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LOXL2 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 69
GCID: GC08M023154

Lysyl Oxidase-Like 2

  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Lysyl Oxidase-Like 21 2     Lysyl Oxidase Homolog 22
Lysyl Oxidase-Like Protein 22 3     Lysyl Oxidase Related 22
Lysyl Oxidase-Related Protein 22 3     Lysyl Oxidase-Like 2 Delta E132
Lysyl Oxidase-Related Protein WS9-142 3     EC 1.4.3.133
LOR22     EC 1.4.38
WS9-142     

External Ids:    HGNC: 66661   Entrez Gene: 40172   Ensembl: ENSG000001340137   OMIM: 6066635   UniProtKB: Q9Y4K03   

Export aliases for LOXL2 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC08U990046 GC08M023508 GC08M022974 GC08M023176 GC08M023210 GC08M021700


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for LOXL2 Gene:
This gene encodes a member of the lysyl oxidase gene family. The prototypic member of the family is essential to
the biogenesis of connective tissue, encoding an extracellular copper-dependent amine oxidase that catalyses the
first step in the formation of crosslinks in collagens and elastin. A highly conserved amino acid sequence at the
C-terminus end appears to be sufficient for amine oxidase activity, suggesting that each family member may retain
this function. The N-terminus is poorly conserved and may impart additional roles in developmental regulation,
senescence, tumor suppression, cell growth control, and chemotaxis to each member of the family. (provided by
RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for LOXL2 Gene:
LOXL2 (lysyl oxidase-like 2) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with LOXL2 include wilson disease, and intracranial aneurysm. GO annotations related to this gene include electron carrier activity and chromatin binding. An important paralog of this gene is CD6.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: LOXL2_HUMAN, Q9Y4K0
Function: Mediates the post-translational oxidative deamination of lysine residues on target proteins leading to
the formation of deaminated lysine (allysine). When secreted in extracellular matrix, promotes cross-linking of
extracellular matrix proteins by mediating oxidative deamination of peptidyl lysine residues in precursors to
fibrous collagen and elastin. Acts as a regulator of sprouting angiogenesis, probably via collagen IV
scaffolding. When nuclear, acts as a transcription corepressor and specifically mediates deamination of
trimethylated 'Lys-4' of histone H3 (H3K4me3), a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional activation. Involved
in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) via interaction with SNAI1 and participates in repression of
E-cadherin, probably by mediating deamination of histone H3. Also involved in E-cadherin repression following
hypoxia, a hallmark of epithelial to mesenchymal transition believed to amplify tumor aggressiveness, suggesting
that it may play a role in tumor progression. Acts as a regulator of chondrocyte differentiation, probably by
regulating expression of factors that control chondrocyte differentiation

Gene Wiki entry for LOXL2 Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000008.11  NC_018919.2  NT_167187.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the LOXL2 gene promoter:
         HFH-3   AML1a   FOXD3   RelA   CUTL1   LCR-F1   Tal-1beta   FOXI1   c-Myb   ITF-2   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidLOXL2 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for LOXL2

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat LOXL2


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 8p21.3   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  8p21.3   HGNC cytogenetic band: 8p21.3

LOXL2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
LOXL2 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 8         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC08M023154:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
23,154,410 bp from pter      End:
23,282,841 bp from pter
Size:
128,432 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: LOXL2_HUMAN, Q9Y4K0 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Lysyl oxidase homolog 2 precursor  
Size: 774 amino acids; 86725 Da
Cofactor: Copper (By similarity)
Cofactor: Contains 1 lysine tyrosylquinone (By similarity)
Subunit: Component of some chromatin repressor complex. Interacts with SNAI1
Miscellaneous: Its overexpression in a number of cancer and its ability to promote epithelial to mesenchymal
transition suggest that LOXL2 might play a role in tumor progression: expression is correlated with metastasis
and decreased survival in patients with aggressive breast cancer (PubMed:21732535). Allosteric inhibition by
AB0023 inhibits formation of the tumor microenvironment and reduces metastatic tumor burden in xenograft models
(PubMed:20818376 and PubMed:21732535). However, inhibiting the enzyme activity of LOXL2 may not be sufficient,
since mutants that lack enzyme activity or inhibition of the activity by AB0023 antibody does not prevent
inhibition of the differentiation of keratinocytes, thereby promoting development of squamous cell carcinomas
(PubMed:22157764)
Sequence caution: Sequence=AAD34343.1; Type=Erroneous termination; Positions=775; Note=Translated as stop;
Secondary accessions: B2R5Q0 Q53HV3 Q9BW70 Q9Y5Y8

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for LOXL2: NX_Q9Y4K0

Explore proteomics data for LOXL2 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • The lysine tyrosylquinone cross-link (LTQ) is generated by condensation of the epsilon-amino group of a lysine
    with a topaquinone produced by oxidation of tyrosine1
  • N-glycosylated. N-glycosylation on Asn-455 and Asn-644 may be essential for proper folding and secretion; may be
    composed of a fucosylated carbohydrates attached to a trimannose N-linked glycan core1
  • Glycosylation2 at Asn288, Asn455, Asn644
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Selected DME Specific Peptides for LOXL2 (Q9Y4K0) (see all 9)
     DAGVRCN  RRLLRFS  YECANFG  CHRHYHS 


    See LOXL2 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_002309.1  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000373783   ENSP00000473322   ENSP00000427907   ENSP00000427826   ENSP00000427883  
     ENSP00000429778   ENSP00000430519   ENSP00000428497   ENSP00000428933  
    Reactome Protein details: Q9Y4K0

    LOXL2 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for LOXL2
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    Sino Biological Recombinant Protein for LOXL2
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    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for LOXL2

    LOXL2 Antibody Products:

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    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for LOXL2

    LOXL2 Assay Products:

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    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for LOXL2
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for LOXL2


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    4 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR001190 SRCR
     IPR001695 Lysyl_oxidase
     IPR017448 Srcr_rcpt-rel
     IPR019828 Lysyl_oxidase_CS

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q9Y4K0

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q9Y4K0

    2 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB001190 Speract/scavenger receptor
    IPB001695 Lysyl oxidase


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: LOXL2_HUMAN, Q9Y4K0
    Domain: The fourth SRCR domain plays a important role in optimizing the catalytic activity of the lysyl-oxidase
    like (LOX) catalytic domain
    Similarity: Belongs to the lysyl oxidase family
    Similarity: Contains 4 SRCR domains


    LOXL2 for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, and Vector BioLabs, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: LOXL2_HUMAN, Q9Y4K0
    Function: Mediates the post-translational oxidative deamination of lysine residues on target proteins leading to
    the formation of deaminated lysine (allysine). When secreted in extracellular matrix, promotes cross-linking of
    extracellular matrix proteins by mediating oxidative deamination of peptidyl lysine residues in precursors to
    fibrous collagen and elastin. Acts as a regulator of sprouting angiogenesis, probably via collagen IV
    scaffolding. When nuclear, acts as a transcription corepressor and specifically mediates deamination of
    trimethylated 'Lys-4' of histone H3 (H3K4me3), a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional activation. Involved
    in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) via interaction with SNAI1 and participates in repression of
    E-cadherin, probably by mediating deamination of histone H3. Also involved in E-cadherin repression following
    hypoxia, a hallmark of epithelial to mesenchymal transition believed to amplify tumor aggressiveness, suggesting
    that it may play a role in tumor progression. Acts as a regulator of chondrocyte differentiation, probably by
    regulating expression of factors that control chondrocyte differentiation
    Catalytic activity: Peptidyl-L-lysyl-peptide + O(2) + H(2)O = peptidyl-allysyl-peptide + NH(3) + H(2)O(2)
    Enzyme regulation: According to some reports, it is inhibited by beta-aminopropionitrile (BAPN) (PubMed:20439985
    and PubMed:23319596). According to another report, it is not inhibited by beta-aminopropionitrile (BAPN)
    (PubMed:20306300). Specifically inhibited by a mouse monoclonal antibody AB0023, inhibition occurs in a
    non-competitive manner
    Biophysicochemical properties: Kinetic parameters: KM=1.01 mM for 1,5-diaminopentane; KM=1.05 mM for spermine;
    KM=0.59 uM for tropoelastin (without the first three SRCR domains); KM=0.62 uM for tropoelastin (without all four
    SRCR domains); Note=kcat is 2.04 min(-1) with tropoelastin as substrate (without the first three SRCR domains).
    kcat is 0.62 min(-1) with tropoelastin as substrate (without all four SRCR domains);
    Induction: Strongly induced in hypoxia. Direct transcriptional target of HIF1A

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for LOXL2:
    lysyl oxidase-like 2,extracellular matrix enzyme,widely expressed predominantly in reproductive tissues
    (placenta,uterus,prostate)

         Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB): EC 1.4.3.131 EC 1.4.32

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 10):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0003682chromatin binding IDA--
    GO:0003714transcription corepressor activity IDA--
    GO:0004720protein-lysine 6-oxidase activity IDA--
    GO:0005044scavenger receptor activity IEA--
    GO:0005507copper ion binding IEA--
         
    LOXL2 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         3 GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for LOXL2:
     Increased gamma-H2AX phosphory  Synthetic lethal with Ras  Upregulation of Wnt/beta-caten 

         1 MGI phenotypic allele for Loxl2 (no phenotypes)

    LOXL2 for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for LOXL2
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       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for LOXL2
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for LOXL2

    miRNA
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    miRTarBase miRNAs that target LOXL2:
    hsa-mir-192-5p (MIRT004135)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat LOXL2 using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate LOXL2 (see all 10):
    hsa-miR-425 hsa-miR-29a hsa-miR-29c hsa-miR-1297 hsa-miR-466 hsa-miR-26a hsa-miR-642b hsa-miR-26b
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidLOXL2 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat LOXL2

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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: LOXL2 (NM_002318)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for LOXL2
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    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat LOXL2

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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for LOXL2


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    LOXL2_HUMAN, Q9Y4K0: Secreted, extracellular space, extracellular matrix, basement membrane (By similarity).
    Nucleus. Chromosome. Note=Associated with chromatin. It is unclear how LOXL2 is nuclear: it contains a clear
    signal sequence and is predicted to localize in the extracellular medium. However, different reports confirmed
    the intracellular location and its key role in transcription regulation
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    extracellular5
    nucleus5
    plasma membrane2
    cytosol1

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected cellular component terms (see all 6):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005604basement membrane ISS--
    GO:0005615extracellular space IDA--
    GO:0005634nucleus TAS16096638
    GO:0005694chromosome IEA--
    GO:0005730NOT nucleolus IDA--

    LOXL2 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for LOXL2 About    
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Collagen biosynthesis and modifying enzymes
    Collagen formation0.75
    Crosslinking of collagen fibrils0.00
    Assembly of collagen fibrils and other multimeric structures0.62
    2Elastic fibre formation
    Elastic fibre formation0.73
    3Degradation of the extracellular matrix
    Extracellular matrix organization0.34

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways



    2 Reactome Pathways for LOXL2
        Crosslinking of collagen fibrils
    Elastic fibre formation



    LOXL2 for pathways           About GeneDecksing

        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for LOXL2
    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for LOXL2

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 1 interactants - click image to see more details)

    2 Interacting proteins for LOXL2 (Q9Y4K02, 3 ENSP000003737834) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    EGFL7Q9UHF12, 3, ENSP000003078434MINT-6743620 I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000307843
    PDIA3P301012, 3MINT-4301285 I2D: score=1 
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 16):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001666response to hypoxia ISS--
    GO:0001837epithelial to mesenchymal transition IDA16096638
    GO:0001935endothelial cell proliferation IMP--
    GO:0002040sprouting angiogenesis IMP--
    GO:0006351transcription, DNA-templated IEA--

    LOXL2 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for LOXL2

    2 HMDB Compounds for LOXL2    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    CopperCu (see all 2)7440-50-8--
    Docosanoyl-CoAbehenoyl-CoA (see all 2)----

    5 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for LOXL2 gene    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    beta-aminopropionitrile 80 2 16023247 (1)
    amine 55.1 5 19724858 (1), 17394133 (1), 18949373 (1), 10212285 (1)
    lysine 34.7 1 16023247 (1)
    copper 33.7 2 12686136 (1), 16023247 (1)
    quinone 32.6 1 12686136 (1)



    LOXL2 for compounds           About GeneDecksing



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for LOXL2 gene: 
    NM_002318.2  

    Unigene Cluster for LOXL2:

    Lysyl oxidase-like 2
    Hs.626637  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_002318
    15 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000389131(uc010lty.1 uc003xdh.1) ENST00000520617 ENST00000523833
    ENST00000520349 ENST00000518878 ENST00000522446 ENST00000519809 ENST00000520925
    ENST00000518472 ENST00000524144 ENST00000520871 ENST00000518083 ENST00000524168
    ENST00000519243 ENST00000524075
    miRNA
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    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate LOXL2 (see all 10):
    hsa-miR-425 hsa-miR-29a hsa-miR-29c hsa-miR-1297 hsa-miR-466 hsa-miR-26a hsa-miR-642b hsa-miR-26b
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    Primer
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      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat LOXL2
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat LOXL2

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AF117949.1 AK098436.1 AK124508.1 AK222477.1 AK293292.1 AK312266.1 BC000594.2 BC020481.1 
    U89942.1 

    22 DOTS entries:

    DT.95310597  DT.455906  DT.100860641  DT.100860643  DT.121471990  DT.101981869  DT.97797797  DT.95310623 
    DT.95310598  DT.75173603  DT.102839062  DT.100044391  DT.100833490  DT.121471952  DT.121472016  DT.95347853 
    DT.121471948  DT.121471991  DT.121472002  DT.100736600  DT.100860655  DT.121472033 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 454):

    AI078544 BX088934 CN483999 BG567402 AI380210 CO247617 BM990780 CB141261 
    CA489105 BU623915 BX352733 CD722343 BQ888079 AW302580 BX365591 AL701833 
    CB108740 BC034477 BX355054 BP365336 AA676458 BQ719743 AA731855 AL701581 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    Selected Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for LOXL2 (see all 7)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b · 5c ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11a · 11b · 11c ^ 12a · 12b ^ 13 ^ 14a · 14b ^ 15 ^ 16 ^ 17
    SP1:              -     -                                               -                                         -           -                           
    SP2:                                                                                                              -           -                 -         
    SP3:                                                                                                                                                      
    SP4:                    -                                                                                                                                 
    SP5:                                                                                                                                                      


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for LOXL2

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    LOXL2 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: TGTCATCACA
    LOXL2 Expression
    About this image


    LOXL2 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 4) fully expand
     
     Heart (Cardiovascular System)
             Atrioventricular Node Cells Atrioventricular Node
     
     Endothelium (Cardiovascular System)
             Extraembryonic Angioblasts Extraembryonic Capillary Plexus
     
     Extraembryonic Mesoderm (Extraembryonic Tissues)
             Extraembryonic Angioblasts Extraembryonic Capillary Plexus
     
     Smooth Muscle (Muscoskeletal System)
    LOXL2 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    LOXL2 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.626637

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: LOXL2_HUMAN, Q9Y4K0
    Tissue specificity: Expressed in many tissues. Highest expression in reproductive tissues, placenta, uterus and
    prostate. Up-regulated in a number of cancers cells and tissues

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

    Orthologs for LOXL2 gene from Selected species (see all 12)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Loxl21 , 5 lysyl oxidase-like 21, 5 84.65(n)1
    86.55(a)1
      14 (36.06 cM)5
    943521  NM_033325.21  NP_201582.21 
     696094765 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves LOXL21 lysyl oxidase-like 2 77.35(n)
    81.31(a)
      419533  XM_003642546.2  XP_003642594.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia LOXL26
    lysyl oxidase-like 2
    55(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    GL343754.1(21-61803)
    tropical clawed frog
    (Xenopus tropicalis)
    Amphibia Str.119182 Transcribed sequence with moderate similarity to protein more 78.98(n)    CF225328.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii Dr.7152 Transcribed sequences 97.22(n)    57034883 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta lox21 , 3 protein-lysine 6-oxidase3
    lysyl oxidase-like 21
    42(a)
    (best of 2)3
    54.22(n)1
    46.17(a)1
      58A13
    374851  NM_079082.31  NP_523806.21 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for LOXL2 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for LOXL2 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for LOXL2 gene
    CD62  CD163L12  LOXL42  CD1632  LOXL32  SSC5D2  PRSS122  CD5L2  
    LOX2  SRCRB4D2  LOXL12  DMBT12  
    9 SIMAP similar genes for LOXL2 using alignment to 9 protein entries:     LOXL2_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    LOXL4    LGALS3BP    HHIPL1    SSC5D    LOXL3    CD163
    CD163L1    CD6    DMBT1

    LOXL2 for paralogs           About GeneDecksing



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for LOXL2 (see all 2178)    About this table    
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 8 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs792407121,2
    C--23154354(+) GTGGC-/TGTTGTTT 1 -- ds50011Minor allele frequency- TGT:0.00CSA 2
    rs1885789991,2
    --23154375(+) ACTTCC/TCATCC 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1404897341,2
    --23154388(+) CCCTCA/GCACAA 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1914630611,2
    --23154426(+) AAAAAC/TCACAG 1 -- ut310--------
    rs78464331,2
    C,F,H--23154444(+) AGAAAG/TATTAT 1 -- ut316Minor allele frequency- T:0.03NS EA WA NA 658
    rs78346411,2
    C,F,A,H--23154486(+) TTAGAC/TTGCTT 1 -- ut31105Minor allele frequency- N:0.00EA NS NA PA EU CA WA CSA 6452
    rs795749901,2
    C,F--23154575(+) CTGAGG/AACCCA 1 -- ut311Minor allele frequency- A:0.04WA 118
    rs78133491,2
    C,F,A,H--23154600(+) AACCAT/CGAATG 1 -- ut3125Minor allele frequency- C:0.39NS EA NA CSA WA 2341
    rs1821453451,2
    --23154601(+) ACCACC/GAATGT 1 -- ut310--------
    rs1872470761,2
    --23154626(+) TTCTGG/TCCACT 1 -- ut310--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for LOXL2 (23154410 - 23282841 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 6 variations for LOXL2:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv6118CNV Insertion18451855
    nsv890680CNV Loss21882294
    esv25599CNV Loss19812545
    nsv890681CNV Loss21882294
    nsv470206CNV Gain18288195
    nsv831268CNV Gain17160897

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): LOXL2
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing LOXL2
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for LOXL2

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 606663    OMIM disorders: --

    19 diseases for LOXL2:    
    About MalaCards
    wilson disease    intracranial aneurysm    malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor    long qt syndrome
    esophageal squamous cell carcinoma    lung adenocarcinoma    glaucoma    hypoxia
    squamous cell carcinoma    esophagitis    endotheliitis    breast cancer
    adenocarcinoma    colorectal cancer    prostatitis    prostate cancer
    hepatocellular carcinoma    pancreatitis    malaria


    LOXL2 for disorders           About GeneDecksing

    5 Novoseek inferred disease relationships for LOXL2 gene    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    carcinoma squamous cell 28.7 6 18559498 (4), 12820424 (1), 17394133 (1)
    tumors 27.8 25 19625348 (4), 19330836 (3), 17394133 (2), 16096638 (2) (see all 9)
    breast cancer 13.2 13 19330836 (3), 17394133 (1), 12154058 (1)
    metastasis 9.01 1 19625348 (7), 20012301 (1)
    cancer 2.15 5 19015874 (1), 19625348 (1), 17394133 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): LOXL2
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: LOXL2 (3 documents)

    Export disorders for LOXL2 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for LOXL2 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 71):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with LOXL2)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Systematic screening of lysyl oxidase-like (LOXL) family genes demonstrates that LOXL2 is a susceptibility gene to intracranial aneurysms. (PubMed id 17287949)1, 4, 9 Akagawa H....Inoue I. (Hum. Genet. 2007)
    2. The LOXL2 gene encodes a new lysyl oxidase-like protein and is expressed at high levels in reproductive tissues. (PubMed id 10212285)1, 2, 9 Jourdan-Le Saux C.... Csiszar K. (J. Biol. Chem. 1999)
    3. A molecular role for lysyl oxidase-like 2 enzyme in snail regulation and tumor progression. (PubMed id 16096638)1, 2, 9 Peinado H.... Portillo F. (EMBO J. 2005)
    4. The lysyl oxidases LOX and LOXL2 are necessary and sufficient to repress E-cadherin in hypoxia: insights into cellular transformation processes mediated by HIF-1. (PubMed id 20026874)1, 2, 9 Schietke R....Wiesener M.S. (J. Biol. Chem. 2010)
    5. The human lysyl oxidase-related gene (LOXL2) maps between markers D8S280 and D8S278 on chromosome 8p21.2-p21.3. (PubMed id 9722957)1, 3, 9 Jourdan-Le Saux C....Csiszar K. (Genomics 1998)
    6. Post-translational Modifications of Recombinant Human Lysyl Oxidase- like 2 (rhLOXL2) Secreted from Drosophila S2 Cells. (PubMed id 23319596)1, 2 Xu L....Mure M. (J. Biol. Chem. 2013)
    7. Lysyl oxidase-like 2 deaminates lysine 4 in histone H3. (PubMed id 22483618)1, 2 Herranz N.... Peiro S. (Mol. Cell 2012)
    8. LOXL2-mediated matrix remodeling in metastasis and mammary gland involution. (PubMed id 21233336)1, 2 Barker H.E.... Erler J.T. (Cancer Res. 2011)
    9. Lysyl oxidase-like protein-2 regulates sprouting angiogenesis and type IV collagen assembly in the endothelial basement membrane. (PubMed id 21835952)1, 2 Bignon M.... Germain S. (Blood 2011)
    10. The human lysyl oxidase-like 2 protein functions as an amine oxidase toward collagen and elastin. (PubMed id 20306300)1, 2 Kim Y.M.... Kim Y. (Mol. Biol. Rep. 2011)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 4017 HGNC: 6666 AceView: LOXL2andENTPD4 Ensembl:ENSG00000134013 euGenes: HUgn4017
    ECgene: LOXL2 H-InvDB: LOXL2

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for LOXL2 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for LOXL2 Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for LOXL2 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving LOXL2

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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