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LRRK2 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 66
GCID: GC12P040590

Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2

(Previous name: Parkinson disease (autosomal dominant) 8)
(Previous symbol: PARK8)
  See LRRK2-related diseases

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
About This Section

Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 21 2     ROCO22
PARK81 2 3 5     Augmented In Rheumatoid Arthritis 172
Parkinson Disease (Autosomal Dominant) 81     Leucine-Rich Repeat Serine/Threonine-Protein Kinase 22
AURA172     Dardarin3

External Ids:    HGNC: 186181   Entrez Gene: 1208922   Ensembl: ENSG000001889067   OMIM: 6090075   UniProtKB: Q5S0073   

Export aliases for LRRK2 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifiers: GC00U914055 GC12P038908 GC12P037646

(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

Entrez Gene summary for LRRK2 Gene:
This gene is a member of the leucine-rich repeat kinase family and encodes a protein with an ankryin repeat
region, a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain, a kinase domain, a DFG-like motif, a RAS domain, a GTPase domain, a
MLK-like domain, and a WD40 domain. The protein is present largely in the cytoplasm but also associates with the
mitochondrial outer membrane. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Parkinson disease-8. (provided by
RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for LRRK2 Gene:
LRRK2 (leucine-rich repeat kinase 2) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with LRRK2 include parkinson disease 8, and lrrk2-related parkinson disease. GO annotations related to this gene include GTP binding and protein homodimerization activity. An important paralog of this gene is LRRK1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: LRRK2_HUMAN, Q5S007
Function: May play a role in the phosphorylation of proteins central to Parkinson disease. Phosphorylates PRDX3.
May also have GTPase activity. Positively regulates autophagy through a calcium-dependent activation of the
CaMKK/AMPK signaling pathway. The process involves activation of nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate
(NAADP) receptors, increase in lysosomal pH, and calcium release from lysosomes

summary for LRRK2 Gene:
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2), also known as dardarin, is a large multidomain protein kinase that
includes leucine-rich repeats and a GTPase domain. LRRK2 is encoded by the PARK8 gene.

Gene Wiki entry for LRRK2 Gene

(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
About This Section

RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000012.11  NT_029419.13  NC_018923.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the LRRK2 gene promoter:
         STAT5B   AP-1   Nkx2-2   ATF-2   Ik-3   Meis-1b   c-Jun   Meis-1a   GCNF-2   Meis-1   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidLRRK2 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for LRRK2

DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat LRRK2

Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 12q12   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  12q12   HGNC cytogenetic band: 12q12

LRRK2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
LRRK2 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 12         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC12P040590:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

40,590,546 bp from pter      End:
40,763,087 bp from pter
172,542 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, antibodies-online, and/or GeneTex,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, antibodies-online, and/or GeneTex.)
About This Section

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: LRRK2_HUMAN, Q5S007 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Leucine-rich repeat serine/threonine-protein kinase 2  
Size: 2527 amino acids; 286103 Da
Subunit: Homodimer. Interacts with PARK2. Interacts with PRDX3. Interacts with TPCN2
2 PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for LRRK2:
2ZEJ (3D)        3D6T (3D)    
Secondary accessions: A6NJU2 Q6ZS50 Q8NCX9

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for LRRK2: NX_Q5S007

Explore proteomics data for LRRK2 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Autophosphorylated1
  • Modification sites at neXtProt
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See LRRK2 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_940980.3  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000398726   ENSP00000341930   ENSP00000298910   ENSP00000410821  

    LRRK2 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

    EMD Millipore Purified and/or Recombinant LRRK2 Protein
    Browse R&D Systems for human recombinant proteins
    Browse recombinant and purified proteins available from Enzo Life Sciences
    Browse OriGene full length recombinant human proteins expressed in human HEK293 cells
    Browse OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysates
    OriGene Custom MassSpec
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for LRRK2
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for LRRK2
    Novus Biologicals LRRK2 Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for LRRK2

    Search eBioscience for Proteins for LRRK2 

    antibodies-online proteins for LRRK2 (9 products) 

    antibodies-online peptides for LRRK2

    Search GeneTex for Proteins for LRRK2 

    LRRK2 Antibody Products:

    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of LRRK2
    R&D Systems Antibodies for LRRK2
    Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for LRRK2 
    OriGene Antibodies for LRRK2
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for LRRK2
    Novus Biologicals LRRK2 Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for LRRK2
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Antibodies for LRRK2
    ThermoFisher Antibody for LRRK2
    antibodies-online antibodies for LRRK2 (189 products) 

    GeneTex Antibodies for LRRK2:  
                        LRRK2 Antibodies

    LRRK2 Assay Products:

    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for LRRK2
    Browse R&D Systems for biochemical assays
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for LRRK2
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for LRRK2
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for LRRK2
    Search eBioscience for ELISAs for LRRK2 
    antibodies-online kits for LRRK2 (5 products) 

    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe)
    About This Section

    HGNC Gene Families:
    PARK: Parkinson disease

    IUPHAR Guide to PHARMACOLOGY protein family classification: leucine-rich repeat kinase 2
    Leucine-rich repeat kinase (LRRK) family

    Selected InterPro protein domains (see all 18):
     IPR017441 Protein_kinase_ATP_BS
     IPR011989 ARM-like
     IPR001611 Leu-rich_rpt
     IPR025875 Leu-rich_rpt_4
     IPR013684 MIRO-like

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q5S007

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q5S007

    2 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB000408 Regulator of chromosome condensation
    IPB013684 Miro-like

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: LRRK2_HUMAN, Q5S007
    Similarity: Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. TKL Ser/Thr protein kinase family
    Similarity: Contains 12 LRR (leucine-rich) repeats
    Similarity: Contains 1 protein kinase domain
    Similarity: Contains 1 Roc domain

    Find genes that share domains with LRRK2           About GenesLikeMe

    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, genOway, and/or Taconic Biosciences, CRISPR knockouts from OriGene, transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe)
    About This Section

    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: LRRK2_HUMAN, Q5S007
    Function: May play a role in the phosphorylation of proteins central to Parkinson disease. Phosphorylates PRDX3.
    May also have GTPase activity. Positively regulates autophagy through a calcium-dependent activation of the
    CaMKK/AMPK signaling pathway. The process involves activation of nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate
    (NAADP) receptors, increase in lysosomal pH, and calcium release from lysosomes
    Catalytic activity: ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein

         Enzyme Number (IUBMB): EC

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 18):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0003924GTPase activity IDA--
    GO:0004672protein kinase activity IDA16269541
    GO:0004674protein serine/threonine kinase activity IDA17200152
    GO:0004708MAP kinase kinase activity IDA19302196
    GO:0004713protein tyrosine kinase activity ----
    Find genes that share ontologies with LRRK2           About GenesLikeMe

         2 GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for LRRK2:
     Decreased viability with pacli  Upregulation of Wnt/beta-caten 

         15 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 14 alleles(MGI details for Lrrk2):
     behavior/neurological  cardiovascular system  cellular  endocrine/exocrine gland  hematopoietic system 
     homeostasis/metabolism  immune system  integument  mortality/aging  nervous system 
     no phenotypic analysis  normal  pigmentation  renal/urinary system  respiratory system 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with LRRK2           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-outs for LRRK2: Lrrk2tm1Mjfa Lrrk2tm1.2Npa Lrrk2tm1.1Mjff Lrrk2tm1.1Npa Lrrk2tm1.1Cai Lrrk2tm1Tmd
                                                         Lrrk2tm2.1Shn Lrrk2tm3.1Shn Lrrk2tm1Arte

       genOway: Develop your customized and physiologically relevant rodent model for LRRK2

        Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for LRRK2:  
                        TF1997 - Lrrk2

    CRISPR Knockouts: 
       OriGene CRISPR knockouts for LRRK2

    miRTarBase miRNAs that target LRRK2:
    hsa-mir-335-5p (MIRT017071), hsa-mir-205-5p (MIRT007191)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat LRRK2 using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate LRRK2 (see all 17):
    hsa-miR-607 hsa-miR-181c hsa-miR-301a hsa-miR-130b hsa-miR-181b hsa-miR-301b hsa-miR-205 hsa-miR-181a
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidLRRK2 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for LRRK2
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat LRRK2

    OriGene clones in human, mouse for LRRK2 (see all 5)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for LRRK2
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: LRRK2 (NM_198578)
    Browse Sino Biological Human cDNA Clones
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat LRRK2
    Addgene plasmids for LRRK2 

    Cell Line
    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for LRRK2
    Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for LRRK2 
    In Situ Assay

    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for LRRK2

    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe)
    About This Section

    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    LRRK2_HUMAN, Q5S007: Cytoplasm. Membrane; Peripheral membrane protein. Mitochondrion. Note=Localized in the
    cytoplasm and associated with cellular membrane structures. Associates with the mitochondrial outer membrane
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    plasma membrane2
    golgi apparatus1

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected cellular component terms (see all 21):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005615extracellular space IDA--
    GO:0005622intracellular ----
    GO:0005737cytoplasm IDA16321986
    GO:0005739mitochondrion IDA--
    GO:0005802trans-Golgi network IEA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with LRRK2           About GenesLikeMe

    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe)
    About This Section

    SuperPaths for LRRK2 About    
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Respiratory electron transport, ATP synthesis by chemiosmotic coupling, and heat production by uncoupling proteins.
    Parkinson's disease0.57
    2Wnt Signaling Pathway (WikiPathways)
    Wnt Signaling Pathway and Pluripotency0.55
    3MAPK signaling pathway
    MAPK signaling pathway0.50
    4Parkinsons Disease Pathway
    Parkinsons Disease Pathway

    Find genes that share SuperPaths with LRRK2           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                   See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    1 Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Pathway for LRRK2

    3 BioSystems Pathways for LRRK2
        MAPK signaling pathway
    Wnt Signaling Pathway and Pluripotency
    Parkinsons Disease Pathway

    1 Kegg Pathway  (Kegg details for LRRK2):
        Parkinson's disease

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Array including LRRK2: 
              Parkinson's Disease in human mouse rat


        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for LRRK2

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for LRRK2 (Q5S0071, 2, 3 ENSP000002989104) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 111)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    PARK2O602601, 3, ENSP000003558654EBI-5323863,EBI-716346 I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000355865
    AKT1P317491, 2, 3, ENSP000002702024EBI-5323863,EBI-296087 MINT-8177975 MINT-8177865 MINT-8177888 MINT-8177907 MINT-8177924 MINT-8177954 I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000270202
    CALM1P621583I2D: score=1 
    CALM2P621583I2D: score=1 
    CALM3P621583I2D: score=1 
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 40):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000165MAPK cascade IDA17200152
    GO:0000186activation of MAPKK activity IDA19302196
    GO:0000187activation of MAPK activity IDA19302196
    GO:0001934positive regulation of protein phosphorylation IMP--
    GO:0006184GTP catabolic process IDA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with LRRK2           About GenesLikeMe

    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe)
    About This Section

    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Compounds for LRRK2 available from Tocris Bioscience    About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    CZC 54252 hydrochloridePotent LRRK2 inhibitor; neuroprotective[1191911-27-9]
    GSK2578215A Potent, selective LRRK2 inhibitor; brain penetrant [1285515-21-0]
    LRRK2-IN-1Potent and selective LRRK2 inhibitor[1234480-84-2]

    3 HMDB Compounds for LRRK2    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    ADPadenosindiphosphorsaeure (see all 8)58-64-0--
    Adenosine triphosphate5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate) Adenosine (see all 24)56-65-5--
    Guanosine triphosphate5'-GTP (see all 10)86-01-1--

    4 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for LRRK2 gene    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    levodopa 35.6 2 17614947 (1), 17427941 (1)
    gtp 35.3 13 17260967 (4), 17706965 (2), 16980962 (1), 19712061 (1) (see all 5)
    dopamine 26.1 6 19625511 (2), 17625107 (1), 19726410 (1), 18272292 (1) (see all 5)
    lipid 1.83 7 17341485 (4)

    Find genes that share compounds with LRRK2           About GenesLikeMe

    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
    About This Section

    REFSEQ mRNAs for LRRK2 gene (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_198578.3  XM_005268629.1  

    Unigene Cluster for LRRK2:

    Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2
    Hs.187636  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_198578
    7 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000416796 ENST00000343742(uc001rmh.1) ENST00000298910(uc001rmg.4)
    ENST00000474202 ENST00000430804(uc009zjw.3) ENST00000479187(uc001rmi.3)
    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat LRRK2 using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate LRRK2 (see all 17):
    hsa-miR-607 hsa-miR-181c hsa-miR-301a hsa-miR-130b hsa-miR-181b hsa-miR-301b hsa-miR-205 hsa-miR-181a
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidLRRK2 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for LRRK2
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat LRRK2
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for LRRK2 (see all 5)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for LRRK2
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: LRRK2 (NM_198578)
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat LRRK2
    Addgene plasmids for LRRK2 
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for LRRK2
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat LRRK2
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat LRRK2
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat LRRK2

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AK026776.1 AK122640.1 AK127729.1 AK131537.1 AL832453.2 AL834529.1 AY792511.1 BC117180.1 
    BX640975.1 EF212257.1 

    8 DOTS entries:

    DT.92042415  DT.301521  DT.91844472  DT.95116671  DT.91980049  DT.408537  DT.95338047  DT.65285196 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 53):

    AK122640 BU634341 BM280361 AL834529 AW772282 AA906444 BF331667 BF942699 
    AA827621 BX119871 AK127729 AK131537 AA741317 AW237822 AL832453 AW118991 
    BX640975 AV705213 BQ437477 BM998398 AI952066 AA384842 BX499147 AI831901 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

    LRRK2 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: --
    LRRK2 Expression
    About this image

    LRRK2 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 4) fully expand
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 15 entries
             Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells Forebrain White Matter
     Ovary (Reproductive System)
             Cumulus Cells Antral Follicle
     Blood (Hematopoietic System)
             Granulocytes Peripheral Blood
     Spinal Cord (Nervous System)
    LRRK2 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    LRRK2 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.187636

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: LRRK2_HUMAN, Q5S007
    Tissue specificity: Expressed throughout the adult brain, but at a lower level than in heart and liver. Also
    expressed in placenta, lung, skeletal muscle, kidney and pancreas. In the brain, expressed in the cerebellum,
    cerebral cortex, medulla, spinal cord occipital pole, frontal lobe, temporal lobe and putamen. Expression is
    particularly high in brain dopaminoceptive areas

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Array including LRRK2: 
              Parkinson's Disease in human mouse rat

    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for LRRK2
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat LRRK2
    QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat LRRK2
    QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat LRRK2
    In Situ
    Assay Products:

    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for LRRK2

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

    Orthologs for LRRK2 gene from Selected species (see all 14)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    Gene Description Human
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Lrrk21 , 5 leucine-rich repeat kinase 21, 5 83.27(n)1
      15 (46.07 cM)5
    667251  NM_025730.31  NP_080006.31 
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves LRRK21 leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 73.11(n)
      427844  XM_003640340.2  XP_003640388.2 
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia LRRK26
    leucine-rich repeat kinase 2
    1 ↔ 1
    tropical clawed frog
    (Xenopus tropicalis)
    Amphibia lrrk21 leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 65.86(n)
      100145062  XM_002932204.2  XP_002932250.2 
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii lrrk21 leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 55.71(n)
      559366  NM_001201456.1  NP_001188385.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta Lrrk6
    Leucine-rich repeat kinase
    1 → many
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea lrk-16
    Protein LRK-1 (lrk-1) mRNA, complete cds
    1 → many
    I(10879766-10894237) WBGene00003068

    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for LRRK2 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for LRRK2 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to Build 68,Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe)
    About This Section

    Paralogs for LRRK2 gene
    3 SIMAP similar genes for LRRK2 using alignment to 5 protein entries:     LRRK2_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    DKFZp686E15222    AURA17    STK11

    Find genes that share paralogs with LRRK2           About GenesLikeMe

    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, and 4UniProtKB, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
    About This Section

    Selected SNPs for LRRK2 (see all 4095)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    Chr 12 posSequence#AA
    CParkinson disease 8 (PARK8)4 pathogenic140537151(+) CAGGGA/GTATGC 2 I V mis12Minor allele frequency- G:0.00NA 4
    CParkinson disease 8 (PARK8)4 pathogenic140548463(+) AGGCTC/G/TGCGCT 3 R G C mis12NA 4
    CParkinson disease 8 (PARK8)4 pathogenic140548464(+) GGCTCG/ACGCTT 2 /H /R mis12Minor allele frequency- A:0.00NA 4
    C,FParkinson disease 8 (PARK8)4 unknown140552005(+) GATCCG/AAGATC 2 /Q /R mis15Minor allele frequency- A:0.01NA EU 5723
    C,FParkinson disease 8 (PARK8)4 unknown140552088(+) ATGTGC/TCAATT 2 P S mis15Minor allele frequency- T:0.02NA EU 5954
    C,HParkinson disease 8 (PARK8)4 unknown140553295(+) CTTTGT/AGGAAC 2 /E /V mis1 ese37Minor allele frequency- A:0.00NA NS EA 504
    CParkinson disease 8 (PARK8)4 pathogenic140559141(+) GCCTTA/GTTTTC 2 Y C mis11Minor allele frequency- G:0.00NA 2
    CParkinson disease 8 (PARK8)4 unknown140561284(+) TATTAT/CGTTGA 2 /T /M mis13Minor allele frequency- C:0.01NA 124
    CParkinson disease 8 (PARK8)4 unknown140578409(+) CATCAT/CTGCAA 2 /T /I mis11Minor allele frequency- C:0.00NA 2
    C,FParkinson disease 8 (PARK8)4 pathogenic140578429(+) ACTACG/AGCATT 2 /S /G mis14Minor allele frequency- A:0.00NA EU 5875

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for LRRK2 (40590546 - 40763087 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) Selected variations for LRRK2 (see all 14):    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2745783CNV Deletion23290073
    esv2432211CNV Deletion19546169
    esv2745786CNV Deletion23290073
    esv2745787CNV Deletion23290073
    dgv205e201CNV Deletion23290073
    esv1215291CNV Deletion17803354
    esv2454181CNV Insertion19546169
    esv273841CNV Insertion20981092
    esv274613CNV Insertion20981092
    esv268820CNV Insertion20981092

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): LRRK2
    Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB): LRRK2

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing LRRK2

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe)
    About This Section

    OMIM gene information: 609007   
    OMIM disorders: 607060  
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: LRRK2_HUMAN, Q5S007
  • Parkinson disease 8 (PARK8) [MIM:607060]: A slowly progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized
    by bradykinesia, rigidity, resting tremor, postural instability, neuronal loss in the substantia nigra, and the
    presence of neurofibrillary MAPT (tau)-positive and Lewy bodies in some patients. Note=The disease is caused by
    mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry

  • 9 diseases for LRRK2:    
    About MalaCards
    parkinson disease 8    lrrk2-related parkinson disease    parkinson's disease    tremor
    essential tremor    primary progressive aphasia    parkinson disease 1    rheumatoid arthritis
    movement disease

    4 inferred disease relationships from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for LRRK2:
    Parkinson's disease     Movement disease     Lewy body dementia     Multiple system atrophy

    Find genes that share disorders with LRRK2           About GenesLikeMe

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for LRRK2 gene (see all 18)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    parkinson disease, autosomal dominant 95 56 17222106 (2), 15680455 (1), 19357115 (1), 15732108 (1) (see all 26)
    parkinson disease 91.5 414 18322396 (5), 17419834 (4), 19804413 (4), 16272164 (4) (see all 99)
    autosomal dominant parkinsonism 88.3 11 15726496 (2), 17116211 (1), 16172858 (1), 15680456 (1) (see all 7)
    parkinsonism 87.1 86 16406842 (3), 15541309 (2), 16966501 (2), 16781064 (2) (see all 52)
    lewy body disease 74.9 7 17611037 (2), 17713120 (1), 19680143 (1), 19878656 (1)
    movement disorders 72.8 3 16250030 (1), 19205068 (1), 18704525 (1)
    neurodegenerative diseases 66.7 15 19680143 (2), 15541309 (1), 19879924 (1), 18214993 (1) (see all 10)
    neurodegeneration 63.1 24 17200152 (2), 17400507 (2), 19176810 (2), 17611037 (2) (see all 14)
    multiple system atrophy 57.3 5 18936941 (2), 19513331 (1), 16602113 (1), 17230458 (1) (see all 5)
    frontotemporal dementia 47.4 8 17151837 (2), 19142648 (1), 18759352 (1)

    GeneTests: LRRK2
    GeneReviews: LRRK2
    Genetic Association Database (GAD): LRRK2
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: LRRK2 (182 documents)

    Export disorders for LRRK2 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
    About This Section

    PubMed articles for LRRK2 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 634) (see top 10):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with LRRK2)

    1. LRRK2 gene in Parkinson disease: mutation analysis and case control association study. (PubMed id 16157901)1, 2, 4, 9 Paisan-Ruiz C....Rogaeva E. (Neurology 2005)
    2. LRRK2 mutations are not common in Alzheimer's disease. (PubMed id 16087219)1, 2, 4, 9 Toft M....Farrer M.J. (Mech. Ageing Dev. 2005)
    3. LRRK2 mutations in Spanish patients with Parkinson disease: frequency, clinical features, and incomplete penetrance. (PubMed id 16533964)1, 2, 4, 9 Gaig C....Tolosa E. (Arch. Neurol. 2006)
    4. Comprehensive analysis of LRRK2 in publicly available Parkinson's disease cases and neurologically normal controls. (PubMed id 18213618)1, 2, 4, 9 Paisan-Ruiz C.... Singleton A.B. (Hum. Mutat. 2008)
    5. A clinic-based study of the LRRK2 gene in Parkinson disease yields new mutations. (PubMed id 16157909)1, 2, 4, 9 Zabetian C.P.... Griffith A. (Neurology 2005)
    6. Parkinson's disease and LRRK2: frequency of a common mutation in U.S. movement disorder clinics. (PubMed id 16250030)1, 2, 4, 9 Kay D.M.... Payami H. (Mov. Disord. 2006)
    7. The G6055A (G2019S) mutation in LRRK2 is frequent in both early and late onset Parkinson's disease and originates from a common ancestor. (PubMed id 16272257)1, 2, 4, 9 Goldwurm S.... Bonifati V. (J. Med. Genet. 2005)
    8. Clinical features of LRRK2-associated Parkinson's disease in central Norway. (PubMed id 15852371)1, 2, 4, 9 Aasly J.O.... Farrer M.J. (Ann. Neurol. 2005)
    9. A common LRRK2 mutation in idiopathic Parkinson's disease. (PubMed id 15680457)1, 2, 4, 9 Gilks W.P.... Wood N.W. (Lancet 2005)
    10. The LRRK2 Gly2385Arg variant is associated with Parkinson's disease: genetic and functional evidence. (PubMed id 17019612)1, 2, 4 Tan E.K.... Liu J.J. (Hum. Genet. 2007)
    11. LRRK2 G2019S is a common mutation in Spanish patients with late-onset Parkinson's disease. (PubMed id 16298482)1, 2, 4 Infante J.... Berciano J. (Neurosci. Lett. 2006)
    12. G2019S LRRK2 mutation in French and North African families with Parkinson's disease. (PubMed id 16240353)1, 2, 4 Lesage S....Brice A. (Ann. Neurol. 2005)
    13. Type and frequency of mutations in the LRRK2 gene in familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease. (PubMed id 16251215)1, 2, 4 Berg D.... Naegele T. (Brain 2005)
    14. LRRK2 R1441G in Spanish patients with Parkinson's disease. (PubMed id 15925109)1, 2, 4 Mata I.F.... Alvarez V. (Neurosci. Lett. 2005)
    15. LRRK2 mutations in Parkinson disease. (PubMed id 16157908)1, 2, 4 Farrer M.... Maraganore D.M. (Neurology 2005)
    16. Cloning of the gene containing mutations that cause PARK8-linked Parkinson's disease. (PubMed id 15541308)1, 2, 3 Paisan-Ruiz C....Singleton A.B. (Neuron 2004)
    17. Screening for LRRK2 mutations in patients with Parkinson's disease in Russia: identification of a novel LRRK2 variant. (PubMed id 18435766)1, 4, 9 Pchelina S.N....Singleton A.B. (Eur. J. Neurol. 2008)
    18. Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) interacts with parkin and mutant LRRK2 induces neuronal degeneration. (PubMed id 16352719)1, 2, 9 Smith W.W.... Ross C.A. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2005)
    19. LRRK2 p.G2019S mutation is not common among Alzheimer's disease patients in Brazil. (PubMed id 19822953)1, 4, 9 Santos-RebouAsas C.B....Pimentel M.M. (Dis. Markers 2009)
    20. Screening for SNCA and LRRK2 mutations in Greek sporadic and autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease: identification of two novel LRRK2 variants. (PubMed id 17222106)1, 4, 9 Xiromerisiou G....Singleton A.B. (Eur. J. Neurol. 2007)
    21. LRRK2 exon 41 mutations in sporadic Parkinson disease in Europeans. (PubMed id 17353388)1, 4, 9 Lesage S....VAcrin M. (Arch. Neurol. 2007)
    22. Mutations in the gene LRRK2 encoding dardarin (PARK8) cause familial Parkinson's disease: clinical, pathological, olfactory and functional imaging and genetic data. (PubMed id 16272164)1, 2, 9 Khan N.L....Wood N.W. (Brain 2005)
    23. Mutations in the Parkinson's disease genes, Leucine Rich Repeat Kinase 2 (LRRK2) and Glucocerebrosidase (GBA), are not associated with essential tremor. (PubMed id 19527940)1, 4, 9 Clark L.N....Louis E.D. (amp 2010)
    24. Recurrent LRRK2 (Park8) mutations in early-onset Parkinson's disease. (PubMed id 16758483)1, 4, 9 Hedrich K....Klein C. (Mov. Disord. 2006)
    25. Parkinson's disease-associated mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 augment kinase activity. (PubMed id 16269541)1, 2, 9 West A.B.... Dawson T.M. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2005)
    26. A comparative study of LRRK2, PINK1 and genetically undefined familial Parkinson's disease. (PubMed id 19726410)1, 4, 9 Nishioka K....Hentati F. (J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. 2010)
    27. LRRK2 mutations in patients with Parkinson's disease from Peru and Uruguay. (PubMed id 18980856)1, 4, 9 Mata I.F....Zabetian C.P. (amp 2009)
    28. Prevalence and clinical features of LRRK2 mutations in patients with Parkinson's disease in southern Spain. (PubMed id 19473361)1, 4, 9 Gao L....Mir P. (Eur. J. Neurol. 2009)
    29. LRRK2 mutations and risk variants in Japanese patients with Parkinson's disease. (PubMed id 19343804)1, 4, 9 Zabetian C.P....Kawakami H. (Mov. Disord. 2009)
    30. Corticobasal syndrome and primary progressive aphasia as manifestations of LRRK2 gene mutations. (PubMed id 17914064)1, 4, 9 Chen-Plotkin A.S....Van Deerlin V.M. (Neurology 2008)
    31. LRRK2 is not a significant cause of Parkinson's disease in French-Canadians. (PubMed id 17803032)1, 4, 9 DuprAc N....Rouleau G.A. (Can J Neurol Sci 2007)
    32. LRRK2 and Parkinson's disease in Norway. (PubMed id 17419834)1, 4, 9 Toft M....Aasly J.O. (Acta Neurol. Scand., Suppl.c 2007)
    33. LRRK2 screening in a Canadian Parkinson's disease cohort. (PubMed id 17803033)1, 4, 9 Grimes D.A....Bulman D.E. (Can J Neurol Sci 2007)
    34. Prevalence and clinical features of common LRRK2 mutations in Australians with Parkinson's disease. (PubMed id 17427941)1, 4, 9 Huang Y....Sue C.M. (Mov. Disord. 2007)
    35. Genetic analysis of LRRK2 mutations in patients with Parkinson disease. (PubMed id 17097110)1, 4, 9 Deng H....Jankovic J. (J. Neurol. Sci. 2006)
    36. The Parkinson disease causing LRRK2 mutation I2020T is associated with increased kinase activity. (PubMed id 16321986)1, 2, 9 Gloeckner C.J.... Ueffing M. (Hum. Mol. Genet. 2006)
    37. Familial Parkinsonism and early onset Parkinson's disease in a Brazilian movement disorders clinic: phenotypic characterization and frequency of SNCA, PRKN, PINK1, and LRRK2 mutations. (PubMed id 19205068)1, 4, 9 Camargos S.T....Cardoso F. (Mov. Disord. 2009)
    38. Genetic factors influencing age at onset in LRRK2-linked Parkinson disease. (PubMed id 19041274)1, 4, 9 Golub Y....Fuchs J. (amp 2009)
    39. LRRK2 gene G2019S mutation and SNPs [haplotypes] in subtypes of Parkinson's disease. (PubMed id 18752982)1, 4, 9 Patra B....Parsian A. (amp 2009)
    40. Genotype-phenotype correlations between GBA mutations and Parkinson disease risk and onset. (PubMed id 18434642)1, 4, 9 Gan-Or Z....Orr-Urtreger A. (Neurology 2008)
    41. Is the G2019S LRRK2 mutation common in all southern European populations? (PubMed id 18617409)1, 4, 9 Papapetropoulos S....Chroni E. (J Clin Neurosci 2008)
    42. A common leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene mutation in familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease in Russia. (PubMed id 17388990)1, 4, 9 Illarioshkin S.N....Ivanova-Smolenskaya I.A. (Eur. J. Neurol. 2007)
    43. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation is efficacious in patients with Parkinsonism and LRRK2 mutations. (PubMed id 17080443)1, 4, 9 SchA1pbach M....Brice A. (Mov. Disord. 2007)
    44. Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) mutations in a Swedish Parkinson cohort and a healthy nonagenarian. (PubMed id 16817197)1, 4, 9 Carmine Belin A....Galter D. (Mov. Disord. 2006)
    45. Testing association between LRRK2 and Parkinson's disease and investigating linkage disequilibrium. (PubMed id 16467219)1, 4, 9 PaisA!n-RuA-z C....Singleton A.B. (J. Med. Genet. 2006)
    46. Analysis of PARK genes in a Korean cohort of early-onset Parkinson disease. (PubMed id 18704525)1, 4, 9 Choi J.M....Kim Y.J. (Neurogenetics 2008)
    47. Genetic screening for LRRK2 gene G2019S mutation in Parkinson's disease patients from Southern Italy. (PubMed id 18621566)1, 4, 9 De Rosa A....De Michele G. (amp 2009)
    48. Genetic analysis for five LRRK2 mutations in a Sardinian parkinsonian population: importance of G2019S and R1441C mutations in sporadic Parkinson's disease patients. (PubMed id 18805725)1, 4, 9 Floris G....Marrosu M.G. (amp 2009)
    49. Genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of Dutch patients with early onset Parkinson's disease. (PubMed id 18973254)1, 4, 9 Macedo M.G....Heutink P. (Mov. Disord. 2009)
    50. LRRK2 mutation in familial Parkinson's disease in a Taiwanese population: clinical, PET, and functional studies. (PubMed id 18523869)1, 4, 9 Lin C.H....Wu R.M. (J. Biomed. Sci. 2008)
    51. A study of LRRK2 mutations and Parkinson's disease in Brazil. (PubMed id 18201824)1, 4, 9 Pimentel M.M....Santos-RebouAsas C.B. (Neurosci. Lett. 2008)
    52. Lrrk2 mutations in South America: A study of Chilean Parkinson's disease. (PubMed id 17614198)1, 4, 9 Perez-Pastene C....Segura-Aguilar J. (Neurosci. Lett. 2007)
    53. High prevalence of LRRK2 mutations in familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease in Portugal. (PubMed id 17469194)1, 4, 9 Ferreira J.J....Bonifati V. (Mov. Disord. 2007)
    54. A novel LRRK2 mutation in an Austrian cohort of patients with Parkinson's disease. (PubMed id 17523199)1, 4, 9 Haubenberger D....Zimprich A. (Mov. Disord. 2007)
    55. [A PARK8 form of Parkinson's disease: a mutational analysis of the LRRK2 gene in Russian population]. (PubMed id 18379513)1, 4, 9 Shadrina M.I....Ivanova-Smolenskaia I.A. (Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2007)
    56. Genetic screening for two LRRK2 mutations in French patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. (PubMed id 17253937)1, 4, 9 Funalot B....Lucotte G. (Genet. Test. 2006)
    57. Absence/rarity of commonly reported LRRK2 mutations in Indian Parkinson's disease patients. (PubMed id 17052850)1, 4, 9 Punia S....Thelma B.K. (Neurosci. Lett. 2006)
    58. Frequency of LRRK2 mutations in early- and late-onset Parkinson disease. (PubMed id 17050822)1, 4, 9 Clark L.N....Marder K. (Neurology 2006)
    59. PET in LRRK2 mutations: comparison to sporadic Parkinson's disease and evidence for presymptomatic compensation. (PubMed id 16081470)1, 2, 9 Adams J.R.... Stoessl A.J. (Brain 2005)
    60. Identification of a novel LRRK2 mutation linked to autosomal dominant parkinsonism: evidence of a common founder across European populations. (PubMed id 15726496)1, 2, 9 Kachergus J.M.... Toft M. (Am. J. Hum. Genet. 2005)
    61. Mutations in a large multifunctional protein (LRRK2) cause autosomal dominant parkinsonism with pleiomorphic a-synuclein and tau-pathology (PARK8). (PubMed id 15541309)1, 2, 9 Zimprich A.... Gasser T. (Neuron 2004)
    62. Multiple LRRK2 variants modulate risk of Parkinson disease: a Chinese multicenter study. (PubMed id 20186690)1, 4, 9 Tan E.K....Wu R.M. (Hum. Mutat. 2010)
    63. Screening for LRRK2 R1441 mutations in a cohort of PSP patients from Germany. (PubMed id 19538213)1, 4, 9 Madzar D....Gasser T. (Eur. J. Neurol. 2009)
    64. Relative contribution of simple mutations vs. copy number variations in five Parkinson disease genes in the Belgian population. (PubMed id 19405094)1, 4, 9 Nuytemans K....Theuns J. (Hum. Mutat. 2009)
    65. The G2019S LRRK2 Mutation is Rare in Korean Patients with Parkinson's Disease and Multiple System Atrophy. (PubMed id 19513331)1, 4, 9 Cho J.W....Jeon B.S. (J Clin Neurol 2009)
    66. Molecular analyses of the LRRK2 gene in European and North African autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease. (PubMed id 19357115)1, 4, 9 Lesage S....Brice A. (J. Med. Genet. 2009)
    67. Case control analysis of LRRK2 Gly2385Arg in Alzheimer's disease. (PubMed id 17720280)1, 4, 9 Tan E.K....Zhao Y. (Neurobiol. Aging 2009)
    68. Screening PARK genes for mutations in early-onset Parkinson's disease patients from Queensland, Australia. (PubMed id 18486522)1, 4, 9 Mellick G.D....Hattori N. (amp 2009)
    69. The LRRK2 Arg1628Pro variant is a risk factor for Parkinson's disease in the Chinese population. (PubMed id 18716801)1, 4, 9 Lu C.S....Bonifati V. (Neurogenetics 2008)
    70. Lrrk2 R1441C parkinsonism is clinically similar to sporadic Parkinson disease. (PubMed id 18337586)1, 4, 9 Haugarvoll K....Wszolek Z.K. (Neurology 2008)
    71. Bilateral subthalamic stimulation in Parkin and PINK1 parkinsonism. (PubMed id 18378882)1, 4, 9 Moro E....Klein C. (Neurology 2008)
    72. G2019S mutation in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene is not associated with multiple system atrophy. (PubMed id 17230458)1, 4, 9 Ozelius L.J....Shults C.W. (Mov. Disord. 2007)
    73. No association between the LRRK2 G2019S mutation and Alzheimer's disease in Italy. (PubMed id 17846883)1, 4, 9 Tedde A....Sorbi S. (Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. 2007)
    74. Analysis of 14 LRRK2 mutations in Parkinson's plus syndromes and late-onset Parkinson's disease. (PubMed id 16602113)1, 4, 9 Tan E.K....Liu J.J. (Mov. Disord. 2006)
    75. LRRK2 mutations are a common cause of Parkinson's disease in Spain. (PubMed id 16643318)1, 4, 9 Mata I.F....Alvarez V. (Eur. J. Neurol. 2006)
    76. Increased frequency of the LRRK2 G2019S mutation in an elderly Ashkenazi Jewish population is not associated with dementia. (PubMed id 16632201)1, 4, 9 Saunders-Pullman R....Ozelius L.J. (Neurosci. Lett. 2006)
    77. LRRK2 mutations in a clinic-based cohort of Parkinson's disease. (PubMed id 17116211)1, 4, 9 Scholz S....Okun M.S. (Eur. J. Neurol. 2006)
    78. G2019S LRRK2 mutation in familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease in Russia. (PubMed id 17044089)1, 4, 9 Pchelina S.N....Schwarzman A.L. (Mov. Disord. 2006)
    79. LRRK2 G2019S mutation and Parkinson's disease: a clinical, neuropsychological and neuropsychiatric study in a large Italian sample. (PubMed id 16750929)1, 4, 9 Goldwurm S....Pezzoli G. (amp 2006)
    80. Common variants of LRRK2 are not associated with sporadic Parkinson's disease. (PubMed id 16254973)1, 4, 9 Biskup S....Gasser T. (Ann. Neurol. 2005)
    81. A frequent LRRK2 gene mutation associated with autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease. (PubMed id 15680456)1, 2, 9 Di Fonzo A....Bonifati V. (Lancet 2005)
    82. Clinical and positron emission tomography of Parkinson's disease caused by LRRK2. (PubMed id 15732108)1, 2, 9 Hernandez D.G.... Singleton A.B. (Ann. Neurol. 2005)
    83. The dardarin G 2019 S mutation is a common cause of Parkinson's disease but not other neurodegenerative diseases. (PubMed id 16102903)1, 4, 9 Hernandez D....Singleton A. (Neurosci. Lett. 2005)
    84. Genetic screening for a single common LRRK2 mutation in familial Parkinson's disease. (PubMed id 15680455)1, 2, 9 Nichols W.C.... Foroud T. (Lancet 2005)
    85. An LRRK2 mutation as a cause for the parkinsonism in the original PARK8 family. (PubMed id 15880653)1, 2, 9 Funayama M.... Obata F. (Ann. Neurol. 2005)
    86. Lrrk2 pathogenic substitutions in Parkinson's disease. (PubMed id 16172858)1, 2, 9 Mata I.F.... Farrer M.J. (Neurogenetics 2005)
    87. Analysis of LRRK 2 G 2019 S and I 2020 T mutations in Parkinson's disease. (PubMed id 16115731)1, 4, 9 Bialecka M....Drozdzik M. (Neurosci. Lett. 2005)
    88. Comprehensive research synopsis and systematic meta-analyses in Parkinson's disease genetics: The PDGene database. (PubMed id 22438815)1, 4 Lill C.M....Bertram L. (PLoS Genet. 2012)
    89. Systematic review and UK-based study of PARK2 (parkin), PINK1, PARK7 (DJ-1) and LRRK2 in early-onset Parkinson's disease. (PubMed id 22956510)1, 2 Kilarski L.L....Morris H.R. (Mov. Disord. 2012)
    90. Biochemical characterization of highly purified leucine-rich repeat kinases 1 and 2 demonstrates formation of homodimers. (PubMed id 22952686)1, 2 Civiero L.... Taymans J.M. (PLoS ONE 2012)
    91. Deep sequencing of the LRRK2 gene in 14,002 individuals reveals evidence of purifying selection and independent origin of the p.Arg1628Pro mutation in Europe. (PubMed id 22415848)1, 2 Rubio J.P.... Mooser V.E. (Hum. Mutat. 2012)
    92. Mutations in LRRK2 increase phosphorylation of peroxiredoxin 3 exacerbating oxidative stress-induced neuronal death. (PubMed id 21850687)1, 2 Angeles D.C.... Tan E.K. (Hum. Mutat. 2011)
    93. Web-based genome-wide association study identifies two novel loci and a substantial genetic component for Parkinson's disease. (PubMed id 21738487)1, 4 Do C.B....Eriksson N. (PLoS Genet. 2011)
    94. Genetic characteristics of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) associated Parkinson's disease. (PubMed id 21641266)1, 2 Bardien S.... Carr J. (Parkinsonism Relat. Disord. 2011)
    95. Gait alterations in healthy carriers of the LRRK2 G2019S mutation. (PubMed id 21280089)1, 4 Mirelman A....Hausdorff J.M. (Ann. Neurol. 2011)
    96. Imputation of sequence variants for identification of genetic risks for Parkinson's disease: a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies. (PubMed id 21292315)1, 4  ....Wood N.W. (Lancet 2011)
    97. LRRK2 variant associated with Alzheimer's disease. (PubMed id 20018409)1, 4 Zhao Y....Tan E.K. (Neurobiol. Aging 2011)
    98. Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score. (PubMed id 20379614)1, 4 Rose J.E....Uhl G.R. (Mol. Med. 2010)
    99. The LRRK2 G2385R variant is a risk factor for sporadic Parkinson's disease in the Korean population. (PubMed id 19854095)1, 4 Kim J.M....Jeon B.S. (amp 2010)
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    280. The common PARK8 mutation LRRK2GA^a8^A^a8^S is not a risk factor for breast cancer in the absence of Parkinson's disease. (PubMed id 23824357)1 Mortiboys H....Bandmann O. (J. Neurol. 2013)
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    286. Analysis of Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) and Parkinson protein 2 (parkin, PARK2) genes mutations in Slovak Parkinson disease patients. (PubMed id 23531835)1 Bognar C....Zatkova A. (Gen. Physiol. Biophys. 2013)
    287. The LRRK2 G2019S mutant exacerbates basal autophagy through activation of the MEK/ERK pathway. (PubMed id 22773119)1 Bravo-San Pedro J.M....GonzA!lez-Polo R.A. (Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 2013)
    288. The LRRK2 R1628P variant plays a protective role in Han Chinese population with Alzheimer's disease. (PubMed id 23421816)1 Li H.L....Wu Z.Y. (amp 2013)
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    290. Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 functionally interacts with microtubules and kinase-dependently modulates cell migration. (PubMed id 23318930)1 Caesar M....Gillardon F. (Neurobiol. Dis. 2013)
    291. C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion and Guam amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-Parkinsonism-dementia complex. (PubMed id 23588498)1 Dombroski B.A....Schellenberg G.D. (JAMA Neurol 2013)
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    298. Novel Lrrk2-p.S1761R mutation is not a common cause of Parkinson's disease in Spain. (PubMed id 23389884)1 Mata I.F....Zabetian C.P. (Mov. Disord. 2013)
    299. Interplay of LRRK2 with chaperone-mediated autophagy. (PubMed id 23455607)1 Orenstein S.J....Cuervo A.M. (Nat. Neurosci. 2013)
    300. Differential effects of familial parkinson mutations in LRRK2 revealed by a systematic analysis of autophosphorylation. (PubMed id 23924436)1 Kamikawaji S....Iwatsubo T. (Biochemistry 2013)
    301. A case of restless leg syndrome in a family with LRRK2 gene mutation. (PubMed id 23227859)1 De Rosa A....De Michele G. (Int. J. Neurosci. 2013)
    302. Genetic correction of a LRRK2 mutation in human iPSCs links parkinsonian neurodegeneration to ERK-dependent changes in gene expression. (PubMed id 23472874)1 Reinhardt P....Sterneckert J. (Cell Stem Cell 2013)
    303. Down-regulation of LRRK2 in control and DAT transfected HEK cells increases manganese-induced oxidative stress and cell toxicity. (PubMed id 23628791)1 Roth J.A. and Eichhorn M. (Neurotoxicology 2013)
    304. Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease genome-wide association study top hits and risk of Parkinson's disease in Korean population. (PubMed id 23820587)1 Chung S.J....Song K. (Neurobiol. Aging 2013)
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    308. Lower cognitive performance in healthy G2019S LRRK2 mutation carriers. (PubMed id 22914834)1 Thaler A....Giladi N. (Neurology 2012)
    309. LRRK2 Parkinson disease mutations enhance its microtubule association. (PubMed id 22080837)1 Kett L.R....Dauer W.T. (Hum. Mol. Genet. 2012)
    310. Evaluation of the role of LRRK2 gene in Parkinson's disease in an East Indian cohort. (PubMed id 22684232)1 Sadhukhan T....Ray J. (Dis. Markers 2012)
    311. Transcriptional responses to loss or gain of function of the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene uncover biological processes modulated by LRRK2 activity. (PubMed id 21972245)1 Nikonova E.V....Dawson T.M. (Hum. Mol. Genet. 2012)
    312. A DNA resequencing array for genes involved in Parkinson's disease. (PubMed id 22243833)1 Wilkins E.J....Horne M.K. (amp 2012)
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    314. Ser1292 autophosphorylation is an indicator of LRRK2 kinase activity and contributes to the cellular effects of PD mutations. (PubMed id 23241745)1 Sheng Z....Zhu H. (Sci Transl Med 2012)
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    319. LRRK2 phosphorylates tubulin-associated tau but not the free molecule: LRRK2-mediated regulation of the tau-tubulin association and neurite outgrowth. (PubMed id 22303461)1 Kawakami F....Obata F. (PLoS ONE 2012)
    320. Analysis of LRRK2 accessory repeat domains: prediction of repeat length, number and sites of Parkinson's disease mutations. (PubMed id 22988870)1 Mills R.D....Culvenor J.G. (Biochem. Soc. Trans. 2012)
    321. Regulation of physiologic actions of LRRK2: focus on autophagy. (PubMed id 22204929)1 Ferree A....Wolozin B. (Neurodegener Dis 2012)
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    324. Novel genetic loci identified for the pathophysiology of childhood obesity in the Hispanic population. (PubMed id 23251661)1 Comuzzie A.G....Butte N.F. (PLoS ONE 2012)
    325. Association between LRRK2 and 4E-BP1 protein levels in normal and malignant cells. (PubMed id 21922152)1 Pons B....RamA^n y Cajal S. (Oncol. Rep. 2012)
    326. Phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 in the mammalian brain is not altered by LRRK2 expression or pathogenic mutations. (PubMed id 23082216)1 Trancikova A....Moore D.J. (PLoS ONE 2012)
    327. The I2020T Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 transgenic mouse exhibits impaired locomotive ability accompanied by dopaminergic neuron abnormalities. (PubMed id 22534020)1 Maekawa T....Obata F. (Mol Neurodegener 2012)
    328. AMP kinase activation mitigates dopaminergic dysfunction and mitochondrial abnormalities in Drosophila models of Parkinson's disease. (PubMed id 23055502)1 Ng C.H....Lim K.L. (J. Neurosci. 2012)
    329. Analysis of LRRK2, SNCA, Parkin, PINK1, and DJ-1 in Zambian patients with Parkinson's disease. (PubMed id 22445250)1 Yonova-Doing E....Bonifati V. (amp 2012)
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    331. Progressive degeneration of human neural stem cells caused by pathogenic LRRK2. (PubMed id 23075850)1 Liu G.H....Izpisua Belmonte J.C. (Nature 2012)
    332. Cerebral pathological and compensatory mechanisms in the premotor phase of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 parkinsonism. (PubMed id 23250886)1 van Nuenen B.F....Toni I. (Brain 2012)
    333. The SNCA (A53T, A30P, E46K) and LRRK2 (G2019S) mutations are rare cause of Parkinson's disease in South Indian patients. (PubMed id 22436655)1 Vishwanathan Padmaja M....Ramesh A. (amp 2012)
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    336. Parkinson's disease-linked leucine-rich repeat kinase 2(R1441G) mutation increases proinflammatory cytokine release from activated primary microglial cells and resultant neurotoxicity. (PubMed id 22342962)1 Gillardon F....Draheim H. (Neuroscience 2012)
    337. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) genetic polymorphism greatly increases risk of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) for Parkinson's disease. (PubMed id 21924942)1 Liu J....Chan P. (amp 2012)
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    339. Phosphorylation of LRRK2 serines 955 and 973 is disrupted by Parkinson's disease mutations and LRRK2 pharmacological inhibition. (PubMed id 22004453)1 Doggett E.A....Nichols R.J. (J. Neurochem. 2012)
    340. The LRRK2 G2019S mutation is associated with Parkinson disease and concomitant non-skin cancers. (PubMed id 22323743)1 Inzelberg R....Hassin-Baer S. (Neurology 2012)
    341. GTPase activity and neuronal toxicity of Parkinson's disease-associated LRRK2 is regulated by ArfGAP1. (PubMed id 22363216)1 Stafa K....Moore D.J. (PLoS Genet. 2012)
    342. Association of Parkinson's disease with six single nucleotide polymorphisms located in four PARK genes in the northern Han Chinese population. (PubMed id 22575062)1 Zhou Y....Pang H. (J Clin Neurosci 2012)
    343. Identical twins with Leucine rich repeat kinase type 2 mutations discordant for Parkinson's disease. (PubMed id 22488887)1 Xiromerisiou G....Lees A.J. (Mov. Disord. 2012)
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    347. The age at motor symptoms onset in LRRK2-associated Parkinson's disease is affected by a variation in the MAPT locus: a possible interaction. (PubMed id 21898123)1 Gan-Or Z....Orr-Urtreger A. (J. Mol. Neurosci. 2012)
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    351. Penetrance of LRRK2 G2385R and R1628P is modified by common PD-associated genetic variants. (PubMed id 22658533)1 Wang C....Chan P. (amp 2012)
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    353. LRRK2 functions as a Wnt signaling scaffold, bridging cytosolic proteins and membrane-localized LRP6. (PubMed id 22899650)1 Berwick D.C. and Harvey K. (Hum. Mol. Genet. 2012)
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    515. Patterns of somatic mutation in human cancer genomes. (PubMed id 17344846)2 Greenman C.... Stratton M.R. (Nature 2007)
    516. Lrrk2 and chronic inflammation are linked to pallido-ponto-nigral degeneration caused by the N279K tau mutation. (PubMed id 17639429)1 Miklossy J....McGeer P.L. (Acta Neuropathol. 2007)
    517. LRRK2 phosphorylates moesin at threonine-558: characterization of how Parkinson's disease mutants affect kinase activity. (PubMed id 17447891)1 Jaleel M....Alessi D.R. (Biochem. J. 2007)
    518. The R1441C mutation of LRRK2 disrupts GTP hydrolysis. (PubMed id 17442267)1 Lewis P.A....Cookson M.R. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2007)
    519. The importance of LRRK2 mutations in Parkinson disease. (PubMed id 16966498)1 Schapira A.H. (Arch. Neurol. 2006)
    520. Clinical and pathologic features of families with LRRK2-associated Parkinson's disease. (PubMed id 17017533)1 Whaley N.R....Wszolek Z.K. (J. Neural Transm. Suppl. 2006)
    521. LRRK2 G2019S as a cause of Parkinson's disease in Ashkenazi Jews. (PubMed id 16436782)1 Ozelius L.J....Bressman S.B. (N. Engl. J. Med. 2006)
    522. LRRK2 G2019S as a cause of Parkinson's disease in North African Arabs. (PubMed id 16436781)1 Lesage S....Brice A. (N. Engl. J. Med. 2006)
    523. Identification of a common genetic risk variant (LRRK2 Gly2385Arg) in Parkinson's disease. (PubMed id 17160203)1 Tan E.K. (Ann. Acad. Med. Singap. 2006)
    524. The finished DNA sequence of human chromosome 12. (PubMed id 16541075)2 Scherer S.E.... Gibbs R.A. (Nature 2006)
    525. Mutations in LRRK2 other than G2019S are rare in a north American-based sample of familial Parkinson's disease. (PubMed id 17078063)1 Pankratz N....Nichols W.C. (Mov. Disord. 2006)
    526. Lrrk2 and Lewy body disease. (PubMed id 16437559)1 Ross O.A....Dickson D.W. (Ann. Neurol. 2006)
    527. Clinicogenetic study of mutations in LRRK2 exon 41 in Parkinson's disease patients from 18 countries. (PubMed id 16622854)1 Tomiyama H....Hattori N. (Mov. Disord. 2006)
    528. LRRK2 mutations on Crete: R1441H associated with PD evolving to PSP. (PubMed id 17060595)1 Spanaki C....Plaitakis A. (Neurology 2006)
    529. Isolation and expression profiling of genes upregulated in bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells of rheumatoid arthritis patients. (PubMed id 17082220)1 Nakamura N.... Ochi T. (DNA Res. 2006)
    530. The pleomorphic pathology of inherited Parkinson's disease: lessons from LRRK2. (PubMed id 16928343)1 Bonifati V. (Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2006)
    531. Altered alpha-synuclein homeostasis causing Parkinson's disease: the potential roles of dardarin. (PubMed id 15955578)1 Singleton A.B. (Trends Neurosci. 2005)
    532. LRRK2 haplotype analyses in European and North African families with Parkinson disease: a common founder for the G2019S mutation dating from the 13th century. (PubMed id 16145815)1 Lesage S....Brice A. (Am. J. Hum. Genet. 2005)
    533. Genetic testing in Parkinson's disease. (PubMed id 15884041)1 McInerney-Leo A. (Mov. Disord. 2005)
    534. Transcriptome characterization elucidates signaling networks that control human ES cell growth and differentiation. (PubMed id 15146197)1 Brandenberger R.... Stanton L.W. (Nat. Biotechnol. 2004)
    535. The PARK8 locus in autosomal dominant parkinsonism: confirmation of linkage and further delineation of the disease-containing interval. (PubMed id 14691730)1 Zimprich A....Gasser T. (Am. J. Hum. Genet. 2004)
    536. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PubMed id 14702039)1 Ota T.... Sugano S. (Nat. Genet. 2004)
    537. A new locus for Parkinson's disease (PARK8) maps to chromosome 12p11.2-q13.1. (PubMed id 11891824)1 Funayama M....Obata F. (Ann. Neurol. 2002)
    538. Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences. (PubMed id 12477932)1 Strausberg R.L....Marra M.A. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2002)
    539. Identifying novel transcripts and novel genes in the human genome by using novel SAGE tags. (PubMed id 12213963)1 Chen J....Wang S.M. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2002)
    540. LRRK2-Related Parkinson Disease (PubMed id 20301387)1 Pagon R.A....Stephens K. (1993)
    541. Parkinson Disease Overview (PubMed id 20301402)1 Pagon R.A....Stephens K. (1993)
    542. (PubMed id 15987882)4 
    543. (PubMed id 15972842)4 
    544. [Clinical molecular genetics for PARK8 (LRRK2)]. (PubMed id 17713120)9 Tomiyama H....Hattori N. (Brain Nerve 2007)
    545. LRRK2 in Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. (PubMed id 17137507)9 Zhu X....Chen S.G. (Mol Neurodegener 2006)
    546. Substrate specificity and inhibitors of LRRK2, a protein kinase mutated in Parkinson's disease. (PubMed id 19740074)9 Nichols R.J....Alessi D.R. (Biochem. J. 2009)
    547. Localization of LRRK2 to membranous and vesicular structures in mammalian brain. (PubMed id 17120249)9 Biskup S....Dawson V.L. (Ann. Neurol. 2006)
    548. LRRK2 and neurodegeneration. (PubMed id 19142648)9 Santpere G. and Ferrer I. (Acta Neuropathol. 2009)
    549. New biochemical approaches towards understanding the Parkinson's disease-associated kinase, LRRK2. (PubMed id 19839940)9 Liou G.Y. and Gallo K.A. (Biochem. J. 2009)
    550. Clinical features of LRRK2 parkinsonism. (PubMed id 20082991)9 Haugarvoll K. and Wszolek Z.K. (amp 2009)
    551. Identification of compounds that inhibit the kinase activity of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2. (PubMed id 19027715)9 Covy J.P. and Giasson B.I. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2009)
    552. Emerging role of LRRK2 in human neural progenitor cell cycle progression, survival and differentiation. (PubMed id 19523245)9 Milosevic J....Schwarz J. (Mol Neurodegener 2009)
    553. LRRK2 in Parkinson's disease: function in cells and neurodegeneration. (PubMed id 19804415)9 Webber P.J. and West A.B. (FEBS J. 2009)
    554. Striatal leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 mRNA is increased in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-lesioned common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) with L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine methyl ester-induced dyskinesia. (PubMed id 17614947)9 Hurley M.J....Jenner P. (Eur. J. Neurosci. 2007)
    555. Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2: relevance to Parkinson's disease. (PubMed id 16600664)9 Guo L....Chen S.G. (amp 2006)
    556. LRRK2 expression in normal and pathologic human brain and in human cell lines. (PubMed id 17021400)9 Miklossy J....McGeer P.L. (J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 2006)
    557. Mechanisms in dominant parkinsonism: The toxic triangle of LRRK2, alpha-synuclein, and tau. (PubMed id 20127702)9 Taymans J.M. and Cookson M.R. (Bioessays 2010)
    558. Co-occurrence of sporadic parkinsonism and late-onset Alzheimer's disease in a Brazilian male with the LRRK2 p.G2019S mutation. (PubMed id 19072560)9 Santos-RebouAsas C.B....Pimentel M.M. (Genet. Test. 2008)
    559. The familial Parkinsonism gene LRRK2 regulates neurite process morphology. (PubMed id 17114044)9 MacLeod D....Abeliovich A. (Neuron 2006)
    560. LRRK2 in Parkinson's disease: biochemical functions. (PubMed id 19804416)9 Anand V.S. and Braithwaite S.P. (FEBS J. 2009)
    561. A Drosophila model for LRRK2-linked parkinsonism. (PubMed id 18258746)9 Liu Z....Smith W.W. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2008)
    562. Deciphering the role of heterozygous mutations in genes associated with parkinsonism. (PubMed id 17582365)9 Klein C....Lang A.E. (Lancet Neurol 2007)

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    Entrez Gene: 120892 HGNC: 18618 AceView: DKFZp434H2111 Ensembl:ENSG00000188906 euGenes: HUgn120892
    ECgene: LRRK2 Kegg: 120892 H-InvDB: LRRK2

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