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Aliases for LDHD Gene

Aliases for LDHD Gene

  • Lactate Dehydrogenase D 2 3 4 5
  • DLD 3 4
  • Probable D-Lactate Dehydrogenase, Mitochondrial 3
  • D-Lactate Dehydrogenase 3
  • EC 4

External Ids for LDHD Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for LDHD Gene

  • GC16M076106
  • GC16M074884
  • GC16M074925
  • GC16M073703
  • GC16M060896

Summaries for LDHD Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for LDHD Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the D-isomer specific 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase family. The similar protein in yeast has both D-lactate and D-glycerate dehydrogenase activities. Alternative splicing occurs at this locus and two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for LDHD Gene

LDHD (Lactate Dehydrogenase D) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Pyruvate metabolism and Metabolism of proteins. GO annotations related to this gene include oxidoreductase activity and oxidoreductase activity, acting on CH-OH group of donors. An important paralog of this gene is AGPS.

No data available for CIViC summary , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for LDHD Gene

Genomics for LDHD Gene

Regulatory Elements for LDHD Gene

Enhancers for LDHD Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH16G074778 0.6 ENCODE dbSUPER 4.9 +337.9 337855 0.2 NR2C2 FA2H LDHD LOC105371343
GH16G075115 1.2 ENCODE dbSUPER 0.7 +0.1 98 1.5 FOXA2 MLX ARID4B ZNF48 YY1 SP5 MXD4 NFYC MIER2 KAT8 ZNRF1 LDHD ENSG00000247033
GH16G075118 0.8 ENCODE 0.7 -2.1 -2103 0.8 BACH1 BMI1 NCOR1 EED NR2F6 RELB IKZF2 MIXL1 GATAD2A SOX5 ZFP1 LDHD ENSG00000261058
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around LDHD on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for LDHD Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00000087962 272 601 FOXA2 MLX ARID4B ZNF48 YY1 SP5 MXD4 NFYC MIER2 KAT8

Genomic Location for LDHD Gene

75,111,860 bp from pter
75,116,772 bp from pter
4,913 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for LDHD Gene

Genes around LDHD on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
LDHD Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for LDHD Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for LDHD Gene

Proteins for LDHD Gene

  • Protein details for LDHD Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Probable D-lactate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q8IZK5

    Protein attributes for LDHD Gene

    507 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    54871 Da
    Name=FAD; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:57692;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with CSRP3.
    • Sequence=AAM50322.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=Several; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Alternative splice isoforms for LDHD Gene


neXtProt entry for LDHD Gene

Post-translational modifications for LDHD Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for LDHD Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for LDHD Gene

Domains & Families for LDHD Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for LDHD Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the FAD-binding oxidoreductase/transferase type 4 family.
  • Belongs to the FAD-binding oxidoreductase/transferase type 4 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with LDHD: view

No data available for Gene Families for LDHD Gene

Function for LDHD Gene

Molecular function for LDHD Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
(R)-lactate + 2 ferricytochrome c = pyruvate + 2 ferrocytochrome c + 2 H(+).

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for LDHD Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for LDHD Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004458 D-lactate dehydrogenase (cytochrome) activity IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 12127981
GO:0016491 oxidoreductase activity IEA --
GO:0016614 oxidoreductase activity, acting on CH-OH group of donors IEA --
GO:0050660 flavin adenine dinucleotide binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LDHD: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with LDHD: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for LDHD Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target LDHD

Inhibitory RNA Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for LDHD Gene

Localization for LDHD Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for LDHD Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for LDHD gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
cytosol 2
extracellular 1
nucleus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for LDHD Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005739 mitochondrion ISS --
GO:0005743 mitochondrial inner membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LDHD: view

Pathways & Interactions for LDHD Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with LDHD: view

Pathways by source for LDHD Gene

2 BioSystems pathways for LDHD Gene
2 Reactome pathways for LDHD Gene
1 KEGG pathway for LDHD Gene
1 Qiagen pathway for LDHD Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for LDHD Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0055114 oxidation-reduction process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LDHD: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for LDHD Gene

Drugs & Compounds for LDHD Gene

(5) Drugs for LDHD Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
FAD Approved Pharma 0
Pyruvic acid Approved Nutra 0
D-Lactic acid Experimental Pharma 0

(3) Additional Compounds for LDHD Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Hydrogen Ion
  • Hydrogen cation
  • Hydron
  • Proton
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with LDHD: view

Transcripts for LDHD Gene

Unigene Clusters for LDHD Gene

Lactate dehydrogenase D:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for LDHD Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b · 5c ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11a · 11b
SP1: - -
SP2: - - -
SP4: - -

Relevant External Links for LDHD Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for LDHD Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for LDHD Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for LDHD Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (x7.8) and Heart - Left Ventricle (x5.9).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for LDHD Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Heart (16.0), Liver (10.5), Stomach (9.1), and Skin (7.2).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for LDHD Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for LDHD Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of LDHD Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for LDHD Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for LDHD Gene:

Tissue specificity: Expressed moderately in heart and liver and at lower levels in skeletal muscle and kidney.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for LDHD Gene

  • Liver(4.4)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with LDHD: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for LDHD Gene

Orthologs for LDHD Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for LDHD Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia LDHD 34 35
  • 99.15 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia LDHD 34 35
  • 86.65 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia LDHD 34 35
  • 84.84 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ldhd 34
  • 82.14 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ldhd 34 16 35
  • 81.96 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia LDHD 35
  • 76 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia LDHD 35
  • 61 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves LDHD 34 35
  • 72.89 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia LDHD 35
  • 42 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia ldhd 34
  • 66.18 (n)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.25110 34
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ldhd 34 35
  • 64.72 (n)
wufi36b04 34
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea F32D8.12 34 35
  • 50.28 (n)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AER321W 34
  • 46.33 (n)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0B01397g 34
  • 44.57 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes DLD1 35 37
  • 27 (a)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons AT5G06580 34
  • 48.6 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.10533 35
  • 53 (a)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU02179 34
  • 50.25 (n)
Species where no ortholog for LDHD was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for LDHD Gene

Gene Tree for LDHD (if available)
Gene Tree for LDHD (if available)

Paralogs for LDHD Gene

Paralogs for LDHD Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with LDHD: view

Variants for LDHD Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for LDHD Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 16 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1000467084 -- 75,118,600(+) TGATG(C/T)CTCCC upstream-variant-2KB
rs1000584335 -- 75,117,595(+) ACCTC(A/C/G)TGATC upstream-variant-2KB
rs1000993720 -- 75,113,082(+) CCTCC(C/T)CCCGA intron-variant
rs1002000786 -- 75,112,125(+) ACCAC(C/T)CTGGG utr-variant-3-prime
rs1002053315 -- 75,111,905(+) GGGAG(A/G)CCCCA utr-variant-3-prime

Variation tolerance for LDHD Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 15.6% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.78; 47.31% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for LDHD Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for LDHD Gene

Disorders for LDHD Gene

Relevant External Links for LDHD

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:

No disorders were found for LDHD Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for LDHD Gene

Publications for LDHD Gene

  1. Identification of putative mammalian D-lactate dehydrogenase enzymes. (PMID: 12127981) Flick M.J. … Konieczny S.F. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2002) 2 3 4 64
  2. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression. (PMID: 20877624) Hendrickson S.L. … O'Brien S.J. (PLoS ONE 2010) 3 46 64
  3. Fine mapping and association studies of a high-density lipoprotein cholesterol linkage region on chromosome 16 in French-Canadian subjects. (PMID: 19844255) Dastani Z. … Genest J. (Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 2010) 3 46 64
  4. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard D.S. … Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004) 3 4 64
  5. A human interactome in three quantitative dimensions organized by stoichiometries and abundances. (PMID: 26496610) Hein M.Y. … Mann M. (Cell 2015) 3 64

Products for LDHD Gene

Sources for LDHD Gene

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