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LDHD Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 55
GCID: GC16M075145

Lactate Dehydrogenase D

  Search for LDHD
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Lactate Dehydrogenase D1 2 3
DLD2 3
D-Lactate Dehydrogenase2
Probable D-Lactate Dehydrogenase, Mitochondrial2
EC 1.1.2.43

External Ids:    HGNC: 197081   Entrez Gene: 1972572   Ensembl: ENSG000001668167   OMIM: 6074905   UniProtKB: Q86WU23   

Export aliases for LDHD gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC16M076106 GC16M074884 GC16M074925 GC16M073703 GC16M060896


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for LDHD Gene:
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the D-isomer specific 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase family. The similar
protein in yeast has both D-lactate and D-glycerate dehydrogenase activities. Alternative splicing occurs at this
locus and two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified. (provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for LDHD Gene:
LDHD (lactate dehydrogenase D) is a protein-coding gene. GO annotations related to this gene include flavin adenine dinucleotide binding and D-lactate dehydrogenase (cytochrome) activity. An important paralog of this gene is AGPS.




(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000016.9  NC_018927.2  NT_010498.16  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the LDHD gene promoter:
         AML1a   p53   Pax-5   MyoD   MEF-2A   PPAR-gamma1   SEF-1 (1)   aMEF-2   PPAR-gamma2   ZID   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidLDHD promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for LDHD

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat LDHD


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 16q23.1   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  16q23.1   HGNC cytogenetic band: 16q22.3

LDHD Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
LDHD gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 16         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC16M075145:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
75,145,758 bp from pter      End:
75,150,670 bp from pter
Size:
4,913 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: LDHD_HUMAN, Q86WU2 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Probable D-lactate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial precursor  
Size: 507 amino acids; 54871 Da
Cofactor: FAD (By similarity)
Subunit: Interacts with CSRP3
Sequence caution: Sequence=AAM50322.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=Several;
Secondary accessions: Q8IZK5
Alternative splicing: 2 isoforms:  Q86WU2-1   Q86WU2-2   (No experimental confirmation available)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for LDHD: NX_Q86WU2

Explore proteomics data for LDHD at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Modification sites at neXtProt
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See LDHD Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_705690.2  NP_919417.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000300051   ENSP00000417011   ENSP00000454260  
    Reactome Protein details: Q86WU2

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    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    Selected InterPro protein domains (see all 7):
     IPR016167 FAD-bd_2_sub1
     IPR016166 FAD-bd_2
     IPR004113 FAD-linked_oxidase_C
     IPR016171 Vanillyl_alc_oxidase_C-sub2
     IPR016169 CO_DH_flavot_FAD-bd_sub2

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q86WU2

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q86WU2

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB004113 FAD linked oxidase

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: LDHD_HUMAN, Q86WU2
    Similarity: Belongs to the FAD-binding oxidoreductase/transferase type 4 family
    Similarity: Contains 1 FAD-binding PCMH-type domain


    Find genes that share domains with LDHD           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: LDHD_HUMAN, Q86WU2
    Catalytic activity: (R)-lactate + 2 ferricytochrome c = pyruvate + 2 ferrocytochrome c + 2 H(+)

         Enzyme Number (IUBMB): EC 1.1.2.41

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 7):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0003824catalytic activity ----
    GO:0004458D-lactate dehydrogenase (cytochrome) activity IEA--
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI12127981
    GO:0008762UDP-N-acetylmuramate dehydrogenase activity IEA--
    GO:0016491oxidoreductase activity ----
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with LDHD           About GenesLikeMe


    Animal Models:
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    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    LDHD_HUMAN, Q86WU2: Mitochondrion (By similarity)
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    mitochondrion4
    cytosol2
    extracellular1
    nucleus1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 2 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005739mitochondrion ISS--
    GO:0005743mitochondrial inner membrane IEA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with LDHD           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for LDHD About    
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Pyruvate metabolism
    methylglyoxal degradation I0.00
    methylglyoxal degradation VI0.00
    Pyruvate metabolism
    2Biosynthesis of the N-glycan precursor (dolichol lipid-linked oligosaccharide, LLO) and transfer to a nascent protein
    Metabolism of proteins0.30
    3Mitochondrial Protein Import
    Mitochondrial Protein Import
    4Metabolic States and Circadian Oscillators
    Metabolic States and Circadian Oscillators


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with LDHD           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    1 Downloadable PowerPoint Slide of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for LDHD
        Metabolic States and Circadian Oscillators

    2 BioSystems Pathways for LDHD
        methylglyoxal degradation I
    methylglyoxal degradation VI

    1 Reactome Pathway for LDHD
        Mitochondrial protein import


    1 Kegg Pathway  (Kegg details for LDHD):
        Pyruvate metabolism

        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for LDHD
    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for LDHD

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 22)

    Selected Interacting proteins for LDHD (Q86WU23 ENSP000003000514) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 39)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    CSRP3P504613, ENSP000002659684I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000265968
    PKMP146183, ENSP000003201714I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000320171
    PPIP5K1Q6PFW13, ENSP000003801294I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000380129
    ACOX1Q150673I2D: score=1 
    CADP277083I2D: score=1 
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 1 biological process term:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0055114oxidation-reduction process ----

    Find genes that share ontologies with LDHD           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for LDHD

    3 HMDB Compounds for LDHD    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    D-Lactic acid(-)-Lactate (see all 35)10326-41-7--
    FAD1H-Purin-6-amine flavin dinucleotide (see all 21)146-14-5--
    Pyruvic acid2-Oxopropanoate (see all 14)127-17-3--

    4 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for LDHD gene    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    lactate 68 31 8289259 (2), 18623312 (2), 9525904 (2), 2044942 (2) (see all 17)
    nad+ 59.5 3 8289259 (1), 18623312 (1), 9126843 (1)
    pyruvate 55.1 1 18574566 (1)
    nadh 53.6 1 7702618 (1)



    Find genes that share compounds with LDHD           About GenesLikeMe



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for LDHD gene (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_153486.3  NM_194436.2  

    Unigene Cluster for LDHD:

    Lactate dehydrogenase D
    Hs.380929  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_153486
    4 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000300051(uc002fdn.3 uc002fdm.3) ENST00000450168 ENST00000568164
    ENST00000569876
    miRNA
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    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AY092767.1 BC040279.1 BC047902.1 

    5 DOTS entries:

    DT.442437  DT.100019816  DT.97843918  DT.97779618  DT.91801041 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 56):

    BM741657 NM_153486 BM763726 BM684415 NM_194436 BM922079 BC047902 BM930896 
    BM931918 BX114620 BC040279 BI821082 BI517972 BM820371 AI623801 BI761255 
    BI517362 BI758938 BM759366 BQ066939 BG704230 BM764518 BI517339 BM742216 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    5 Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for LDHD    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b · 5c ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11a · 11b
    SP1:              -                                               -                                                   
    SP2:              -                                               -     -                                             
    SP3:                                                                                                                  
    SP4:              -                       -                                                                           
    SP5:                                                                                                                  


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for LDHD

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    LDHD expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: ATGATAGGTC
    LDHD Expression
    About this image

    LDHD Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    LDHD Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.380929

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: LDHD_HUMAN, Q86WU2
    Tissue specificity: Expressed moderately in heart and liver and at lower levels in skeletal muscle and kidney

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    In Situ
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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

    Orthologs for LDHD gene from Selected species (see all 19)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Ldhd1 , 5 lactate dehydrogenase D1, 5 81.96(n)1
    85.33(a)1
      8 (57.98 cM)5
    528151  NM_027570.31  NP_081846.31 
     1116237855 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves LDHD1 lactate dehydrogenase D, mitochondrial 72.89(n)
    71.11(a)
      415689  XM_003641905.2  XP_003641953.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia LDHD6
    lactate dehydrogenase D
    42(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    GL343840.1(11402-14718)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia Xl.251102 Xenopus laevis transcribed sequence with weak similarity more 69.04(n)    CB755986.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii wufi36b042 wufi36b04 73.98(n)   334208  BC044171.1 
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea F32D8.121 F32D8.12 50.28(n)
    51.5(a)
      179506  NM_001028701.3  NP_001023872.1 
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes DLD1(YDL174C)4 D-lactate dehydrogenase, oxidizes D-lactate to pyruvate, more   --   4(147589-145826) 851380  NP_010107.1 
    thale cress
    (Arabidopsis thaliana)
    eudicotyledons AT5G065801 AT5G06580 48.6(n)
    43.14(a)
      830546  NM_120741.2  NP_568170.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for LDHD (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for LDHD (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for LDHD gene
    AGPS2  

    Find genes that share paralogs with LDHD           About GenesLikeMe



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for LDHD (see all 292)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 16 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1486302331,2
    --75145423(+) TGGTAC/TGATAC 2 -- ds50010--------
    rs1878331601,2
    --75145446(+) AGAGGC/TGGGTG 2 -- ds50010--------
    rs1928791041,2
    --75145449(+) GGTGGA/GTGCAA 2 -- ds50010--------
    rs116480821,2
    C,F,A,H--75145538(+) CCCAGT/CTGGGG 2 -- ds500118Minor allele frequency- C:0.37NS EA NA 2226
    rs1421234061,2
    --75145558(+) TGAGTC/GACATG 2 -- ds50010--------
    rs1166539891,2
    C,F--75145652(+) CTCCCC/TAGGCT 2 -- ds50011Minor allele frequency- T:0.03WA 118
    rs32172561,2
    C--75145821(-) ATGATGAT/-AGGTC 2 -- cds11Minor allele frequency- -:0.50NA 2
    rs353321551,2
    C--75145823(+) ATCAT-/CATGTCAC 2 -- cds10--------
    rs1478075631,2
    --75145843(+) GCTCAC/TGTTCC 2 -- ut310--------
    rs1831105261,2
    --75145960(+) CAGACA/GCTCTC 2 -- ut310--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for LDHD (75145758 - 75150670 bp)

    Structural Variations
          Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) variations for LDHD: --
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
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    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 607490    OMIM disorders: --


    Find genes that share disorders with LDHD           About GenesLikeMe

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): LDHD
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: LDHD (2 documents)

    Export disorders for LDHD gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for LDHD gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 28):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with LDHD)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Identification of putative mammalian D-lactate dehydrogenase enzymes. (PubMed id 12127981)1, 2, 3 Flick M.J. and Konieczny S.F. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2002)
    2. Fine mapping and association studies of a high-density lipoprotein cholesterol linkage region on chromosome 16 in French-Canadian subjects. (PubMed id 19844255)1, 4 Dastani Z....Genest J. (Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 2010)
    3. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression. (PubMed id 20877624)1, 4 Hendrickson S.L....O'Brien S.J. (PLoS ONE 2010)
    4. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    5. Prostate cancer cells metabolize d-lactate inside mitochondria via a D-lactate dehydrogenase which is more active and highly expressed than in normal cells. (PubMed id 23333299)1 de Bari L....Passarella S. (FEBS Lett. 2013)
    6. Multidimensional prognostic risk assessment identifies association between IL12B variation and surgery in Crohn's disease. (PubMed id 23665963)1 Dubinsky M.C....McGovern D.P. (Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 2013)
    7. Elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes and aspartate transaminase distinguish Albers-SchAPnberg disease (Chloride Channel 7 Deficiency Osteopetrosis) among the sclerosing bone disorders. (PubMed id 20499337)1 Whyte M.P....Wenkert D. (J. Bone Miner. Res. 2010)
    8. Dynamics of cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase network revealed by systematic quantitative proteomics. (PubMed id 21145461)1 Bennett E.J....Harper J.W. (Cell 2010)
    9. Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences. (PubMed id 12477932)1 Strausberg R.L....Marra M.A. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2002)
    10. Protective effect of glutathione in HIV-1 lytic peptide 1-induced cell death in human neuronal cells. (PubMed id 11582518)1 Sung J.H....Chong Y.H. (J. Neurovirol. 2001)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 197257 HGNC: 19708 AceView: LDHD Ensembl:ENSG00000166816 euGenes: HUgn197257
    ECgene: LDHD Kegg: 197257 H-InvDB: LDHD

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for LDHD Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for LDHD gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving LDHD

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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