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Aliases for LIMK2 Gene

Aliases for LIMK2 Gene

  • LIM Domain Kinase 2 2 3 5
  • EC 4 58
  • LIMK-2 4

External Ids for LIMK2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for LIMK2 Gene

  • GC22P028304
  • GC22P029932
  • GC22P031608
  • GC22P014569

Summaries for LIMK2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for LIMK2 Gene

  • There are approximately 40 known eukaryotic LIM proteins, so named for the LIM domains they contain. LIM domains are highly conserved cysteine-rich structures containing 2 zinc fingers. Although zinc fingers usually function by binding to DNA or RNA, the LIM motif probably mediates protein-protein interactions. LIM kinase-1 and LIM kinase-2 belong to a small subfamily with a unique combination of 2 N-terminal LIM motifs and a C-terminal protein kinase domain. The protein encoded by this gene is phosphorylated and activated by ROCK, a downstream effector of Rho, and the encoded protein, in turn, phosphorylates cofilin, inhibiting its actin-depolymerizing activity. It is thought that this pathway contributes to Rho-induced reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. At least three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for LIMK2 Gene

LIMK2 (LIM Domain Kinase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Actin Nucleation by ARP-WASP Complex and EPHA forward signaling. GO annotations related to this gene include transferase activity, transferring phosphorus-containing groups and protein tyrosine kinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is LIMK1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for LIMK2 Gene

  • Displays serine/threonine-specific phosphorylation of myelin basic protein and histone (MBP) in vitro.

Tocris Summary for LIMK2 Gene

  • LIM kinases (LIMKs), EC, are dual specificity kinases (serine/threonine and tyrosine), which phosphorylate and inactivate cofilin (a key regulator of actin cytoskeleton dynamics). There are two isoforms of LIMK: LIMK1 and LIMK2.

Gene Wiki entry for LIMK2 Gene

Additional gene information for LIMK2 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for LIMK2 Gene

Genomics for LIMK2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for LIMK2 Gene

Enhancers for LIMK2 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH22H031214 1.9 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 46.9 +7.3 7292 9.7 HDGF FOXA2 ARID4B FEZF1 DMAP1 YY1 ATF7 RUNX3 SP5 REST LIMK2 PLA2G3 RNF185 SFI1 ENSG00000214125 PIK3IP1 EIF4ENIF1 GC22M031223 RNU6-1128P
GH22H031226 2 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 30.2 +18.2 18170 7.3 HDGF ATF1 FOXA2 MLX ARNT ARID4B YY1 TCF12 ZNF121 ZNF766 LIMK2 RNF185 SFI1 SELENOM INPP5J LINC01521 PATZ1 PIK3IP1 SMTN GC22M031231
GH22H031209 1.6 FANTOM5 ENCODE dbSUPER 28.2 -0.6 -625 4.3 HDGF PKNOX1 FOXA2 MLX ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 YY1 SLC30A9 LIMK2 RNF185 ENSG00000214125 PLA2G3 PIK3IP1 SMTN RNF185-AS1
GH22H031247 1.8 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 18.8 +39.0 39026 8.5 HDGF PKNOX1 MLX ARID4B SIN3A RARA ZNF366 ATF7 THAP11 SP3 LIMK2 SFI1 RNU6-1128P RNF185 PIK3IP1 MORC2 GC22P031249 PPP1R14BP1
GH22H031234 1.3 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 20.2 +23.1 23143 1.6 ETV1 MAX NR2F2 LIMK2 RNF185 INPP5J SELENOM LINC01521 PATZ1 SFI1 SMTN GC22M031231 ENSG00000202019
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around LIMK2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for LIMK2 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00000145332 461 1401 HDGF PKNOX1 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF143 DEK SP3

Genomic Locations for LIMK2 Gene

Genomic Locations for LIMK2 Gene
67,842 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for LIMK2 Gene

Genes around LIMK2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
LIMK2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for LIMK2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for LIMK2 Gene

Proteins for LIMK2 Gene

  • Protein details for LIMK2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    LIM domain kinase 2
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K6H5
    • Q7KZ80
    • Q7L3H5
    • Q96E10
    • Q99464
    • Q9UFU0

    Protein attributes for LIMK2 Gene

    638 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    72232 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Binds ROCK1 and MARF1 (Ref.9, PubMed:11018042, PubMed:10436159). Interacts with PARD3. Interacts with NISCH (By similarity).
    • Sequence=AAB54055.1; Type=Erroneous gene model prediction; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for LIMK2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for LIMK2 Gene


neXtProt entry for LIMK2 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for LIMK2 Gene


Post-translational modifications for LIMK2 Gene

  • Phosphorylated on serine and/or threonine residues by ROCK1.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for LIMK2 Gene

Domains & Families for LIMK2 Gene

Gene Families for LIMK2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for LIMK2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. TKL Ser/Thr protein kinase family.
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. TKL Ser/Thr protein kinase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with LIMK2: view

Function for LIMK2 Gene

Molecular function for LIMK2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
LIM motif containing protein kinase 2,cytosolic,alternatively spliced in two isoforms LIMK2A and LIMK2B differentially regulated in a tissue specific manner
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Displays serine/threonine-specific phosphorylation of myelin basic protein and histone (MBP) in vitro.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for LIMK2 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for LIMK2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for LIMK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004672 protein kinase activity IEA --
GO:0004674 protein serine/threonine kinase activity TAS 8537403
GO:0004871 signal transducer activity IBA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 22939624
GO:0005524 ATP binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LIMK2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with LIMK2: view

Animal Models for LIMK2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for LIMK2:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for LIMK2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target LIMK2

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for LIMK2

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for LIMK2 Gene

Localization for LIMK2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for LIMK2 Gene

Isoform LIMK2a: Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Note=Isoform LIMK2a is distributed in the cytoplasm and the nucleus.
Isoform LIMK2b: Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Note=Isoform LIMK2b occurs mainly in the cytoplasm and is scarcely translocated to the nucleus.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for LIMK2 gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 5
cytosol 3
cytoskeleton 2

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Cytosol (3)
  • Nucleoplasm (3)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for LIMK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus TAS 8954941
GO:0005737 cytoplasm TAS 8537403
GO:0005801 cis-Golgi network IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LIMK2: view

Pathways & Interactions for LIMK2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with LIMK2: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for LIMK2 Gene

Is activated by:
Is inactivated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for LIMK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006468 protein phosphorylation IEA --
GO:0007283 spermatogenesis IEA --
GO:0016310 phosphorylation TAS 8537403
GO:0035556 intracellular signal transduction IBA --
GO:0042325 regulation of phosphorylation IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LIMK2: view

Drugs & Compounds for LIMK2 Gene

(5) Drugs for LIMK2 Gene - From: ApexBio, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
LIMKi 3 Pharma LIMK2 inhibitor 0
ATP Nutra Agonist 0

(4) Additional Compounds for LIMK2 Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • Adenosindiphosphorsaeure
  • Adenosine 5'-pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine diphosphate
  • Adenosine pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine-5'-diphosphate
Full agonist, Agonist 58-64-0

(3) Tocris Compounds for LIMK2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
LIMKi 3 Potent LIM kinase inhibitor; antitumor 1338247-35-0
SR 7826 Potent and selective LIMK inhibitor; antitumor 1219728-20-7
T 5601640 Selective LIMK2 inhibitor; antitumor 924473-59-6

(1) ApexBio Compounds for LIMK2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
LIMKi 3 LIMK2 inhibitor 1338247-35-0
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with LIMK2: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for LIMK2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for LIMK2 Gene

LIM domain kinase 2:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for LIMK2

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for LIMK2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4a · 4b · 4c ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9a · 9b · 9c ^ 10 ^ 11a · 11b ^ 12 ^ 13 ^
SP1: - - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP3: -
SP5: - - - - - - -
SP6: - - -
SP8: - - - - - - - - -
SP9: - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP10: - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP11: - - -

ExUns: 14a · 14b · 14c ^ 15a · 15b ^ 16a · 16b ^ 17 ^ 18a · 18b
SP1: - - -
SP2: - - -
SP3: -
SP4: - -

Relevant External Links for LIMK2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for LIMK2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for LIMK2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for LIMK2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (x11.5).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for LIMK2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Pancreatic juice (42.2), Placenta (12.6), and Heart (11.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for LIMK2 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for LIMK2 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of LIMK2 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for LIMK2 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for LIMK2 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Highest expression in the placenta; moderate level in liver, lung, kidney, and pancreas. LIMK2a is found to be more abundant then LIMK2b in liver, colon, stomach, and spleen, while in brain, kidney, and placenta LIMK2b is the dominant form. In adult lung, both LIMK2a and LIMK2b is nearly equally observed.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for LIMK2 Gene

  • Lung(4.5)
  • Nervous system(4.4)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with LIMK2: view

No data available for Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for LIMK2 Gene

Orthologs for LIMK2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for LIMK2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia LIMK2 33 34
  • 99.27 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia LIMK2 33 34
  • 91.95 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia LIMK2 33 34
  • 90.13 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Limk2 33
  • 88.51 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Limk2 33 16 34
  • 88.35 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia LIMK2 34
  • 86 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia LIMK2 34
  • 81 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves LIMK2 33 34
  • 79.47 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 34
  • 35 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia limk2 33
  • 65.23 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii limk2 33 34
  • 68.13 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta LIMK1 34
  • 21 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea K09B11.5 34
  • 17 (a)
kin-21 34
  • 17 (a)
Y52D5A.2 34
  • 17 (a)
T25B9.5 34
  • 16 (a)
Y69E1A.3 34
  • 16 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 41 (a)
Species where no ortholog for LIMK2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for LIMK2 Gene

Gene Tree for LIMK2 (if available)
Gene Tree for LIMK2 (if available)

Paralogs for LIMK2 Gene

Paralogs for LIMK2 Gene Pseudogenes for LIMK2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with LIMK2: view

Variants for LIMK2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for LIMK2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 22 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1000015860 -- 31,212,744(+) GGGAC(C/T)TGGCG intron-variant
rs1000068151 -- 31,212,454(+) TCCCG(C/G)TGTTA intron-variant
rs1000084059 -- 31,271,243(+) CTATC(C/G)TTCCT intron-variant
rs1000139953 -- 31,264,502(+) ACCAT(A/G)ACTAT intron-variant
rs1000151162 -- 31,218,941(+) TCTCA(A/G)TGCTT intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for LIMK2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv962787 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv588893 CNV loss 21841781
nsv459871 CNV loss 19166990
nsv1125754 CNV tandem duplication 24896259
nsv1110864 OTHER inversion 24896259
esv3436353 CNV duplication 20981092
esv2543296 CNV insertion 19546169

Variation tolerance for LIMK2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 13.1% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 5.49; 71.73% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for LIMK2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for LIMK2 Gene

Disorders for LIMK2 Gene

Relevant External Links for LIMK2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:

No disorders were found for LIMK2 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for LIMK2 Gene

Publications for LIMK2 Gene

  1. Identification and characterization of a novel family of serine/threonine kinases containing two N-terminal LIM motifs. (PMID: 8537403) Okano I … Mizuno K (The Journal of biological chemistry 1995) 2 3 4 22 60
  2. Specific activation of LIM kinase 2 via phosphorylation of threonine 505 by ROCK, a Rho-dependent protein kinase. (PMID: 11018042) Sumi T … Nakamura T (The Journal of biological chemistry 2001) 3 4 22 60
  3. Activation of LIM kinases by myotonic dystrophy kinase-related Cdc42-binding kinase alpha. (PMID: 11340065) Sumi T … Nakamura T (The Journal of biological chemistry 2001) 3 4 22 60
  4. The DNA sequence of human chromosome 22. (PMID: 10591208) Dunham I … O'Brien KP (Nature 1999) 2 3 4 60
  5. A genome-wide association study for diabetic nephropathy genes in African Americans. (PMID: 21150874) McDonough CW … Bowden DW (Kidney international 2011) 3 45 60

Products for LIMK2 Gene

Sources for LIMK2 Gene

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