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Aliases for LSS Gene

Aliases for LSS Gene

  • Lanosterol Synthase 2 3 5
  • Lanosterol Synthase (2,3-Oxidosqualene-Lanosterol Cyclase) 2 3
  • Oxidosqualene--Lanosterol Cyclase 3 4
  • EC 4 58
  • HOSC 3 4
  • OSC 3 4
  • 2,3-Epoxysqualene--Lanosterol Cyclase 4
  • 2,3-Epoxysqualene-Lanosterol Cyclase 3
  • Oxidosqualene-Lanosterol Cyclase 2
  • EC 5.4.99 58
  • CTRCT44 3

External Ids for LSS Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for LSS Gene

  • GC21M044116
  • GC21M046464
  • GC21M046465
  • GC21M046432
  • GC21M047608
  • GC21M032990

Summaries for LSS Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for LSS Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the conversion of (S)-2,3 oxidosqualene to lanosterol. The encoded protein is a member of the terpene cyclase/mutase family and catalyzes the first step in the biosynthesis of cholesterol, steroid hormones, and vitamin D. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]

GeneCards Summary for LSS Gene

LSS (Lanosterol Synthase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with LSS include Cataract 44 and Holoprosencephaly. Among its related pathways are Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis and Metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include intramolecular transferase activity and lanosterol synthase activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for LSS Gene

  • Catalyzes the cyclization of (S)-2,3 oxidosqualene to lanosterol, a reaction that forms the sterol nucleus. Through the production of lanosterol may regulate lens protein aggregation and increase transparency.

Tocris Summary for LSS Gene

Gene Wiki entry for LSS Gene

Additional gene information for LSS Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for LSS Gene

Genomics for LSS Gene

Regulatory Elements for LSS Gene

Enhancers for LSS Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH21H046632 1.4 ENCODE dbSUPER 9.9 -406.4 -406392 4.5 HDGF PKNOX1 ARNT ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 ZBTB7B YY1 ZNF766 ENSG00000228137 ENSG00000227438 COL6A1 S100B MCM3AP COL6A2 DIP2A ENSG00000228235 LOC105372842 DSTNP1
GH21H046317 1 ENCODE dbSUPER 12.3 -89.6 -89568 0.9 SIX4 SIN3A YBX1 BMI1 ZIC2 GLIS2 POLR2A RFX1 ZNF687 SP3 SPATC1L LSS MCM3AP-AS1 ENSG00000223901 ENSG00000228404 C21orf58 GC21P046292 GC21P046294
GH21H046252 0.9 ENCODE 12.1 -25.2 -25245 2.2 HDAC1 HDGF PKNOX1 ARNT INSM2 ZNF76 RARA ZNF766 EGR1 ATF7 YBEY MCM3AP-AS1 LSS C21orf58 PCNT ENSG00000223901 FTCD DIP2A DIP2A-IT1 SPATC1L
GH21H046637 1.1 ENCODE dbSUPER 9.9 -409.5 -409474 0.7 HDAC1 PKNOX1 ATF1 BATF CHAMP1 GATA2 SCRT2 IKZF2 ZNF592 MAFF S100B LSS MCM3AP-AS1 ENSG00000223901 ENSG00000228404 PRMT2 DSTNP1
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around LSS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for LSS Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00000143369 124 2201 ATF1 MLX ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 ZBTB7B GLIS2 ZNF143 ZNF207

Genomic Locations for LSS Gene

Genomic Locations for LSS Gene
40,684 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for LSS Gene

Genes around LSS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
LSS Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for LSS Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for LSS Gene

Proteins for LSS Gene

  • Protein details for LSS Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Lanosterol synthase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B4DJZ9
    • D3DSN0
    • E9PEI9
    • G5E9Q9
    • Q8IYL6
    • Q9UEZ1

    Protein attributes for LSS Gene

    732 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    83309 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for LSS Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for LSS Gene


neXtProt entry for LSS Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for LSS Gene


Post-translational modifications for LSS Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys61, Lys148, Lys318, posLast=331331, posLast=340340, posLast=432432, posLast=439439, Lys470, Lys506, posLast=680680, and posLast=698698
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Domains & Families for LSS Gene

Gene Families for LSS Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for LSS Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the terpene cyclase/mutase family.
  • Belongs to the terpene cyclase/mutase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with LSS: view

Function for LSS Gene

Molecular function for LSS Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
lanosterol synthase catalyzing cyclization of squalene-2,3-epoxide to lanosterol (cholesterol biosynthesis),not involved in holoprosencephaly (HPE1)
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
(3S)-2,3-epoxy-2,3-dihydrosqualene = lanosterol.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Catalyzes the cyclization of (S)-2,3 oxidosqualene to lanosterol, a reaction that forms the sterol nucleus. Through the production of lanosterol may regulate lens protein aggregation and increase transparency.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for LSS Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for LSS Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for LSS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000250 lanosterol synthase activity TAS --
GO:0016853 isomerase activity IEA --
GO:0016866 intramolecular transferase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LSS: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with LSS: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for LSS Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for LSS Gene

MGI Knock Outs for LSS:
  • Lss tm1b(KOMP)Wtsi

Animal Model Products

Clone Products

No data available for Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for LSS Gene

Localization for LSS Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for LSS Gene

Endoplasmic reticulum membrane; Peripheral membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for LSS gene
Compartment Confidence
endoplasmic reticulum 4
cytosol 3
nucleus 2
extracellular 1
cytoskeleton 1
mitochondrion 1
peroxisome 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for LSS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005783 endoplasmic reticulum IEA --
GO:0005789 endoplasmic reticulum membrane TAS --
GO:0005811 lipid particle IDA 14741744
GO:0016020 membrane IDA,IEA 19946888
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LSS: view

Pathways & Interactions for LSS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with LSS: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P48449-ERG7_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Terpene metabolism; lanosterol biosynthesis; lanosterol from farnesyl diphosphate: step 3/3.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for LSS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006629 lipid metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006694 steroid biosynthetic process IMP 26200341
GO:0006695 cholesterol biosynthetic process TAS,IMP --
GO:0031647 regulation of protein stability IMP 26200341
GO:0045540 regulation of cholesterol biosynthetic process TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LSS: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for LSS Gene

Drugs & Compounds for LSS Gene

(16) Drugs for LSS Gene - From: DrugBank, DGIdb, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Lanosterin Experimental Pharma Target 0
R048-8071 Experimental Pharma Target 0
COMPOUND 1 [CID 44270471] Pharma 0
COMPOUND 1 [PMID: 22533316] Pharma 0
COMPOUND 10 [PMID: 22533316] Pharma 0

(7) Additional Compounds for LSS Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • (S)-2,3-Epoxysqualene
  • (S)-Squalene-2,3-epoxide
  • Squalene 2,3-epoxide
  • Squalene 2,3-oxide
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with LSS: view

Transcripts for LSS Gene

Unigene Clusters for LSS Gene

Lanosterol synthase (2,3-oxidosqualene-lanosterol cyclase):
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for LSS Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b · 2c · 2d ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7a · 7b · 7c ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15a · 15b ^
SP1: - - -
SP2: -
SP3: - - -
SP4: - - -
SP6: - - -
SP7: - - - - -

ExUns: 16 ^ 17a · 17b ^ 18a · 18b ^ 19a · 19b
SP8: - -

Relevant External Links for LSS Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for LSS Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for LSS Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for LSS Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Fetal Liver (9.6) and Milk (8.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for LSS Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for LSS Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of LSS Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for LSS Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for LSS Gene

  • Nervous system(5)
  • Eye(4.4)
  • Liver(4.4)
  • Lung(3.1)
  • Skin(2)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for LSS Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • mesoderm
  • nervous
  • skeletal muscle
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • cranial nerve
  • eye
  • head
  • peripheral nervous system
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with LSS: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for LSS Gene

Orthologs for LSS Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for LSS Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia LSS 33 34
  • 99.32 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia LSS 33 34
  • 86.02 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia LSS 33 34
  • 85.15 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Lss 33 16 34
  • 83.04 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Lss 33
  • 82.49 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia LSS 34
  • 64 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia LSS 34
  • 57 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves LSS 33 34
  • 72.73 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia LSS 34
  • 71 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia lss 33
  • 69.19 (n)
Str.15698 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii lss 33 34
  • 70.73 (n)
wufj45h02 33
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AGR351W 33
  • 48.84 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes ERG7 33 34 36
  • 47.71 (n)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0B10175g 33
  • 46.26 (n)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons CAS1 33
  • 51.92 (n)
Alicante grape
(Vitis vinifera)
eudicotyledons Vvi.1230 33
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os02g0139700 33
  • 53.12 (n)
Os.2342 33
(Triticum aestivum)
Liliopsida Ta.9982 33
(Zea mays)
Liliopsida Zm.5697 33
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU01119 33
  • 52.79 (n)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes erg7 33
  • 48.16 (n)
Species where no ortholog for LSS was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for LSS Gene

Gene Tree for LSS (if available)
Gene Tree for LSS (if available)

Paralogs for LSS Gene

No data available for Paralogs for LSS Gene

Variants for LSS Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for LSS Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 21 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs561449819 Pathogenic, Cataract 44 (CTRCT44) [MIM:616509] 46,195,731(+) GGTGC(C/T)GTAGG downstream-variant-500B, reference, missense
rs864622780 Pathogenic, Cataract 44 (CTRCT44) [MIM:616509] 46,195,752(-) GCTCC(C/T)GGGGA downstream-variant-500B, reference, missense
rs1000034682 -- 46,208,642(+) AGGCG(C/T)CCCCA intron-variant
rs1000067711 -- 46,212,885(+) CCAGA(A/G)GCCTC intron-variant
rs1000139810 -- 46,213,941(+) GCCGT(A/G)CAGAT intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for LSS Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv519904 CNV loss 19592680
nsv509804 CNV insertion 20534489
nsv470910 CNV gain 18288195
nsv3546 CNV insertion 18451855
nsv1148428 CNV duplication 26484159
nsv1072611 CNV deletion 25765185
nsv1062031 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1061087 CNV loss 25217958
nsv1060978 CNV gain 25217958
esv3647164 CNV loss 21293372
esv29868 CNV loss 19812545
esv2723907 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2723906 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2668812 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2587417 CNV deletion 19546169
esv2338420 CNV deletion 18987734
esv1986816 CNV deletion 18987734

Variation tolerance for LSS Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 19.3% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 7.92; 83.87% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for LSS Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for LSS Gene

Disorders for LSS Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(4) MalaCards diseases for LSS Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
cataract 44
  • ctrct44
  • holoprosencephaly sequence
holoprosencephaly 1
  • hpe1
candida glabrata
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search LSS in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Cataract 44 (CTRCT44) [MIM:616509]: An opacification of the crystalline lens of the eye that frequently results in visual impairment or blindness. Opacities vary in morphology, are often confined to a portion of the lens, and may be static or progressive. In general, the more posteriorly located and dense an opacity, the greater the impact on visual function. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:26200341}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Relevant External Links for LSS

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with LSS: view

No data available for Genatlas for LSS Gene

Publications for LSS Gene

  1. The human lanosterol synthase gene maps to chromosome 21q22.3. (PMID: 8655142) Young M … Antonarakis SE (Human genetics 1996) 2 3 4 22 60
  2. Molecular cloning of the human gene encoding lanosterol synthase from a liver cDNA library. (PMID: 7639730) Baker CH … Corey EJ (Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1995) 2 3 4 22 60
  3. The monotopic membrane protein human oxidosqualene cyclase is active as monomer. (PMID: 14766201) Ruf A … Thoma R (Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2004) 3 4 22 60
  4. Insight into steroid scaffold formation from the structure of human oxidosqualene cyclase. (PMID: 15525992) Thoma R … Ruf A (Nature 2004) 3 4 22 60
  5. Structure of the human Lanosterol synthase gene and its analysis as a candidate for holoprosencephaly (HPE1). (PMID: 10598817) Roessler E … Antonarakis SE (Human genetics 1999) 3 4 22 60

Products for LSS Gene

Sources for LSS Gene

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