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Aliases for LGALS9 Gene

Aliases for LGALS9 Gene

  • Galectin 9 2 3 5
  • Lectin, Galactoside-Binding, Soluble, 9 2 3
  • Tumor Antigen HOM-HD-21 3 4
  • Ecalectin 3 4
  • Gal-9 3 4
  • Urate Transporter/Channel Protein 3
  • Galectin-9 3
  • LGALS9A 3
  • HUAT 3

External Ids for LGALS9 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for LGALS9 Gene

  • GC17P025814
  • GC17P027858
  • GC17P026103
  • GC17P026102
  • GC17P022980
  • GC17P025956
  • GC17P022165

Summaries for LGALS9 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for LGALS9 Gene

  • The galectins are a family of beta-galactoside-binding proteins implicated in modulating cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The protein encoded by this gene is an S-type lectin. It is overexpressed in Hodgkin's disease tissue and might participate in the interaction between the H&RS cells with their surrounding cells and might thus play a role in the pathogenesis of this disease and/or its associated immunodeficiency. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for LGALS9 Gene

LGALS9 (Galectin 9) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are RET signaling and Innate Immune System. GO annotations related to this gene include signal transducer activity and galactose binding. An important paralog of this gene is LGALS9B.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for LGALS9 Gene

  • Binds galactosides (PubMed:18005988). Has high affinity for the Forssman pentasaccharide (PubMed:18005988). Ligand for HAVCR2/TIM3 (PubMed:16286920). Binding to HAVCR2 induces T-helper type 1 lymphocyte (Th1) death (PubMed:16286920). Also stimulates bactericidal activity in infected macrophages by causing macrophage activation and IL1B secretion which restricts intracellular bacterial growth (By similarity). Ligand for P4HB; the interaction retains P4HB at the cell surface of Th2 T-helper cells, increasing disulfide reductase activity at the plasma membrane, altering the plasma membrane redox state and enhancing cell migration (PubMed:21670307). Ligand for CD44; the interaction enhances binding of SMAD3 to the FOXP3 promoter, leading to up-regulation of FOXP3 expression and increased induced regulatory T (iTreg) cell stability and suppressive function (By similarity). Promotes ability of mesenchymal stromal cells to suppress T-cell proliferation (PubMed:23817958). Expands regulatory T-cells and induces cytotoxic T-cell apoptosis following virus infection (PubMed:20209097). Activates ERK1/2 phosphorylation inducing cytokine (IL-6, IL-8, IL-12) and chemokine (CCL2) production in mast and dendritic cells (PubMed:24465902, PubMed:16116184). Inhibits degranulation and induces apoptosis of mast cells (PubMed:24465902). Induces maturation and migration of dendritic cells (PubMed:25754930, PubMed:16116184). Inhibits natural killer (NK) cell function (PubMed:23408620). Can transform NK cell phenotype from peripheral to decidual during pregnancy (PubMed:25578313). Astrocyte derived galectin-9 enhances microglial TNF production (By similarity). May play a role in thymocyte-epithelial interactions relevant to the biology of the thymus. May provide the molecular basis for urate flux across cell membranes, allowing urate that is formed during purine metabolism to efflux from cells and serving as an electrogenic transporter that plays an important role in renal and gastrointestinal urate excretion (By similarity). Highly selective to the anion urate (By similarity).

  • Isoform 2: Acts as an eosinophil chemoattractant (PubMed:9642261). It also inhibits angiogenesis (PubMed:24333696). Suppresses IFNG production by natural killer cells (By similarity).

Gene Wiki entry for LGALS9 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for LGALS9 Gene

Genomics for LGALS9 Gene

Regulatory Elements for LGALS9 Gene

Enhancers for LGALS9 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH17G027654 1.4 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 30.3 +25.1 25085 0.6 ELF3 ATF1 ARID4B ZNF48 ZBTB40 RAD21 CBX5 ELK1 ZNF143 THAP11 LGALS9 ENSG00000265788
GH17G027630 0.9 ENCODE 46.4 +3.7 3652 5.7 HDGF TBP PKNOX1 ZFP64 ZBTB40 ZNF207 IKZF2 SMAD5 CBFB ZNF426 LGALS9 SARM1 LYRM9 ENSG00000265788
GH17G027565 1.9 VISTA Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 18 -56.2 -56236 15.3 HDGF PKNOX1 ARNT ZFP64 WRNIP1 ARID4B DMAP1 ZBTB7B ZNF766 ZNF207 LGALS9 TMEM199 WSB1 PIR39350 PIR50901
GH17G027602 1.3 ENCODE dbSUPER 18.5 -26.3 -26336 2.9 HDGF PKNOX1 ATF1 ARNT TCF12 ZNF766 ELK1 GATA2 ZNF143 NCOA1 LGALS9 PIR39350 PIR50901
GH17G027647 0.7 ENCODE 29 +18.2 18194 1.3 HDAC1 KLF1 RNF2 L3MBTL2 ZBTB2 TAL1 BHLHE40 MNT DPF2 ZNF592 LGALS9 NOS2 ENSG00000265788
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around LGALS9 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for LGALS9 Gene

Chromosome:
17
Start:
27,629,798 bp from pter
End:
27,649,560 bp from pter
Size:
19,763 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for LGALS9 Gene

Genes around LGALS9 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
LGALS9 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for LGALS9 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for LGALS9 Gene

Proteins for LGALS9 Gene

  • Protein details for LGALS9 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    O00182-LEG9_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Galectin-9
    Protein Accession:
    O00182
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A7VJG6
    • F8W9W4
    • O14532
    • O75028
    • Q3B8N1
    • Q53FQ0
    • Q8WYQ7
    • Q9NQ58

    Protein attributes for LGALS9 Gene

    Size:
    355 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    39518 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for LGALS9 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for LGALS9 Gene

neXtProt entry for LGALS9 Gene

Post-translational modifications for LGALS9 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Antibody Products

  • Cloud-Clone Corp. Antibodies for LGALS9

Assay Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for LGALS9 Gene

Domains & Families for LGALS9 Gene

Gene Families for LGALS9 Gene

Protein Domains for LGALS9 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for LGALS9 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

O00182

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

LEG9_HUMAN :
  • Contains two homologous but distinct carbohydrate-binding domains.
Domain:
  • Contains two homologous but distinct carbohydrate-binding domains.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with LGALS9: view

Function for LGALS9 Gene

Molecular function for LGALS9 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Binds galactosides (PubMed:18005988). Has high affinity for the Forssman pentasaccharide (PubMed:18005988). Ligand for HAVCR2/TIM3 (PubMed:16286920). Binding to HAVCR2 induces T-helper type 1 lymphocyte (Th1) death (PubMed:16286920). Also stimulates bactericidal activity in infected macrophages by causing macrophage activation and IL1B secretion which restricts intracellular bacterial growth (By similarity). Ligand for P4HB; the interaction retains P4HB at the cell surface of Th2 T-helper cells, increasing disulfide reductase activity at the plasma membrane, altering the plasma membrane redox state and enhancing cell migration (PubMed:21670307). Ligand for CD44; the interaction enhances binding of SMAD3 to the FOXP3 promoter, leading to up-regulation of FOXP3 expression and increased induced regulatory T (iTreg) cell stability and suppressive function (By similarity). Promotes ability of mesenchymal stromal cells to suppress T-cell proliferation (PubMed:23817958). Expands regulatory T-cells and induces cytotoxic T-cell apoptosis following virus infection (PubMed:20209097). Activates ERK1/2 phosphorylation inducing cytokine (IL-6, IL-8, IL-12) and chemokine (CCL2) production in mast and dendritic cells (PubMed:24465902, PubMed:16116184). Inhibits degranulation and induces apoptosis of mast cells (PubMed:24465902). Induces maturation and migration of dendritic cells (PubMed:25754930, PubMed:16116184). Inhibits natural killer (NK) cell function (PubMed:23408620). Can transform NK cell phenotype from peripheral to decidual during pregnancy (PubMed:25578313). Astrocyte derived galectin-9 enhances microglial TNF production (By similarity). May play a role in thymocyte-epithelial interactions relevant to the biology of the thymus. May provide the molecular basis for urate flux across cell membranes, allowing urate that is formed during purine metabolism to efflux from cells and serving as an electrogenic transporter that plays an important role in renal and gastrointestinal urate excretion (By similarity). Highly selective to the anion urate (By similarity).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Isoform 2: Acts as an eosinophil chemoattractant (PubMed:9642261). It also inhibits angiogenesis (PubMed:24333696). Suppresses IFNG production by natural killer cells (By similarity).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
By toll-like receptor ligands zymosan (TLR2 ligand), polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) (TLR3 ligand) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) (TLR4 ligand) and by proinflammatory cytokines IFNG, TNFA, IL1A and IL1B in mesenchymal stromal cells (PubMed:23817958). By IFNG in macrophages (PubMed:20209097). Up-regulated in dendritic cells following infection with dengue virus (PubMed:25754930). Up-regulated in Kupffer cells following infection with hepatitis C virus (PubMed:20209097). Up-regulated in plasma following infection with HIV-1 (PubMed:24786365).

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for LGALS9 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004871 signal transducer activity IMP 12761501
GO:0005534 galactose binding TAS 9045665
GO:0019899 enzyme binding IPI 21670307
GO:0030246 carbohydrate binding IEA,IDA 18977853
GO:0048030 disaccharide binding IMP 16116184
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LGALS9: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with LGALS9: view

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for LGALS9

miRNA for LGALS9 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target LGALS9

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for LGALS9 Gene

Localization for LGALS9 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for LGALS9 Gene

Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Secreted. Note=May also be secreted by a non-classical secretory pathway (By similarity). Secreted by mesenchymal stromal cells upon IFNG stimulation (PubMed:23817958). {ECO:0000250 UniProtKB:O08573, ECO:0000269 PubMed:23817958}.
Isoform 2: Secreted.
Isoform 3: Secreted.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for LGALS9 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
nucleus 5
cytosol 5
plasma membrane 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for LGALS9 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region IEA --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IDA 20209097
GO:0005622 intracellular IDA 20209097
GO:0005634 nucleus IEA,IDA 23242525
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA,IDA 23242525
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LGALS9: view

Pathways & Interactions for LGALS9 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with LGALS9: view

Pathways by source for LGALS9 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for LGALS9 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002519 natural killer cell tolerance induction IMP 25578313
GO:0006935 chemotaxis IEA --
GO:0006954 inflammatory response IDA 23817958
GO:0007565 female pregnancy IDA 23242525
GO:0010628 positive regulation of gene expression IDA 16116184
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LGALS9: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for LGALS9 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for LGALS9 Gene

(4) Drugs for LGALS9 Gene - From: DrugBank and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
(R)-1-Para-Nitro-Phenyl-2-Azido-Ethanol Experimental Pharma Target 0

(3) Additional Compounds for LGALS9 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with LGALS9: view

Transcripts for LGALS9 Gene

Unigene Clusters for LGALS9 Gene

Lectin, galactoside-binding, soluble, 9:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for LGALS9 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for LGALS9 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
LGALS9
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
LGALS9

Expression for LGALS9 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for LGALS9 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for LGALS9 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (x9.0), Colon - Transverse (x5.8), and Spleen (x5.3).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for LGALS9 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Monocytes (9.9), Lymph node (8.1), Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (6.3), and Islet of Langerhans (6.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for LGALS9 Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for LGALS9 Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of LGALS9 Gene:

LGALS9

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for LGALS9 Gene:

Hs.81337

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for LGALS9 Gene:

O00182-LEG9_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Peripheral blood leukocytes and lymphatic tissues. Expressed in lung, liver, breast and kidney with higher levels in tumor endothelial cells than normal endothelium (at protein level) (PubMed:24333696). Expressed in trophoblast cells in decidua and placenta in pregnancy (at protein level) (PubMed:23242525, PubMed:25578313). Isoform 2 is the most abundant isoform expressed in endothelial cells (PubMed:24333696). Upon endothelial cell activation isoform 2 expression decreases while expression of isoform 3 and isoform 5 increases (PubMed:24333696). Isoform 4 decreases in pathological pregnancy (PubMed:23242525).

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for LGALS9 Gene

  • Intestine(4.7)
  • Spleen(4.6)
  • Stomach(4.4)
  • Kidney(4.3)
  • Blood(3)
  • Lymph node(2.8)
  • Lung(2.4)
  • Liver(2.1)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with LGALS9: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for LGALS9 Gene

Orthologs for LGALS9 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for LGALS9 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia LGALS9 34 35
  • 98.28 (n)
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia LGALS9 34 35
  • 82.66 (n)
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia LGALS9 34 35
  • 82.35 (n)
-- 35
  • 58 (a)
ManyToMany
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Lgals9 35
  • 70 (a)
OneToMany
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 35
  • 63 (a)
ManyToMany
-- 35
  • 57 (a)
ManyToMany
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 35
  • 59 (a)
OneToMany
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 35
  • 44 (a)
OneToMany
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii zgc:92326 34 35
  • 53.46 (n)
lgals9l1 35
  • 45 (a)
ManyToMany
si:ch211-209m20.9 35
  • 42 (a)
ManyToMany
zgc:171951 35
  • 42 (a)
ManyToMany
zgc:136924 35
  • 41 (a)
ManyToMany
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG11374 35
  • 17 (a)
ManyToMany
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea lec-12 35
  • 26 (a)
OneToMany
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 35
  • 34 (a)
ManyToMany
CSA.123 35
  • 30 (a)
ManyToMany
Species where no ortholog for LGALS9 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for LGALS9 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for LGALS9 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for LGALS9 (if available)

Paralogs for LGALS9 Gene

Variants for LGALS9 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for LGALS9 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 17 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1000006507 -- 27,647,939(+) AGAGC(A/G)AGCCT intron-variant
rs1000073519 -- 27,646,859(+) CATGA(C/G)ACTAA intron-variant
rs1000441564 -- 27,647,646(+) AAACT(C/T)ACAAG intron-variant
rs1000493640 -- 27,644,391(+) CCCAT(A/C/G)TCCCT intron-variant, utr-variant-3-prime
rs1000672658 -- 27,639,720(+) GTGCA(C/T)TATGA intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for LGALS9 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv3136n100 CNV loss 25217958
dgv3137n100 CNV gain 25217958
dgv57e203 CNV gain 21179565
esv2715781 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2758683 CNV gain 17122850
esv28793 CNV gain 19812545
esv3640292 CNV gain 21293372
esv3640293 CNV gain 21293372
nsv1160467 CNV deletion 26073780
nsv517874 CNV gain 19592680
nsv574651 CNV loss 21841781
nsv574652 CNV loss 21841781
nsv9532 CNV gain 18304495
nsv962298 CNV duplication 23825009

Variation tolerance for LGALS9 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 86.7% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 9.01; 87.44% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for LGALS9 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
LGALS9

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for LGALS9 Gene

Disorders for LGALS9 Gene

Relevant External Links for LGALS9

Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
LGALS9

No disorders were found for LGALS9 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for LGALS9 Gene

Publications for LGALS9 Gene

  1. A crucial role for Kupffer cell-derived galectin-9 in regulation of T cell immunity in hepatitis C infection. (PMID: 20209097) Mengshol J.A. … Rosen H.R. (PLoS ONE 2010) 3 4 22 64
  2. Structural analysis of the recognition mechanism of poly-N- acetyllactosamine by the human galectin-9 N-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain. (PMID: 18977853) Nagae M. … Kato R. (Glycobiology 2009) 3 4 22 64
  3. Galectin-9 induces maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. (PMID: 16116184) Dai S.Y. … Hirashima M. (J. Immunol. 2005) 3 4 22 64
  4. The Tim-3 ligand galectin-9 negatively regulates T helper type 1 immunity. (PMID: 16286920) Zhu C. … Kuchroo V.K. (Nat. Immunol. 2005) 3 4 22 64
  5. Human ecalectin, a variant of human galectin-9, is a novel eosinophil chemoattractant produced by T lymphocytes. (PMID: 9642261) Matsumoto R. … Hirashima M. (J. Biol. Chem. 1998) 3 4 22 64

Products for LGALS9 Gene

Sources for LGALS9 Gene

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