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LIMK1 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 70
GCID: GC07P073497

LIM Domain Kinase 1

  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
LIM Domain Kinase 11 2
LIMK2 3
LIMK-12 3
EC 2.7.11.13 8
LIM Motif-Containing Protein Kinase2

External Ids:    HGNC: 66131   Entrez Gene: 39842   Ensembl: ENSG000001066837   OMIM: 6013295   UniProtKB: P536673   

Export aliases for LIMK1 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC07P072138 GC07P072896 GC07P072910 GC07P072942 GC07P073136 GC07P069382


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for LIMK1 Gene:
There are approximately 40 known eukaryotic LIM proteins, so named for the LIM domains they contain. LIM domains
are highly conserved cysteine-rich structures containing 2 zinc fingers. Although zinc fingers usually function
by binding to DNA or RNA, the LIM motif probably mediates protein-protein interactions. LIM kinase-1 and LIM
kinase-2 belong to a small subfamily with a unique combination of 2 N-terminal LIM motifs and a C-terminal
protein kinase domain. LIMK1 is a serine/threonine kinase that regulates actin polymerization via phosphorylation
and inactivation of the actin binding factor cofilin. This protein is ubiquitously expressed during development
and plays a role in many cellular processes associated with cytoskeletal structure. This protein also stimulates
axon growth and may play a role in brain development. LIMK1 hemizygosity is implicated in the impaired
visuospatial constructive cognition of Williams syndrome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript
variants encoding distinct isoforms.(provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011)

GeneCards Summary for LIMK1 Gene:
LIMK1 (LIM domain kinase 1) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with LIMK1 include intracranial aneurysm, and supravalvular aortic stenosis. GO annotations related to this gene include protein kinase activity and protein heterodimerization activity. An important paralog of this gene is LIMK2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: LIMK1_HUMAN, P53667
Function: Serine/threonine-protein kinase that plays an essential role in the regulation of actin filament
dynamics. Acts downstream of several Rho family GTPase signal transduction pathways. Activated by upstream
kinases including ROCK1, PAK1 and PAK4, which phosphorylate LIMK1 on a threonine residue located in its
activation loop. LIMK1 subsequently phosphorylates and inactivates the actin binding/depolymerizing factors
cofilin-1/CFL1, cofilin-2/CFL2 and destrin/DSTN, thereby preventing the cleavage of filamentous actin (F-actin),
and stabilizing the actin cytoskeleton. In this way LIMK1 regulates several actin-dependent biological processes
including cell motility, cell cycle progression, and differentiation. Phosphorylates TPPP on serine residues,
thereby promoting microtubule disassembly. Stimulates axonal outgrowth and may be involved in brain development.
Isoform 3 has a dominant negative effect on actin cytoskeletal changes. Required for atypical chemokine receptor
ACKR2-induced phosphorylation of cofilin (CFL1)

Gene Wiki entry for LIMK1 Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000007.14  NC_018918.2  NT_007933.16  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the LIMK1 gene promoter:
         CREB   SRF   deltaCREB   SRF (504 AA)   STAT3   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidLIMK1 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for LIMK1

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat LIMK1


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 7q11.23   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  7q11.23   HGNC cytogenetic band: 7q11.23

LIMK1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
LIMK1 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 7         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC07P073497:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
73,497,263 bp from pter      End:
73,536,855 bp from pter
Size:
39,593 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

1 alternative location:
Chr7+,CRA_TCAG 72,831,179-72,869,927     

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: LIMK1_HUMAN, P53667 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: LIM domain kinase 1  
Size: 647 amino acids; 72585 Da
Subunit: Interacts (via LIM domain) with the cytoplasmic domain of NRG1 (By similarity). Interacts with NISCH (By
similarity). Interacts with RLIM and RNF6 (By similarity). Self-associates to form homodimers. Interacts with
HSP90AA1; this interaction promotes LIMK1 dimerization and subsequent transphosphorylation. Interacts with CDN1C.
Interacts with SSH1. Interacts with ROCK1
1 PDB 3D structure from and Proteopedia for LIMK1:
3S95 (3D)    
Secondary accessions: B7Z6I8 D3DXF4 D3DXF5 O15283 Q15820 Q15821 Q75MU3 Q9Y5Q1
Alternative splicing: 4 isoforms:  P53667-1   P53667-2   P53667-3   P53667-4   (No experimental confirmation available)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for LIMK1: NX_P53667

Explore proteomics data for LIMK1 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Autophosphorylated (By similarity). Phosphorylated on Thr-508 by ROCK1 and PAK1, resulting in activation.
    Phosphorylated by PAK4 which increases the ability of LIMK1 to phosphorylate cofilin. Phosphorylated at Ser-323
    by MAPKAPK2 during activation of VEGFA-induced signaling, which results in activation of LIMK1 and promotion of
    actin reorganization, cell migration, and tubule formation of endothelial cells. Dephosphorylated and inactivated
    by SSH1. Phosphorylated by CDC42BP1
  • Ubiquitinated. 'Lys-48'-linked polyubiquitination by RNF6 leads to proteasomal degradation through the 26S
    proteasome, modulating LIMK1 levels in the growth cone and its effect on axonal outgrowth. Also polyubiquitinated
    by RLIM (By similarity)1
  • Modification sites at neXtProt
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Selected DME Specific Peptides for LIMK1 (P53667) (see all 26)
     LLCCTWR  KYHPECF  IIHRDLN  TEYIKGG 


    See LIMK1 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001191355.1  NP_002305.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000409717   ENSP00000336740   ENSP00000414606   ENSP00000444452  
    Reactome Protein details: P53667

    LIMK1 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

    EMD Millipore Purified and/or Recombinant LIMK1 Protein
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    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for LIMK1
    OriGene MassSpec for LIMK1
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for LIMK1
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for LIMK1
    Novus Biologicals LIMK1 Proteins
    Novus Biologicals LIMK1 Lysates
    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for LIMK1

    LIMK1 Antibody Products:

    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of LIMK1
    Browse R&D Systems for Antibodies
    Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for LIMK1 
    OriGene Antibodies for LIMK1
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for LIMK1
    Novus Biologicals LIMK1 Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for LIMK1 (P53671, P53667)
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Antibodies for LIMK1
    ThermoFisher Antibody for LIMK1
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for LIMK1

    LIMK1 Assay Products:

    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
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    GenScript Custom Assay Services for LIMK1
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for LIMK1
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for LIMK1


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    IUPHAR Guide to PHARMACOLOGY protein family classification: LIM domain kinase 1
    LIMK subfamily

    Selected InterPro protein domains (see all 6):
     IPR017441 Protein_kinase_ATP_BS
     IPR001478 PDZ
     IPR001245 Ser-Thr/Tyr_kinase_cat_dom
     IPR011009 Kinase-like_dom
     IPR001781 Znf_LIM

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P53667

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P53667

    2 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB001478 PDZ/DHR/GLGF domain
    IPB001781 Zn-binding protein


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: LIMK1_HUMAN, P53667
    Similarity: Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. TKL Ser/Thr protein kinase family
    Similarity: Contains 2 LIM zinc-binding domains
    Similarity: Contains 1 PDZ (DHR) domain
    Similarity: Contains 1 protein kinase domain


    LIMK1 for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, and Vector BioLabs, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: LIMK1_HUMAN, P53667
    Function: Serine/threonine-protein kinase that plays an essential role in the regulation of actin filament
    dynamics. Acts downstream of several Rho family GTPase signal transduction pathways. Activated by upstream
    kinases including ROCK1, PAK1 and PAK4, which phosphorylate LIMK1 on a threonine residue located in its
    activation loop. LIMK1 subsequently phosphorylates and inactivates the actin binding/depolymerizing factors
    cofilin-1/CFL1, cofilin-2/CFL2 and destrin/DSTN, thereby preventing the cleavage of filamentous actin (F-actin),
    and stabilizing the actin cytoskeleton. In this way LIMK1 regulates several actin-dependent biological processes
    including cell motility, cell cycle progression, and differentiation. Phosphorylates TPPP on serine residues,
    thereby promoting microtubule disassembly. Stimulates axonal outgrowth and may be involved in brain development.
    Isoform 3 has a dominant negative effect on actin cytoskeletal changes. Required for atypical chemokine receptor
    ACKR2-induced phosphorylation of cofilin (CFL1)
    Catalytic activity: ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for LIMK1:
    LIM motif containing protein kinase 1,serine only protein kinase,cytosolic,highly expressed in neurons,regulating
    actin dynamics through phosphorylation of cofilin,which leads to accumulation of F-actin,deleted in Williams
    syndrome,claimed to be responsible for the cognitive defect of the syndrome,but contradictory evidence,see WBS1

         Enzyme Number (IUBMB): EC 2.7.11.11 2

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 10):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0004672protein kinase activity NAS8537403
    GO:0004674protein serine/threonine kinase activity TAS--
    GO:0004713protein tyrosine kinase activity ----
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI10559936
    GO:0005524ATP binding IEA--
         
    LIMK1 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         2 GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for LIMK1:
     Increased circadian period len  Increased mitotic index 

         3 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 3 alleles(MGI details for Limk1):
     behavior/neurological  nervous system  no phenotypic analysis 

    LIMK1 for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-out Limk1tm1Zpj for LIMK1

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for LIMK1
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for LIMK1

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for LIMK1
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for LIMK1

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target LIMK1:
    hsa-mir-106b-5p (MIRT020461), hsa-mir-346 (MIRT042722)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat LIMK1 using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate LIMK1 (see all 47):
    hsa-miR-4328 hsa-miR-429 hsa-miR-1224-3p hsa-miR-513a-5p hsa-miR-106a hsa-miR-128 hsa-miR-519a hsa-miR-4267
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidLIMK1 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for LIMK1
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat LIMK1

    Gene Editing
    Products:
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    Clone
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    OriGene clones in human, mouse for LIMK1 (see all 6)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for LIMK1
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 2): LIMK1 (NM_002314)
    Browse Sino Biological Human cDNA Clones
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for LIMK1
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat LIMK1

    Cell Line
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    Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for LIMK1 
    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for LIMK1


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    LIMK1_HUMAN, P53667: Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Note=Predominantly found in the cytoplasm
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    nucleus5
    cytosol4
    cytoskeleton3

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected cellular component terms (see all 7):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005634nucleus IDA--
    GO:0005730NOT nucleolus IDA--
    GO:0005737cytoplasm IDA--
    GO:0005829cytosol TAS--
    GO:0005925focal adhesion IEA--

    LIMK1 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for LIMK1 About   (see all 29)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Development Slit Robo signaling
    Development Slit Robo signaling0.92
    Neurophysiological process Receptor mediated axon growth repulsion0.41
    Cytoskeleton remodeling Slit Robo signaling0.92
    2Regulation of actin cytoskeleton
    Regulation of actin cytoskeleton0.57
    Regulation of Actin Cytoskeleton0.57
    3Semaphorin interactions
    Sema4D in semaphorin signaling0.90
    Semaphorin interactions0.43
    Sema4D induced cell migration and growth-cone collapse0.90
    Sema3A PAK dependent Axon repulsion0.00
    4Cell adhesion Integrin mediated cell adhesion and migration
    Cell adhesion Integrin mediated cell adhesion and migration0.49
    Development MAG dependent inhibition of neurite outgrowth0.46
    Cytoskeleton remodeling Regulation of actin cytoskeleton by Rho GTPases0.49
    Cytoskeleton remodeling Fibronectin binding integrins in cell motility0.32
    5Actin Nucleation by ARP-WASP Complex
    Actin Nucleation and Branching0.66
    RhoA Pathway0.35
    CDC42 Pathway0.41

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    Selected Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for LIMK1 (see all 14)
        RhoA Pathway
    Actin-Based Motility by Rho Family GTPases
    Guidance Cues and Growth Cone Motility
    Internalin Pathway
    Semaphorin Signaling

    1 Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Pathway for LIMK1
        Cytoskeletal Signaling

    Selected GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathways for LIMK1 (see all 10)
        Cytoskeleton remodeling CDC42 in cellular processes
    Cytoskeleton remodeling Role of PKA in cytoskeleton reorganisation
    Cytoskeleton remodeling Fibronectin-binding integrins in cell motility
    G-protein signaling G-Protein alpha-12 signaling pathway
    Neurophysiological process Receptor-mediated axon growth repulsion

    Selected BioSystems Pathways for LIMK1 (see all 8)
        G13 Signaling Pathway
    Regulation of Actin Cytoskeleton
    Caspase cascade in apoptosis
    CDC42 signaling events
    CXCR4-mediated signaling events

    3 Reactome Pathways for LIMK1
        Sema4D induced cell migration and growth-cone collapse
    Regulation of actin dynamics for phagocytic cup formation
    Sema3A PAK dependent Axon repulsion


    3 Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for LIMK1):
        Axon guidance
    Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis
    Regulation of actin cytoskeleton


    LIMK1 for pathways           About GeneDecksing

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including LIMK1: 
              Cytoskeleton Regulators in human mouse rat
              Cell Motility in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for LIMK1

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for LIMK1 (P536671, 2, 3 ENSP000003367404) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 59)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    SSH1Q8WYL51, 3, ENSP000003157134EBI-444403,EBI-1222387 I2D: score=4 STRING: ENSP00000315713
    PAK1Q131531, 3, ENSP000002785684EBI-444403,EBI-1307 I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000278568
    MAPKAPK2P491372, 3, ENSP000003560704MINT-2833388 I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000356070
    MMP14P502811, 3, ENSP000003082084EBI-444403,EBI-992788 I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000308208
    PRKACAP176122, 3, ENSP000003095914MINT-7228333 I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000309591
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 12):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006468protein phosphorylation IMP--
    GO:0007165signal transduction TAS10428028
    GO:0007266Rho protein signal transduction TAS10436159
    GO:0007399nervous system development TAS8689688
    GO:0007411axon guidance TAS--

    LIMK1 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for LIMK1

    2 HMDB Compounds for LIMK1    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    ADPadenosindiphosphorsaeure (see all 8)58-64-0--
    Adenosine triphosphate5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate) Adenosine (see all 24)56-65-5--

    6 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for LIMK1 gene    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    leptomycin b 62.1 1 10051454 (1)
    threonine 60.7 18 8537403 (2), 10512679 (1), 16641196 (1), 10051454 (1) (see all 16)
    serine 50 21 16641196 (2), 8537403 (2), 10512679 (1), 10051454 (1) (see all 17)
    nocodazole 27.5 1 15897190 (1)
    tyrosine 5.62 4 8183554 (1), 17607944 (1), 7478547 (1), 9915950 (1)
    zinc 1.13 2 8183554 (1), 8812460 (1)



    LIMK1 for compounds           About GeneDecksing



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for LIMK1 gene (3 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001204426.1  NM_002314.3  NM_016735.1  

    Unigene Cluster for LIMK1:

    LIM domain kinase 1
    Hs.647035  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_002314
    8 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000418310 ENST00000336180(uc003uaa.2 uc010lbl.2 uc003uab.3)
    ENST00000435201 ENST00000538333 ENST00000486361 ENST00000491052 ENST00000483414(uc003uac.1)
    ENST00000476792
    miRNA
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    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate LIMK1 (see all 47):
    hsa-miR-4328 hsa-miR-429 hsa-miR-1224-3p hsa-miR-513a-5p hsa-miR-106a hsa-miR-128 hsa-miR-519a hsa-miR-4267
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 2): LIMK1 (NM_002314)
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    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat LIMK1
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      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat LIMK1

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AK026544.1 AK290162.1 AK300382.1 D26309.1 

    14 DOTS entries:

    DT.413487  DT.75135298  DT.121102277  DT.100000274  DT.100693244  DT.86849351  DT.100751207  DT.121102264 
    DT.95275758  DT.100751206  DT.101959346  DT.92415716  DT.40214192  DT.97822434 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 114):

    BQ061327 BQ185164 BQ056643 NM_002314 BQ896940 CK431098 NM_016735 CF594115 
    BQ187976 BE674566 AL040089 BQ439916 BQ876497 CA489388 AF134379 AA078560 
    AK026544 BF516215 D26309 BG749070 AW015427 CA309213 CD614557 AV728747 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    Selected Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for LIMK1 (see all 9)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b · 5c ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10 ^ 11a · 11b · 11c ^ 12 ^ 13a · 13b ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16a · 16b ^ 17a ·
    SP1:                          -     -     -     -                                                                             -                 -           -   
    SP2:                          -     -     -     -                                               -                             -                 -           -   
    SP3:                                                                                                                                                            
    SP4:                                -     -     -                                                                                                               
    SP5:        -     -           -     -     -     -                                                                                                               

    ExUns: 17b ^ 18a · 18b ^ 19a · 19b · 19c
    SP1:                                    
    SP2:                                    
    SP3:                                    
    SP4:                                    
    SP5:                                    


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for LIMK1

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    LIMK1 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: ACTTAGGGAG
    LIMK1 Expression
    About this image


    LIMK1 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 2) fully expand
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 18 entries
             Thalamus
             Septum   
     
     Eye (Sensory Organs)
             Corneal Epithelium
    LIMK1 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    LIMK1 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.647035

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: LIMK1_HUMAN, P53667
    Tissue specificity: Highest expression in both adult and fetal nervous system. Detected ubiquitously throughout
    the different regions of adult brain, with highest levels in the cerebral cortex. Expressed to a lesser extent in
    heart and skeletal muscle

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including LIMK1: 
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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

    Orthologs for LIMK1 gene from Selected species (see all 17)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Limk11 , 5 LIM-domain containing, protein kinase1, 5 88(n)1
    95.21(a)1
      5 (74.73 cM)5
    168851  NM_010717.21  NP_034847.11 
     1346560395 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves LIMK11 LIM domain kinase 1 82.04(n)
    84.52(a)
      373922  NM_204131.1  NP_989462.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia LIMK16
    LIM domain kinase 1
    83(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    GL344042.1(35593-55931)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia xlimk12 xlimk1 protein 75.1(n)    AB001469.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii limk1a1 LIM domain kinase 1a 71.62(n)
    73.87(a)
      735292  NM_001042691.1  NP_001036156.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta LIMK11 LIM-kinase1 56.67(n)
    50.74(a)
      32207  NM_078584.3  NP_511139.2 
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea K09B11.56
    kin-216
    (see all 5)
    Protein KIN-21 (kin-21) mRNA, complete cds
    (see all 5)
    19(a)
    19(a)
    (see all 5)
    many ↔ many
    many ↔ many
    (see all 5)
    IV(13431242-13434068) WBGene00010712
    IV(9832935-9834822) WBGene00002204


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for LIMK1 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for LIMK1 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for LIMK1 gene
    LIMK22  TESK22  TESK12  
    16 SIMAP similar genes for LIMK1 using alignment to 4 protein entries:     LIMK1_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    LIMK2    LHx4    LHX3    CRIP1    LIMS1    CDC2
    LHX2    LMO4    CCRK    LMO3    LHX4    CRIP2
    DKFZp564L2416    MYO3A    LMO2    MET

    LIMK1 for paralogs           About GeneDecksing


    1 Pseudogenes.org Pseudogene for LIMK1
    PGOHUM00000234970


    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for LIMK1 (see all 884)    About this table    
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 7 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1922943981,2
    --72829255(+) ATTCCC/TCTCTC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1843561351,2
    --72829474(+) CTCACA/GCCTGT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1883978781,2
    --72829573(+) TCTATC/TAAAAA 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1812496791,2
    --72829660(+) AACCCA/GGGAGG 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1482506681,2
    C--72829732(+) CTCCA-/TTTCAA 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1835268971,2
    --72829847(+) GATTAC/TAGGTG 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1895729781,2
    --72830062(+) CTGTAA/CTATCA 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1820398471,2
    --72830248(+) GGTGAA/GTGCCC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1876341061,2
    --72830251(+) GAGTGA/CCCCCC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs64600711,2
    C,F,A,H--72830268(+) CAGACG/ATGCCT 1 -- us2k120Minor allele frequency- A:0.26NS EA NA CSA WA 2343

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for LIMK1 (73497263 - 73536855 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 7 variations for LIMK1:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv1010108CNV Deletion20482838
    esv1038833CNV Deletion17803354
    nsv888375CNV Loss21882294
    nsv366821CNV Loss16902084
    nsv888374CNV Loss21882294
    nsv831030CNV Gain17160897
    nsv464563CNV Gain19166990

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): LIMK1
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    Search QIAGEN SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing LIMK1
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    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section

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    OMIM gene information: 601329    OMIM disorders: --

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: LIMK1_HUMAN, P53667
  • Note=LIMK1 is located in the Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) critical region. WBS results from a
    hemizygous deletion of several genes on chromosome 7q11.23, thought to arise as a consequence of unequal crossing
    over between highly homologous low-copy repeat sequences flanking the deleted region

  • Selected diseases for LIMK1 (see all 28):    
    About MalaCards
    intracranial aneurysm    supravalvular aortic stenosis    williams-beuren syndrome    aortic valve stenosis
    mucoepidermoid carcinoma    myotonic dystrophy    intellectual disability    glioblastoma multiforme
    sinusitis    kidney disease    osteosarcoma    prostate cancer
    mental retardation    prostatitis    breast cancer    cerebritis
    hypertension    retinitis    pancreatic cancer    endotheliitis

    2 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for LIMK1:
    Williams-Beuren syndrome     Mucoepidermoid carcinoma

    LIMK1 for disorders           About GeneDecksing

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for LIMK1 gene (see all 12)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    williams syndrome 86.1 10 14745832 (3), 16216290 (2), 19662944 (1), 14684741 (1) (see all 7)
    aortic stenosis supravalvular 63.4 2 9637430 (1), 19568270 (1)
    cognitive deficit 28.1 2 16216290 (1)
    prostate cancer 23.3 11 12821664 (3), 15908432 (1), 18424072 (1), 12777619 (1)
    intracranial aneurysm 19.5 1 16611674 (1)
    breast cancer 13.4 12 16381000 (3), 16763828 (2), 18332102 (1), 17559677 (1) (see all 5)
    metastasis 12.1 10 16381000 (2), 16651380 (2), 17188549 (1), 17559677 (1) (see all 5)
    cancer 7.31 6 10224665 (1), 17188549 (1), 19778628 (1), 12777619 (1) (see all 6)
    carcinoma squamous cell 0 2 8537403 (1), 12655149 (1)
    chromosomal aberrations 0 1 17559677 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): LIMK1
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: LIMK1 (8 documents)

    Export disorders for LIMK1 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for LIMK1 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 183):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with LIMK1)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Identification of genes from a 500-kb region at 7q11.23 that is commonly deleted in Williams syndrome patients. (PubMed id 8812460)1, 2, 3, 9 Osborne L.R.... Tsui L.-C. (Genomics 1996)
    2. Rho-associated kinase ROCK activates LIM-kinase 1 by phosphorylation at threonine 508 within the activation loop. (PubMed id 10652353)1, 2, 9 Ohashi K.... Mizuno K. (J. Biol. Chem. 2000)
    3. MAPKAPK-2-mediated LIM-kinase activation is critical for VEGF-induced actin remodeling and cell migration. (PubMed id 16456544)1, 2, 9 Kobayashi M.... Mizuno K. (EMBO J. 2006)
    4. Identification of a human cDNA encoding a novel protein kinase with two repeats of the LIM/double zinc finger motif. (PubMed id 8183554)1, 2, 9 Mizuno K....Nakamura T. (Oncogene 1994)
    5. A haplotype spanning two genes, ELN and LIMK1, decreases their transcripts and confers susceptibility to intracranial aneurysms. (PubMed id 16611674)1, 4, 9 Akagawa H....Inoue I. (Hum. Mol. Genet. 2006)
    6. Cytoskeletal changes regulated by the PAK4 serine/threonine kinase are mediated by LIM kinase 1 and cofilin. (PubMed id 11413130)1, 2, 9 Dan C.... Minden A. (J. Biol. Chem. 2001)
    7. Interplay between components of a novel LIM kinase-slingshot phosphatase complex regulates cofilin. (PubMed id 15660133)1, 2, 9 Soosairajah J.... Bernard O. (EMBO J. 2005)
    8. Activation of LIM kinases by myotonic dystrophy kinase-related Cdc42- binding kinase alpha. (PubMed id 11340065)1, 2, 9 Sumi T.... Nakamura T. (J. Biol. Chem. 2001)
    9. Genetic factors for ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in Japanese individuals. (PubMed id 18566305)1, 4, 9 Yamada Y....Nozawa Y. ( a journal of cerebral circulation 2008)
    10. Systematic screening of lysyl oxidase-like (LOXL) family genes demonstrates that LOXL2 is a susceptibility gene to intracranial aneurysms. (PubMed id 17287949)1, 4, 9 Akagawa H....Inoue I. (Hum. Genet. 2007)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 3984 HGNC: 6613 AceView: LIMK1 Ensembl:ENSG00000106683 euGenes: HUgn3984
    ECgene: LIMK1 Kegg: 3984 H-InvDB: LIMK1

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for LIMK1 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for LIMK1 Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
    About This Section

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    Patent Information for LIMK1 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving LIMK1

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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