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Aliases for LGALS9 Gene

Aliases for LGALS9 Gene

  • Lectin, Galactoside-Binding, Soluble, 9 2 3
  • Tumor Antigen HOM-HD-21 3 4
  • Galectin 9 2 3
  • Ecalectin 3 4
  • Gal-9 3 4
  • Urate Transporter/Channel Protein 3
  • LGALS9A 3
  • HUAT 3

External Ids for LGALS9 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for LGALS9 Gene

  • GC17P025814
  • GC17P027858
  • GC17P026103
  • GC17P026102
  • GC17P022980
  • GC17P025956
  • GC17P022165

Summaries for LGALS9 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for LGALS9 Gene

  • The galectins are a family of beta-galactoside-binding proteins implicated in modulating cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The protein encoded by this gene is an S-type lectin. It is overexpressed in Hodgkin's disease tissue and might participate in the interaction between the H&RS cells with their surrounding cells and might thus play a role in the pathogenesis of this disease and/or its associated immunodeficiency. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for LGALS9 Gene

LGALS9 (Lectin, Galactoside-Binding, Soluble, 9) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Immune System and Interleukin receptor SHC signaling. GO annotations related to this gene include signal transducer activity and galactose binding. An important paralog of this gene is LGALS9B.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for LGALS9 Gene

  • Binds galactosides (PubMed:18005988). Has high affinity for the Forssman pentasaccharide (PubMed:18005988). Ligand for HAVCR2/TIM3 (PubMed:16286920). Binding to HAVCR2 induces T-helper type 1 lymphocyte (Th1) death (PubMed:16286920). Also stimulates bactericidal activity in infected macrophages by causing macrophage activation and IL1B secretion which restricts intracellular bacterial growth (By similarity). Ligand for P4HB; the interaction retains P4HB at the cell surface of Th2 T helper cells, increasing disulfide reductase activity at the plasma membrane, altering the plasma membrane redox state and enhancing cell migration (PubMed:21670307). Ligand for CD44; the interaction enhances binding of SMAD3 to the FOXP3 promoter, leading to up-regulation of FOXP3 expression and increased induced regulatory T (iTreg) cell stability and suppressive function (By similarity). Promotes ability of mesenchymal stromal cells to suppress T-cell proliferation (PubMed:23817958). Expands regulatory T cells and induces cytotoxic T cell apoptosis following virus infection (PubMed:20209097). Activates ERK1/2 phosphorylation inducing cytokine (IL-6, IL-8, IL-12) and chemokine (CCL2) production in mast and dendritic cells (PubMed:24465902, PubMed:16116184). Inhibits degranulation and induces apoptosis of mast cells (PubMed:24465902). Induces maturation and migration of dendritic cells (PubMed:25754930, PubMed:16116184). Inhibits natural killer (NK) cell function (PubMed:23408620). Can transform NK cell phenotype from peripheral to decidual during pregnancy (PubMed:25578313). Astrocyte derived galectin-9 enhances microglial TNF production (By similarity). May play a role in thymocyte-epithelial interactions relevant to the biology of the thymus. May provide the molecular basis for urate flux across cell membranes, allowing urate that is formed during purine metabolism to efflux from cells and serving as an electrogenic transporter that plays an important role in renal and gastrointestinal urate excretion (By similarity). Highly selective to the anion urate (By similarity).

  • Isoform 2: Acts as an eosinophil chemoattractant (PubMed:9642261). It also inhibits angiogenesis (PubMed:24333696). Suppresses IFNG production by natural killer cells (By similarity).

Gene Wiki entry for LGALS9 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for LGALS9 Gene

Genomics for LGALS9 Gene

Regulatory Elements for LGALS9 Gene

Genomic Location for LGALS9 Gene

Chromosome:
17
Start:
27,629,798 bp from pter
End:
27,649,560 bp from pter
Size:
19,763 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for LGALS9 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for LGALS9 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for LGALS9 Gene

Proteins for LGALS9 Gene

  • Protein details for LGALS9 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    O00182-LEG9_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Galectin-9
    Protein Accession:
    O00182
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A7VJG6
    • F8W9W4
    • O14532
    • O75028
    • Q3B8N1
    • Q53FQ0
    • Q8WYQ7
    • Q9NQ58

    Protein attributes for LGALS9 Gene

    Size:
    355 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    39518 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for LGALS9 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for LGALS9 Gene

neXtProt entry for LGALS9 Gene

Proteomics data for LGALS9 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for LGALS9 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for LGALS9 Gene

Domains & Families for LGALS9 Gene

Gene Families for LGALS9 Gene

Protein Domains for LGALS9 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for LGALS9 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

O00182

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

LEG9_HUMAN :
  • Contains two homologous but distinct carbohydrate-binding domains
Domain:
  • Contains two homologous but distinct carbohydrate-binding domains
  • Contains 2 galectin domains.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with LGALS9: view

Function for LGALS9 Gene

Molecular function for LGALS9 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Binds galactosides (PubMed:18005988). Has high affinity for the Forssman pentasaccharide (PubMed:18005988). Ligand for HAVCR2/TIM3 (PubMed:16286920). Binding to HAVCR2 induces T-helper type 1 lymphocyte (Th1) death (PubMed:16286920). Also stimulates bactericidal activity in infected macrophages by causing macrophage activation and IL1B secretion which restricts intracellular bacterial growth (By similarity). Ligand for P4HB; the interaction retains P4HB at the cell surface of Th2 T helper cells, increasing disulfide reductase activity at the plasma membrane, altering the plasma membrane redox state and enhancing cell migration (PubMed:21670307). Ligand for CD44; the interaction enhances binding of SMAD3 to the FOXP3 promoter, leading to up-regulation of FOXP3 expression and increased induced regulatory T (iTreg) cell stability and suppressive function (By similarity). Promotes ability of mesenchymal stromal cells to suppress T-cell proliferation (PubMed:23817958). Expands regulatory T cells and induces cytotoxic T cell apoptosis following virus infection (PubMed:20209097). Activates ERK1/2 phosphorylation inducing cytokine (IL-6, IL-8, IL-12) and chemokine (CCL2) production in mast and dendritic cells (PubMed:24465902, PubMed:16116184). Inhibits degranulation and induces apoptosis of mast cells (PubMed:24465902). Induces maturation and migration of dendritic cells (PubMed:25754930, PubMed:16116184). Inhibits natural killer (NK) cell function (PubMed:23408620). Can transform NK cell phenotype from peripheral to decidual during pregnancy (PubMed:25578313). Astrocyte derived galectin-9 enhances microglial TNF production (By similarity). May play a role in thymocyte-epithelial interactions relevant to the biology of the thymus. May provide the molecular basis for urate flux across cell membranes, allowing urate that is formed during purine metabolism to efflux from cells and serving as an electrogenic transporter that plays an important role in renal and gastrointestinal urate excretion (By similarity). Highly selective to the anion urate (By similarity).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Isoform 2: Acts as an eosinophil chemoattractant (PubMed:9642261). It also inhibits angiogenesis (PubMed:24333696). Suppresses IFNG production by natural killer cells (By similarity).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
By toll-like receptor ligands zymosan (TLR2 ligand), polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) (TLR3 ligand) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) (TLR4 ligand) and by proinflammatory cytokines INFG, TNFA, IL1A and IL1B in mesenchymal stromal cells (PubMed:23817958). By INFG in macrophages (PubMed:20209097). Up-regulated in dendritic cells following infection with dengue virus (PubMed:25754930). Up-regulated in Kupffer cells following infection with hepatitis C virus (PubMed:20209097). Up-regulated in plasma following infection with HIV-1 (PubMed:24786365).

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for LGALS9 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004871 signal transducer activity IMP 12761501
GO:0005534 galactose binding TAS 9045665
GO:0019899 enzyme binding IPI 21670307
GO:0030246 carbohydrate binding IDA 18977853
GO:0048030 disaccharide binding IMP 16116184
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LGALS9: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with LGALS9: view

Animal Models for LGALS9 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for LGALS9:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for LGALS9 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target LGALS9

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for LGALS9

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for LGALS9 Gene

Localization for LGALS9 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for LGALS9 Gene

Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Secreted. Note=May also be secreted by a non-classical secretory pathway (By similarity). Secreted by mesenchymal stromal cells upon IFNG stimulation (PubMed:23817958). {ECO:0000250 UniProtKB:O08573, ECO:0000269 PubMed:23817958}.
Isoform 2: Secreted.
Isoform 3: Secreted.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for LGALS9 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for LGALS9 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
cytosol 1
plasma membrane 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for LGALS9 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005615 extracellular space IDA 20209097
GO:0005622 intracellular IDA 20209097
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA 23242525
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA 23242525
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome IDA 23376485
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LGALS9: view

Pathways & Interactions for LGALS9 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with LGALS9: view

Pathways by source for LGALS9 Gene

Interacting Proteins for LGALS9 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for LGALS9 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002519 natural killer cell tolerance induction IMP 25578313
GO:0006935 chemotaxis IEA --
GO:0006954 inflammatory response IDA 23817958
GO:0007165 signal transduction --
GO:0007565 female pregnancy IDA 23242525
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LGALS9: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for LGALS9 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for LGALS9 Gene

(4) Drugs for LGALS9 Gene - From: NovoSeek and DrugBank

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
(R)-1-Para-Nitro-Phenyl-2-Azido-Ethanol Experimental Pharma Target 0
lactose Experimental Pharma 0
Uric Acid Experimental, Investigational Pharma 112
Calcium Nutra 0

(3) Additional Compounds for LGALS9 Gene - From: NovoSeek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Phosphatidylinositol
Phospholipid
polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with LGALS9: view

Transcripts for LGALS9 Gene

Unigene Clusters for LGALS9 Gene

Lectin, galactoside-binding, soluble, 9:
Representative Sequences:

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for LGALS9

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for LGALS9 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for LGALS9 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
LGALS9
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
LGALS9

Expression for LGALS9 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for LGALS9 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for LGALS9 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (x9.0), Colon - Transverse (x5.8), and Spleen (x5.3).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for LGALS9 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Monocytes (9.9), Lymph node (8.1), Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (6.3), and Islet of Langerhans (6.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for LGALS9 Gene



SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for LGALS9 Gene Hs.81337

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for LGALS9 Gene

O00182-LEG9_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Peripheral blood leukocytes and lymphatic tissues. Expressed in lung, liver, breast and kidney with higher levels in tumor endothelial cells than normal endothelium (at protein level) (PubMed:24333696). Expressed in trophoblast cells in decidua and placenta in pregnancy (at protein level) (PubMed:23242525, PubMed:25578313). Isoform 2 is the most abundant isoform expressed in endothelial cells (PubMed:24333696). Upon endothelial cell activation isoform 2 expression decreases while expression of isoform 3 and isoform 5 increases (PubMed:24333696). Isoform 4 decreases in pathological pregnancy (PubMed:23242525).
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with LGALS9: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for LGALS9 Gene

- Elite partner

Primer Products

  • QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human,mouse,rat
  • Pre-validated RT² qPCR Primer Assay in human,mouse,rat
  • QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human,mouse,rat

In Situ Assay Products

Orthologs for LGALS9 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for LGALS9 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia LGALS9 35
  • 82.35 (n)
  • 74.37 (a)
-- 36
  • 58 (a)
ManyToMany
LGALS9 36
  • 74 (a)
ManyToMany
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia LGALS9 35
  • 82.66 (n)
  • 76.16 (a)
LGALS9 36
  • 75 (a)
OneToMany
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia LGALS9 35
  • 98.28 (n)
  • 97.83 (a)
LGALS9 36
  • 98 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Lgals9 16
Lgals9 36
  • 70 (a)
OneToMany
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 57 (a)
ManyToMany
-- 36
  • 63 (a)
ManyToMany
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 59 (a)
OneToMany
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 36
  • 44 (a)
OneToMany
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii zgc:92326 35
  • 53.46 (n)
  • 49.06 (a)
lgals9l1 36
  • 45 (a)
ManyToMany
si:ch211-209m20.9 36
  • 42 (a)
ManyToMany
zgc:136924 36
  • 41 (a)
ManyToMany
zgc:171951 36
  • 42 (a)
ManyToMany
zgc:92326 36
  • 47 (a)
ManyToMany
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG11374 36
  • 17 (a)
ManyToMany
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea lec-12 36
  • 26 (a)
OneToMany
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 34 (a)
ManyToMany
CSA.123 36
  • 30 (a)
ManyToMany
Species with no ortholog for LGALS9:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for LGALS9 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for LGALS9 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for LGALS9 (if available)

Paralogs for LGALS9 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with LGALS9: view

Variants for LGALS9 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for LGALS9 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 17 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs361497 -- 27,643,607(+) CAGGG(A/G)GCGCA intron-variant, missense, reference
rs361498 -- 27,643,616(+) CAGAC(A/T)AAAAG intron-variant, reference, missense
rs361499 -- 27,647,380(+) GTCTG(A/G)GGAGC reference, missense, nc-transcript-variant, intron-variant
rs361500 -- 27,647,391(+) GAAGT(C/T)TGCCC reference, synonymous-codon, nc-transcript-variant, intron-variant
rs732222 -- 27,646,177(+) CAAGT(A/G)GGGAG intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for LGALS9 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv943e1 CNV Complex 17122850
esv28793 CNV Gain 19812545
esv2715781 CNV Deletion 23290073
nsv9532 CNV Gain 18304495
nsv517874 CNV Gain 19592680

Variation tolerance for LGALS9 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 86.75% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 9.01; 87.44% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for LGALS9 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
LGALS9

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for LGALS9 Gene

Disorders for LGALS9 Gene

Relevant External Links for LGALS9

Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
LGALS9
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with LGALS9: view

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for LGALS9 Gene

Publications for LGALS9 Gene

  1. A crucial role for Kupffer cell-derived galectin-9 in regulation of T cell immunity in hepatitis C infection. (PMID: 20209097) Mengshol J.A. … Rosen H.R. (PLoS ONE 2010) 23 67
  2. TIM-3 as a new therapeutic target in systemic lupus erythematosus. (PMID: 19768575) Pan H.F. … Ye D.Q. (Mol. Biol. Rep. 2010) 23 67
  3. Galectin-9 exhibits anti-myeloma activity through JNK and p38 MAP kinase pathways. (PMID: 20200560) Kobayashi T. … Taniwaki M. (Leukemia 2010) 23 67
  4. Galectin-9 induces osteoblast differentiation through the CD44/Smad signaling pathway. (PMID: 20206131) Tanikawa R. … Tanaka Y. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2010) 23 67
  5. N-domain of human adhesion/growth-regulatory galectin-9: preference for distinct conformers and non-sialylated N-glycans and detection of ligand-induced structural changes in crystal and solution. (PMID: 20227520) SolA-s D. … Gabius H.J. (Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 2010) 23 67

Products for LGALS9 Gene

Sources for LGALS9 Gene

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