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LIMK2 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 70
GCID: GC22P031608

LIM Domain Kinase 2

  Search for LIMK2
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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This gene clusters with an RNA gene
Subcategory (RNA class): lncRNA

Quality score for the ORGUL clustered with this gene is 3

Aliases
LIM Domain Kinase 21 2
EC 2.7.11.13 8
LIMK-23

External Ids:    HGNC: 66141   Entrez Gene: 39852   Ensembl: ENSG000001825417   OMIM: 6019885   UniProtKB: P536713   
ORGUL members:         

Export aliases for LIMK2 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC22P028304 GC22P029932 GC22P014569


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for LIMK2 Gene:
There are approximately 40 known eukaryotic LIM proteins, so named for the LIM domains they contain. LIM domains
are highly conserved cysteine-rich structures containing 2 zinc fingers. Although zinc fingers usually function
by binding to DNA or RNA, the LIM motif probably mediates protein-protein interactions. LIM kinase-1 and LIM
kinase-2 belong to a small subfamily with a unique combination of 2 N-terminal LIM motifs and a C-terminal
protein kinase domain. The protein encoded by this gene is phosphorylated and activated by ROCK, a downstream
effector of Rho, and the encoded protein, in turn, phosphorylates cofilin, inhibiting its actin-depolymerizing
activity. It is thought that this pathway contributes to Rho-induced reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. At
least three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. (provided by RefSeq,
Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for LIMK2 Gene:
LIMK2 (LIM domain kinase 2) is a protein-coding gene. GO annotations related to this gene include protein serine/threonine kinase activity and protein heterodimerization activity. An important paralog of this gene is TESK2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: LIMK2_HUMAN, P53671
Function: Displays serine/threonine-specific phosphorylation of myelin basic protein and histone (MBP) in vitro

Gene Wiki entry for LIMK2 Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000022.10  NC_018933.2  NT_011520.13  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the LIMK2 gene promoter:
         Max1   Pax-6   Tal-1beta   LCR-F1   NF-AT   E47   HEN1   NF-AT2   NF-AT1   c-Myc   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids (see all 2): LIMK2 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for LIMK2

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat LIMK2


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 22q12.2   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  22q12.2   HGNC cytogenetic band: 22q12

LIMK2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
LIMK2 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 22         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC22P031608:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
31,608,225 bp from pter      End:
31,676,066 bp from pter
Size:
67,842 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: LIMK2_HUMAN, P53671 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: LIM domain kinase 2  
Size: 638 amino acids; 72232 Da
Subunit: Binds ROCK1 and LKAP. Interacts with PARD3. Interacts with NISCH (By similarity)
Sequence caution: Sequence=AAB54055.1; Type=Erroneous gene model prediction;
1 PDB 3D structure from and Proteopedia for LIMK2:
1X6A (3D)    
Secondary accessions: A8K6H5 Q7KZ80 Q7L3H5 Q96E10 Q99464 Q9UFU0
Alternative splicing: 3 isoforms:  P53671-1   P53671-2   P53671-3   (No experimental confirmation available)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for LIMK2: NX_P53671

Explore proteomics data for LIMK2 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Phosphorylated on serine and/or threonine residues by ROCK11
  • Ubiquitination2 at Lys653
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Selected DME Specific Peptides for LIMK2 (P53671) (see all 13)
     IIHRDLN  KYHPECF  DRILEING  GMAYLHSM 


    See LIMK2 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (3 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001026971.1  NP_005560.1  NP_057952.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000384602   ENSP00000332687   ENSP00000388422   ENSP00000330470   ENSP00000339916  
     ENSP00000409522  
    Reactome Protein details: P53671

    LIMK2 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    Novus Biologicals LIMK2 Proteins
    Novus Biologicals LIMK2 Lysates
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    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for LIMK2

     
    Search eBioscience for Proteins for LIMK2 

    LIMK2 Antibody Products:

    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of LIMK2
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    Search eBioscience for ELISAs for LIMK2 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    IUPHAR Guide to PHARMACOLOGY protein family classification: LIM domain kinase 2
    LIMK subfamily

    Selected InterPro protein domains (see all 6):
     IPR017441 Protein_kinase_ATP_BS
     IPR001478 PDZ
     IPR001245 Ser-Thr/Tyr_kinase_cat_dom
     IPR011009 Kinase-like_dom
     IPR001781 Znf_LIM

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P53671

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P53671

    2 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB001478 PDZ/DHR/GLGF domain
    IPB001781 Zn-binding protein


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: LIMK2_HUMAN, P53671
    Similarity: Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. TKL Ser/Thr protein kinase family
    Similarity: Contains 2 LIM zinc-binding domains
    Similarity: Contains 1 PDZ (DHR) domain
    Similarity: Contains 1 protein kinase domain


    Find genes that share domains with LIMK2           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: LIMK2_HUMAN, P53671
    Function: Displays serine/threonine-specific phosphorylation of myelin basic protein and histone (MBP) in vitro
    Catalytic activity: ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for LIMK2:
    LIM motif containing protein kinase 2,cytosolic,alternatively spliced in two isoforms LIMK2A and LIMK2B
    differentially regulated in a tissue specific manner

         Enzyme Number (IUBMB): EC 2.7.11.11 2

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 9):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0004672protein kinase activity ----
    GO:0004674protein serine/threonine kinase activity TAS8537403
    GO:0004713protein tyrosine kinase activity ----
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI--
    GO:0005524ATP binding IEA--
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with LIMK2           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         3 GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for LIMK2:
     Decreased nuclei size in G2M  Decreased substrate adherent c  Increased HPV18 LCR reporter a 

         12 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 4 alleles(MGI details for Limk2):
     behavior/neurological  cardiovascular system  cellular  endocrine/exocrine gland  hematopoietic system 
     immune system  limbs/digits/tail  no phenotypic analysis  renal/urinary system  reproductive system 
     skeleton  vision/eye 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with LIMK2           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-out Limk2tm1.1Tnak for LIMK2

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for LIMK2
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for LIMK2

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for LIMK2
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for LIMK2

    miRNA
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    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate LIMK2 (see all 33):
    hsa-let-7d hsa-miR-513a-5p hsa-miR-1273d hsa-let-7g hsa-miR-649 hsa-let-7a hsa-miR-23a hsa-miR-761
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidLIMK2 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for LIMK2
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat LIMK2

    Gene Editing
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    Clone
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 3): LIMK2 (NM_005569)
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    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat LIMK2
    Addgene plasmids for LIMK2 

    Cell Line
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for LIMK2


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    LIMK2_HUMAN, P53671: Isoform LIMK2a: Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Note=Isoform LIMK2a is distributed in the cytoplasm and
    the nucleus
    LIMK2_HUMAN, P53671: Isoform LIMK2b: Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Note=Isoform LIMK2b occurs mainly in the cytoplasm and
    is scarcely translocated to the nucleus
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    nucleus5
    cytosol3
    cytoskeleton2

    Gene Ontology (GO): 4 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005634nucleus TAS8954941
    GO:0005737cytoplasm TAS8537403
    GO:0005801cis-Golgi network IEA--
    GO:0016020membrane ----

    Find genes that share ontologies with LIMK2           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for LIMK2 About   (see all 23)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Semaphorin interactions
    Sema4D in semaphorin signaling0.90
    Semaphorin interactions0.43
    Sema4D induced cell migration and growth-cone collapse0.90
    2Actin Nucleation by ARP-WASP Complex
    Actin Nucleation and Branching0.66
    RhoA Pathway0.35
    CDC42 Pathway0.41
    3Cell adhesion Integrin mediated cell adhesion and migration
    Cell adhesion Integrin mediated cell adhesion and migration0.49
    Cytoskeleton remodeling Fibronectin binding integrins in cell motility0.32
    Cytoskeleton remodeling Regulation of actin cytoskeleton by Rho GTPases0.49
    4L1CAM interactions
    Axon guidance0.63
    Developmental Biology0.63
    5Apoptotic Pathways in Synovial Fibroblasts
    Rac1 Pathway0.65
    Actin-Based Motility by Rho Family GTPases0.62


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with LIMK2           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    Selected Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for LIMK2 (see all 14)
        RhoA Pathway
    Actin-Based Motility by Rho Family GTPases
    Guidance Cues and Growth Cone Motility
    Internalin Pathway
    Semaphorin Signaling

    1 Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Pathway for LIMK2
        Cytoskeletal Signaling

    Selected GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathways for LIMK2 (see all 6)
        Neurophysiological process Receptor-mediated axon growth repulsion
    Cell adhesion Integrin-mediated cell adhesion and migration
    Cytoskeleton remodeling Regulation of actin cytoskeleton by Rho GTPases
    Cytoskeleton remodeling CDC42 in cellular processes
    Immune response CCR3 signaling in eosinophils

    3 BioSystems Pathways for LIMK2
        Androgen receptor signaling pathway
    CDC42 signaling events
    RhoA signaling pathway


    1 Reactome Pathway for LIMK2
        Sema4D induced cell migration and growth-cone collapse


    3 Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for LIMK2):
        Axon guidance
    Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis
    Regulation of actin cytoskeleton

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Array including LIMK2: 
              Cytoskeleton Regulators in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for LIMK2

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 19)

    Selected Interacting proteins for LIMK2 (P536711, 2, 3 ENSP000003399164) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 22)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    PARD3Q8TEW02, 3, ENSP000003639214MINT-3380769 I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000363921
    HIPK3Q9H4222, 3MINT-61744 I2D: score=2 
    CFL1P235283, ENSP000003096294I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000309629
    LIMK1P536673, ENSP000003367404I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000336740
    CDC42BPAQ5VT253, ENSP000003557314I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000355731
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5 biological process terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006468protein phosphorylation ----
    GO:0007283spermatogenesis IEA--
    GO:0009103lipopolysaccharide biosynthetic process ----
    GO:0016310phosphorylation TAS8537403
    GO:0042325regulation of phosphorylation ----

    Find genes that share ontologies with LIMK2           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for LIMK2

    2 HMDB Compounds for LIMK2    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    ADPadenosindiphosphorsaeure (see all 8)58-64-0--
    Adenosine triphosphate5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate) Adenosine (see all 24)56-65-5--

    4 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for LIMK2 gene    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    leptomycin b 62.6 3 15923181 (1), 16820362 (1)
    threonine 43.9 3 18000399 (1), 8537403 (1), 9089416 (1)
    serine 30.1 3 18000399 (1), 8537403 (1), 9089416 (1)
    tyrosine 0 2 9089416 (1)



    Find genes that share compounds with LIMK2           About GenesLikeMe



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for LIMK2 gene (3 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001031801.1  NM_005569.3  NM_016733.2  

    Unigene Cluster for LIMK2:

    LIM domain kinase 2
    Hs.474596  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_016733
    10 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000462625 ENST00000406516 ENST00000331728(uc003akh.3 uc003aki.3)
    ENST00000425203 ENST00000333611(uc003akk.3 uc011aln.2) ENST00000340552(uc003akj.3)
    ENST00000465937 ENST00000482270 ENST00000467301 ENST00000444929
    miRNA
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    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate LIMK2 (see all 33):
    hsa-let-7d hsa-miR-513a-5p hsa-miR-1273d hsa-let-7g hsa-miR-649 hsa-let-7a hsa-miR-23a hsa-miR-761
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    Addgene plasmids for LIMK2 
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      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat LIMK2

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AB451269.1 AB451396.1 AK092838.1 AK093554.1 AK291640.1 AK293774.1 AK299112.1 AK302553.1 
    AK314391.1 AL117466.1 BC013051.1 CR456513.1 D45906.1 D85527.1 

    Selected DOTS entries (see all 32):

    DT.95270024  DT.95270027  DT.100815849  DT.100815843  DT.452864  DT.100815850  DT.120673574  DT.100815855 
    DT.120673583  DT.97864995  DT.40195147  DT.100698470  DT.91658352  DT.100705713  DT.100763362  DT.100815853 
    DT.102843229  DT.120673496  DT.92439138  DT.95362316  DT.97768439  DT.100042112  DT.100703519  DT.100815854 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 710):

    BQ882463 AI968407 BQ918881 AI582302 AI479333 AI244632 BX458776 BQ933184 
    BM545104 BQ050192 AI969799 BX339081 BU632685 CR456513 BX410566 AA353025 
    AI801077 AI699545 BC033166 CB157798 BM929441 BF724908 BE501316 BQ677938 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    Selected Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for LIMK2 (see all 15)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4a · 4b · 4c ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9a · 9b · 9c ^ 10 ^ 11a · 11b ^ 12 ^ 13 ^
    SP1:                                -     -     -           -     -     -                                                                                       
    SP2:                                -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -                                                   
    SP3:                                                                                                                                                  -         
    SP4:                                                                                                                                                            
    SP5:                          -     -     -     -           -     -     -                                                                                       

    ExUns: 14a · 14b · 14c ^ 15a · 15b ^ 16a · 16b ^ 17 ^ 18a · 18b
    SP1:  -                                   -     -               
    SP2:  -                                   -     -               
    SP3:  -                                                         
    SP4:  -                                   -                     
    SP5:                                                            


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for LIMK2

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    LIMK2 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: --
    LIMK2 Expression
    About this image


    LIMK2 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 9) fully expand
     
     Blood (Hematopoietic System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             Granulocytes Peripheral Blood
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             Cerebral Cortex
     
     Trophoblast (Extraembryonic Tissues)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Trophoblast Cells Trophoblast
     
     Bone (Muscoskeletal System)
             Bone Marrow
     
     Eye (Sensory Organs)
             Cholinergic Amacrine Cells Inner Nuclear Layer
    LIMK2 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    LIMK2 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.474596

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: LIMK2_HUMAN, P53671
    Tissue specificity: Highest expression in the placenta; moderate level in liver, lung, kidney, and pancreas.
    LIMK2a is found to be more abundant then LIMK2b in liver, colon, stomach, and spleen, while in brain, kidney, and
    placenta LIMK2b is the dominant form. In adult lung, both LIMK2a and LIMK2b is nearly equally observed

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Array including LIMK2: 
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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

    Orthologs for LIMK2 gene from Selected species (see all 15)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Limk21 , 5 LIM motif-containing protein kinase 21, 5 88.35(n)1
    93.1(a)1
      11 (2.34 cM)5
    168861  NM_010718.41  NP_034848.11 
     33442565 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves LIMK21 LIM domain kinase 2 79.47(n)
    86.52(a)
      396010  NM_205115.1  NP_990446.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia --
    Uncharacterized protein
    35(a)
    many ↔ many
    GL344151.1(43316-68492)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia AB038517.12   -- 77.94(n)    AB038517.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii limk21 LIM domain kinase 2 68.13(n)
    69.64(a)
      436924  NM_001002651.1  NP_001002651.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta LIMK16
    LIM-kinase1
    21(a)
    1 → many
    X(12478418-12486226)
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea kin-216
    Y52D5A.26
    (see all 5)
    Protein Y52D5A.2 (Y52D5A.2) mRNA, complete cds
    (see all 5)
    17(a)
    17(a)
    (see all 5)
    many ↔ many
    many ↔ many
    (see all 5)
    IV(9832935-9834822) WBGene00002204
    IV(5462501-5464275) WBGene00021793


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for LIMK2 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for LIMK2 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for LIMK2 gene
    TESK22  TESK12  LIMK12  
    9 SIMAP similar genes for LIMK2 using alignment to 7 protein entries:     LIMK2_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    PPP1R14B    PPP1R14C    LIMK1    PPP1R14D    PPP1R14A    TESK2
    DKFZp686M05208    ABLIM1    PDLIM5

    Find genes that share paralogs with LIMK2           About GenesLikeMe


    1 Pseudogenes.org Pseudogene for LIMK2
    PGOHUM00000241188


    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for LIMK2 (see all 1364)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 22 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1996477731,2
    C--14571080(+) GGCCCA/CCCTCT 1 -- int10--------
    rs666414911,2
    C--14585677(+) CGTGC-/GTGT  
            
    GTGTG
    1 -- int10--------
    rs113179311,2
    C--14604334(+) GACTC-/AAAAAA 3 -- int1 us2k1 trp30--------
    rs665832671,2
    C--14604806(+) TTCCT-/CC    
       AGCAG
    CCTTG
    3 -- int1 us2k10--------
    rs339294111,2
    C--14610119(+) AAAAAA/-GTTGA 3 -- int11Minor allele frequency- -:0.00NA 2
    rs1463273401,2
    C--15528956(+) TTGAA-/ACTC  
            
    AGTTG
    1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1496969181,2
    --15529134(+) GAGTCA/GCCTGA 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1467174291,2
    --15529267(+) CTGGGA/TGCCTT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1392852711,2
    C--15529314(+) GTTTTA/GGTTCC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1441163701,2
    --15529459(+) TAATTC/GAATAC 1 -- us2k10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for LIMK2 (31608225 - 31676066 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 2 variations for LIMK2:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2543296CNV Insertion19546169
    nsv459871CNV Loss19166990

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing LIMK2
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for LIMK2

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 601988    OMIM disorders: --


    Find genes that share disorders with LIMK2           About GenesLikeMe

    4 Novoseek inferred disease relationships for LIMK2 gene    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    williams syndrome 54.9 1 9089416 (1)
    metastasis 0 1 17188549 (1)
    tumors 0 1 19881550 (1)
    cancer 0 1 17188549 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): LIMK2
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: LIMK2 (4 documents)

    Export disorders for LIMK2 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for LIMK2 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 75):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with LIMK2)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Identification and characterization of a novel family of serine/threonine kinases containing two N-terminal LIM motifs. (PubMed id 8537403)1, 2, 3, 9 Okano I.... Mizuno K. (J. Biol. Chem. 1995)
    2. The DNA sequence of human chromosome 22. (PubMed id 10591208)1, 2, 3 Dunham I.... Wright H. (Nature 1999)
    3. Specific activation of LIM kinase 2 via phosphorylation of threonine 505 by ROCK, a Rho-dependent protein kinase. (PubMed id 11018042)1, 2, 9 Sumi T.... Nakamura T. (J. Biol. Chem. 2001)
    4. Activation of LIM kinases by myotonic dystrophy kinase-related Cdc42- binding kinase alpha. (PubMed id 11340065)1, 2, 9 Sumi T.... Nakamura T. (J. Biol. Chem. 2001)
    5. A genome-wide association study for diabetic nephropathy genes in African Americans. (PubMed id 21150874)1, 4 McDonough C.W....Bowden D.W. (Kidney Int. 2011)
    6. Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score. (PubMed id 20379614)1, 4 Rose J.E....Uhl G.R. (Mol. Med. 2010)
    7. Identification of potentially damaging amino acid substitutions leading to human male infertility. (PubMed id 19369647)1, 4 Kuzmin A....Varmuza S. (Biol. Reprod. 2009)
    8. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PubMed id 14702039)1, 2 Ota T.... Sugano S. (Nat. Genet. 2004)
    9. A genome annotation-driven approach to cloning the human ORFeome. (PubMed id 15461802)1, 2 Collins J.E.... Dunham I. (Genome Biol. 2004)
    10. Towards a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs. (PubMed id 11230166)1, 2 Wiemann S.... Poustka A. (Genome Res. 2001)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 3985 HGNC: 6614 AceView: LIMK2 Ensembl:ENSG00000182541 euGenes: HUgn3985
    ECgene: LIMK2 Kegg: 3985 H-InvDB: LIMK2

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for LIMK2 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for LIMK2 Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for LIMK2 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving LIMK2

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, eBioscience, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Animal models from inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway)
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