences Cancer Mutation PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing LTF
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    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section
    OMIM gene information: 150210    OMIM disorders: --

    20/155 diseases for LTF (see all 155):    About MalaCards
    clostridium difficile    radiation proctitis    blepharitis    keratoconjunctivitis sicca
    inflammatory diarrhea    laryngeal disease    dermatophytosis    salivary gland disease
    mastitis    dry eye syndrome    lactose intolerance    oral candidiasis
    dental caries    proctitis    microsporidiosis    rheumatoid vasculitis
    acute diarrhea    amyloidosis corneal    polyarteritis nodosa    diarrhea

    16 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for LTF:
    Mastitis     Ulcerative colitis     Diarrhea     Periodontal disease
    Crohn's disease     Vasculitis     Keratoconjunctivitis sicca     Pancreatitis
    Cancer     Perinatal necrotizing enterocolitis     Dental caries     Arthritis
    Hypersensitivity reaction type II disease     Blepharitis     Candidiasis     Irritable bowel syndrome

    LTF for disorders           About GeneDecksing


    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:  
    The International Symposium on Pneumococci and Pneumococcal Diseases (ISPPD) 9 - 13 March 2014
    Alzheimer's & Parkinson's Diseases Congress (ADPD) 18 - 22 March 2015

    10/98 Novoseek inferred disease relationships for LTF gene (see all 98)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    specific granule deficiency 72.2 3 15941779 (1), 9833431 (1), 18321995 (1)
    inflammation 58.6 194 11014359 (6), 17507875 (4), 16800860 (4), 8574844 (4) (see all 99)
    colitis ulcerative 58.1 48 17461450 (3), 9093012 (2), 12974208 (2), 18001547 (2) (see all 32)
    inflammatory bowel diseases 51.4 47 9093012 (6), 19172123 (2), 17852860 (2), 9781375 (2) (see all 27)
    amyloidosis, corneal 50.3 2 9873069 (1)
    keratoconjunctivitis sicca 49.6 6 7842709 (3), 8908435 (1), 1603200 (1), 7825407 (1)
    sjogrens syndrome secondary 48.3 5 10451125 (1), 11016688 (1), 7825407 (1)
    vasculitis 47.5 9 9017617 (1), 7922264 (1), 18640073 (1), 8542262 (1) (see all 7)
    mastitis 43.4 13 19584041 (3), 12161968 (2), 16954396 (2), 16462118 (1) (see all 7)
    dry eye syndromes 41.6 3 9145691 (2), 7825407 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): LTF
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: LTF (20 documents)

    Export disorders for LTF gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
    About This Section

    PubMed articles for LTF gene, integrated from 9 sources (see all 1527):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with LTF)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Association of circulating lactoferrin concentration and 2 nonsynonymous LTF gene polymorphisms with dyslipidemia in men depends on glucose-tolerance status. (PubMed id 18156281)1, 4, 9 Moreno-Navarrete J.M....Fernandez-Real J.M. (2008)
    2. Lactoferrin is a potent regulator of bone cell activity and increases bone formation in vivo. (PubMed id 15166119)1, 2, 9 Cornish J....Reid I.R. (2004)
    3. 'Dilysine trigger' in transferrins probed by mutagenesis of lactoferrin: crystal structures of the R210G, R210E, and R210L mutants of human lactoferrin. (PubMed id 12450380)1, 2, 9 Peterson N.A....Baker E.N. (2002)
    4. One of two human lactoferrin variants exhibits increased antibacterial and transcriptional activation activities and is associated with localized juvenile periodontitis. (PubMed id 14573629)1, 2, 9 Velliyagounder K....Fine D.H. (2003)
    5. Analysis of the association between lactotransferrin (LTF) gene polymorphism and dental caries. (PubMed id 20485928)1, 4, 9 Azevedo L.F....Trevilatto P.C. (2010)
    6. Human milk lactoferrin is a serine protease that cleaves Haemophilus surface proteins at arginine-rich sites. (PubMed id 12535064)1, 2, 9 Hendrixson D.R.... St Geme J.W. III (2003)
    7. N-terminal stretch Arg2, Arg3, Arg4 and Arg5 of human lactoferrin is essential for binding to heparin, bacterial lipopolysaccharide, human lysozyme and DNA. (PubMed id 9359845)1, 2, 9 van Berkel P.H....Nuijens J.H. (1997)
    8. Association between lactoferrin gene polymorphisms and aggressive periodontitis among Taiwanese patients. (PubMed id 18973542)1, 4, 9 Wu Y.M....Tsai C.C. (2008)
    9. Genetic and epigenetic alterations of LTF at 3p21.3 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. (PubMed id 17476971)1, 3, 9 Yi H.M....Ren C.P. (2006)
    10. Candidacidal activities of human lactoferrin peptides derived from the N terminus. (PubMed id 11083624)1, 2, 9 Lupetti A....Nibbering P.H. (2000)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
    About This Section
     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
    About This Section
    Entrez Gene: 4057 HGNC: 6720 AceView: LTF Ensembl:ENSG00000012223 euGenes: HUgn4057
    ECgene: LTF H-InvDB: LTF

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section
      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL,
    Wikipedia and/or GeneReviews via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section
    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for LTF Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for LTF Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
    Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lactotransferrin

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
    About This Section
    Patent Information for LTF gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving LTF

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, SABiosciences, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Gene Editing from DNA2.0 and Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Cell lines from GenScript, and LifeMap BioReagents, PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, and/or Enzo Life Sciences, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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    About This Section

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