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Aliases for LOX Gene

Aliases for LOX Gene

  • Lysyl Oxidase 2 3 4 5
  • EC 4 63

External Ids for LOX Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for LOX Gene

  • GC05M121103
  • GC05M121800
  • GC05M121432
  • GC05M121478
  • GC05M121429
  • GC05M116590

Summaries for LOX Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for LOX Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the lysyl oxidase family of proteins. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants, at least one of which encodes a preproprotein that is proteolytically processed to generate a regulatory propeptide and the mature enzyme. The copper-dependent amine oxidase activity of this enzyme functions in the crosslinking of collagens and elastin, while the propeptide may play a role in tumor suppression. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2015]

GeneCards Summary for LOX Gene

LOX (Lysyl Oxidase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with LOX include Oral Submucous Fibrosis and Occipital Horn Syndrome. Among its related pathways are Collagen biosynthesis and modifying enzymes and Degradation of the extracellular matrix. GO annotations related to this gene include copper ion binding and protein-lysine 6-oxidase activity. An important paralog of this gene is LOXL1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for LOX Gene

  • Responsible for the post-translational oxidative deamination of peptidyl lysine residues in precursors to fibrous collagen and elastin. In addition to cross-linking of extracellular matrix proteins, may have a direct role in tumor suppression.

Gene Wiki entry for LOX Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for LOX Gene

Genomics for LOX Gene

Regulatory Elements for LOX Gene

Enhancers for LOX Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around LOX on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for LOX Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around LOX on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for LOX Gene

122,063,195 bp from pter
122,078,360 bp from pter
15,166 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for LOX Gene

Genes around LOX on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
LOX Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for LOX Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for LOX Gene

Proteins for LOX Gene

  • Protein details for LOX Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein-lysine 6-oxidase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2R5Q3
    • Q5FWF0

    Protein attributes for LOX Gene

    417 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    46944 Da
    Name=Cu cation; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:23378;
    Name=lysine tyrosylquinone residue; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:20489;
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    • The propeptide plays a role in directing the deposition of this enzyme to elastic fibers, via interaction with tropoelastin.

neXtProt entry for LOX Gene

Proteomics data for LOX Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for LOX Gene

  • Proteolytically activated by BMP1.
  • The lysine tyrosylquinone cross-link (LTQ) is generated by condensation of the epsilon-amino group of a lysine with a topaquinone produced by oxidation of tyrosine.
  • Glycosylation at Asn 81, Thr 89, Asn 97, Thr 113, Thr 120, Ser 130, Thr 131, Ser 132, Asn 144, and Thr 413
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for LOX Gene

Domains & Families for LOX Gene

Protein Domains for LOX Gene


Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the lysyl oxidase family.
  • Belongs to the lysyl oxidase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with LOX: view

No data available for Gene Families for LOX Gene

Function for LOX Gene

Molecular function for LOX Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
lysyl oxidase,copper dependent,processed by BMP1 to the mature enzyme necessary for the formation of covalent cross-links in collagen and elastic fibers
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Peptidyl-L-lysyl-peptide + O(2) + H(2)O = peptidyl-allysyl-peptide + NH(3) + H(2)O(2).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Responsible for the post-translational oxidative deamination of peptidyl lysine residues in precursors to fibrous collagen and elastin. In addition to cross-linking of extracellular matrix proteins, may have a direct role in tumor suppression.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for LOX Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for LOX Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005507 copper ion binding IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IEA,IPI 19570982
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LOX: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with LOX: view

Animal Models for LOX Gene

MGI Knock Outs for LOX:

Animal Model Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for LOX Gene

Localization for LOX Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for LOX Gene

Secreted, extracellular space.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for LOX Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for LOX gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
nucleus 4
cytosol 3
chloroplast 2
mitochondrion 2
plasma membrane 2
cytoskeleton 1
lysosome 1
peroxisome 1
vacuole 1

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for LOX Gene

Pathways & Interactions for LOX Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with LOX: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for LOX Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007507 heart development IEA --
GO:0030198 extracellular matrix organization TAS --
GO:0030324 lung development IEA --
GO:0035904 aorta development IEA --
GO:0048545 response to steroid hormone IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LOX: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for LOX Gene

Drugs & Compounds for LOX Gene

(41) Drugs for LOX Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Copper Pharma 161
Hydrogen peroxide Pharma 47

(66) Additional Compounds for LOX Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • Dioxygen
  • Molecular oxygen
  • O2
  • Oxygen
  • Oxygen molecule
  • Ammonia anhydrous
  • Ammonia inhalant
  • Ammonia solution strong [usan]
  • Ammonia water
  • Ammoniak
  • Dihydrogen oxide
  • Steam
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with LOX: view

Transcripts for LOX Gene

Unigene Clusters for LOX Gene

Lysyl oxidase:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for LOX Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b · 8c · 8d ^ 9a · 9b · 9c ^ 10
SP1: - - - -
SP2: - - - -
SP3: - - -
SP4: - -
SP5: -
SP6: - -

Relevant External Links for LOX Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for LOX Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for LOX Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for LOX Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Skin (14.3), Amniocyte (12.7), Bone marrow stromal cell (10.2), Gallbladder (9.4), Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (8.1), and Pancreas (6.2).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for LOX Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for LOX Gene Hs.102267

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for LOX Gene

Tissue specificity: Heart, placenta, skeletal muscle, kidney, lung and pancreas.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with LOX: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and Protein tissue co-expression partners for LOX Gene

Orthologs for LOX Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for LOX Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia LOX 35
  • 88.54 (n)
  • 90.62 (a)
LOX 36
  • 90 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia LOX 35
  • 88.35 (n)
  • 90.71 (a)
LOX 36
  • 93 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Lox 35
  • 84.43 (n)
  • 87.59 (a)
Lox 16
Lox 36
  • 88 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia LOX 35
  • 99.2 (n)
  • 99.04 (a)
LOX 36
  • 99 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Lox 35
  • 82.56 (n)
  • 86.37 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia LOX 36
  • 79 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia LOX 36
  • 93 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves LOX 35
  • 74.85 (n)
  • 78.01 (a)
LOX 36
  • 72 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia LOX 36
  • 72 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia lox 35
  • 70.16 (n)
  • 73.3 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii Dr.11427 35
lox 35
  • 64.96 (n)
  • 70.97 (a)
lox 36
  • 63 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta lox 36
  • 28 (a)
lox2 36
  • 23 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 51 (a)
Species with no ortholog for LOX:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for LOX Gene

Gene Tree for LOX (if available)
Gene Tree for LOX (if available)

Paralogs for LOX Gene

Paralogs for LOX Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for LOX Gene using alignment to 4 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with LOX: view

Variants for LOX Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for LOX Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 05 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1800449 - 122,077,513(-) CCTGC(A/G)GCCGC upstream-variant-2KB, reference, missense
rs840466 -- 122,080,226(-) TTGGG(G/T)GACGG upstream-variant-2KB
rs840467 -- 122,080,204(-) GATCC(A/G)TGTAG upstream-variant-2KB
rs2913396 -- 122,068,353(-) CTGGA(A/G)AGGTC intron-variant
rs2913397 -- 122,065,151(-) GATCC(A/T)TAGCC utr-variant-3-prime

Variation tolerance for LOX Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 54.7% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 5.74; 73.33% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for LOX Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for LOX Gene

Disorders for LOX Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(6) MalaCards diseases for LOX Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
oral submucous fibrosis
  • oral cavity submucous fibrosis
occipital horn syndrome
  • stomatocytosis i
menkes disease
  • copper transport disease
cutis laxa
  • loose skin
intracranial aneurysm
  • brain aneurysm
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search LOX in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for LOX

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with LOX: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for LOX Gene

Publications for LOX Gene

  1. Molecular cloning of human lysyl oxidase and assignment of the gene to chromosome 5q23.3-31.2. (PMID: 1685472) Haemaelaeinen E.-R. … Kivirikko K.I. (Genomics 1991) 2 3 4 23 67
  2. Lysyl oxidase expression is an independent marker of prognosis and a predictor of lymph node metastasis in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). (PMID: 19816945) Albinger-Hegyi A. … Hegyi I. (Int. J. Cancer 2010) 3 23
  3. The lysyl oxidases LOX and LOXL2 are necessary and sufficient to repress E-cadherin in hypoxia: insights into cellular transformation processes mediated by HIF-1. (PMID: 20026874) Schietke R. … Wiesener M.S. (J. Biol. Chem. 2010) 3 23
  4. Lysyl oxidase expression and inhibition in uveal melanoma. (PMID: 20179655) Abourbih D.A. … Burnier M.N. (Melanoma Res. 2010) 3 23
  5. Association between lysyl oxidase polymorphisms and oral submucous fibrosis in older male areca chewers. (PMID: 18764858) Shieh T.M. … Liu C.J. (J. Oral Pathol. Med. 2009) 3 23

Products for LOX Gene

Sources for LOX Gene