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Aliases for LOX Gene

Aliases for LOX Gene

  • Lysyl Oxidase 2 3 4
  • EC 4 63

External Ids for LOX Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for LOX Gene

  • GC05M121103
  • GC05M121800
  • GC05M121432
  • GC05M121478
  • GC05M121429
  • GC05M116590

Summaries for LOX Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for LOX Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is an extracellular copper enzyme that initiates the crosslinking of collagens and elastin. The enzyme catalyzes oxidative deamination of the epsilon-amino group in certain lysine and hydroxylysine residues of collagens and lysine residues of elastin. In addition to crosslinking extracellular matrix proteins, the encoded protein may have a role in tumor suppression. Defects in this gene are a cause of autosomal recessive cutis laxa type I (CL type I). Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

GeneCards Summary for LOX Gene

LOX (Lysyl Oxidase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with LOX include oral submucous fibrosis and occipital horn syndrome. Among its related pathways are Degradation of the extracellular matrix and Elastic fibre formation. GO annotations related to this gene include copper ion binding and protein-lysine 6-oxidase activity. An important paralog of this gene is LOXL1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for LOX Gene

  • Responsible for the post-translational oxidative deamination of peptidyl lysine residues in precursors to fibrous collagen and elastin. In addition to cross-linking of extracellular matrix proteins, may have a direct role in tumor suppression

Gene Wiki entry for LOX Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for LOX Gene

Genomics for LOX Gene

Regulatory Elements for LOX Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for LOX Gene

122,063,195 bp from pter
122,078,360 bp from pter
15,166 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for LOX Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for LOX Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for LOX Gene

Proteins for LOX Gene

  • Protein details for LOX Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein-lysine 6-oxidase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2R5Q3
    • Q5FWF0

    Protein attributes for LOX Gene

    417 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    46944 Da
    Name=Cu cation; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:23378;
    Name=lysine tyrosylquinone residue; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:20489; Note=Contains 1 lysine tyrosylquinone.;
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    • The propeptide plays a role in directing the deposition of this enzyme to elastic fibers, via interaction with tropoelastin.

neXtProt entry for LOX Gene

Proteomics data for LOX Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for LOX Gene

  • Proteolytically activated by BMP1.
  • The lysine tyrosylquinone cross-link (LTQ) is generated by condensation of the epsilon-amino group of a lysine with a topaquinone produced by oxidation of tyrosine
  • Glycosylation at Asn81, Thr89, Asn97, Thr113, Thr120, Ser130, Thr131, Ser132, Asn144, and Thr413
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for LOX Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

Domains for LOX Gene

Protein Domains for LOX Gene


Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • P28300
  • Belongs to the lysyl oxidase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with LOX: view

No data available for Gene Families for LOX Gene

Function for LOX Gene

Molecular function for LOX Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: lysyl oxidase,copper dependent,processed by BMP1 to the mature enzyme necessary for the formation of covalent cross-links in collagen and elastic fibers
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity: Peptidyl-L-lysyl-peptide + O(2) + H(2)O = peptidyl-allysyl-peptide + NH(3) + H(2)O(2)
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Responsible for the post-translational oxidative deamination of peptidyl lysine residues in precursors to fibrous collagen and elastin. In addition to cross-linking of extracellular matrix proteins, may have a direct role in tumor suppression

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for LOX Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for LOX Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004720 protein-lysine 6-oxidase activity IEA --
GO:0005507 copper ion binding IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 19570982
GO:0016641 oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-NH2 group of donors, oxygen as acceptor --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LOX: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with LOX: view

Animal Models for LOX Gene

MGI Knock Outs for LOX:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for LOX Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target LOX

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for LOX

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for LOX Gene

Localization for LOX Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for LOX Gene

Secreted, extracellular space.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for LOX Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for LOX gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
chloroplast 2
cytosol 2
mitochondrion 2
nucleus 2
plasma membrane 2
cytoskeleton 1
lysosome 1
peroxisome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for LOX Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005578 proteinaceous extracellular matrix IEA --
GO:0005581 collagen trimer IEA --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IEA --
GO:0005634 nucleus IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LOX: view

Pathways for LOX Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with LOX: view

PCR Array Products

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for LOX Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001568 blood vessel development IEA --
GO:0006464 cellular protein modification process TAS 1685472
GO:0009725 response to hormone --
GO:0030198 extracellular matrix organization TAS --
GO:0030199 collagen fibril organization IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LOX: view

Compounds for LOX Gene

(5) HMDB Compounds for LOX Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
  • NH3
  • Cu
Hydrogen peroxide
  • Hydrogen peroxide
  • Oxygen
  • Dihydrogen oxide

(104) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for LOX Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
beta-aminopropionitrile 92.5 26
ndga 78.8 28
arachidonic acid 78.7 89
desmosine 77.2 3
hydroxylysine 75.8 8
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with LOX: view

Transcripts for LOX Gene

Unigene Clusters for LOX Gene

Lysyl oxidase:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for LOX

Primer Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for LOX Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b · 8c · 8d ^ 9a · 9b · 9c ^ 10
SP1: - - - -
SP2: - - - -
SP3: - - -
SP4: - -
SP5: -
SP6: - -

Relevant External Links for LOX Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for LOX Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for LOX Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for LOX Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for LOX Gene Hs.102267

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for LOX Gene

Tissue specificity: Heart, placenta, skeletal muscle, kidney, lung and pancreas.
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with LOX: view

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for LOX Gene

Orthologs for LOX Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for LOX Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia LOX 35
  • 99.2 (n)
  • 99.04 (a)
LOX 36
  • 99 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia LOX 35
  • 88.54 (n)
  • 90.62 (a)
LOX 36
  • 90 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia LOX 35
  • 88.35 (n)
  • 90.71 (a)
LOX 36
  • 93 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Lox 35
  • 84.43 (n)
  • 87.59 (a)
Lox 16
Lox 36
  • 88 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia LOX 36
  • 79 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia LOX 36
  • 93 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Lox 35
  • 82.56 (n)
  • 86.37 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves LOX 35
  • 74.85 (n)
  • 78.01 (a)
LOX 36
  • 72 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia LOX 36
  • 72 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia lox 35
  • 70.16 (n)
  • 73.3 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii Dr.11427 35
lox 35
  • 64.96 (n)
  • 70.97 (a)
lox 36
  • 63 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta lox 36
  • 28 (a)
lox2 36
  • 23 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 51 (a)
Species with no ortholog for LOX:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for LOX Gene

Gene Tree for LOX (if available)
Gene Tree for LOX (if available)

Paralogs for LOX Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for LOX Gene using alignment to 4 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with LOX: view

Variants for LOX Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for LOX Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 05 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs840466 -- 122,080,226(-) TTGGG(G/T)GACGG upstream-variant-2KB
rs840467 -- 122,080,204(-) GATCC(A/G)TGTAG upstream-variant-2KB
rs1800449 Benign, - 122,077,513(-) CCTGC(A/G)GCCGC upstream-variant-2KB, missense, reference
rs2278226 -- 122,077,761(-) GCCGC(A/C/G)GTCCC upstream-variant-2KB, synonymous-codon, reference
rs2288393 -- 122,077,195(-) ACCGC(C/G)CGTCT utr-variant-5-prime, intron-variant

Relevant External Links for LOX Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for LOX Gene

Disorders for LOX Gene

(4) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for LOX Gene

(70) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for LOX Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
occipital horn syndrome 72.6 1
menkes disease 70.3 3
oral submucous fibrosis 60.6 5
cutis laxa 55.5 2
oxidase deficiency 48.7 2

Relevant External Links for LOX

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with LOX: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for LOX Gene

Publications for LOX Gene

  1. Molecular cloning of human lysyl oxidase and assignment of the gene to chromosome 5q23.3-31.2. (PMID: 1685472) Haemaelaeinen E.-R. … Kivirikko K.I. (Genomics 1991) 2 3 4 23
  2. Epigenetic inhibition of lysyl oxidase transcription after transformation by ras oncogene. (PMID: 10391127) Contente S. … Friedman R.M. (Mol. Cell. Biochem. 1999) 3 4 23
  3. Structure of the human lysyl oxidase gene. (PMID: 7902322) Haemaelaeinen E.-R. … Kivirikko K.I. (Genomics 1993) 3 4 23
  4. The complete derived amino acid sequence of human lysyl oxidase and assignment of the gene to chromosome 5 (extensive sequence homology with the murine ras recision gene). (PMID: 1357535) Mariani T.J. … Deak S.B. (Matrix 1992) 3 4 23
  5. Association of positional and functional candidate genes FGF1, FBN2, and LOX on 5q31 with intracranial aneurysm. (PMID: 12750963) Yoneyama T. … Inoue I. (J. Hum. Genet. 2003) 3 23 48

Products for LOX Gene

Sources for LOX Gene

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