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Aliases for LDHD Gene

Aliases for LDHD Gene

  • Lactate Dehydrogenase D 2 3 4
  • DLD 3 4
  • Probable D-Lactate Dehydrogenase, Mitochondrial 3
  • D-Lactate Dehydrogenase 3
  • EC 4

External Ids for LDHD Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for LDHD Gene

  • GC16M076106
  • GC16M074884
  • GC16M074925
  • GC16M073703
  • GC16M060896

Summaries for LDHD Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for LDHD Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the D-isomer specific 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase family. The similar protein in yeast has both D-lactate and D-glycerate dehydrogenase activities. Alternative splicing occurs at this locus and two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for LDHD Gene

LDHD (Lactate Dehydrogenase D) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Biosynthesis of the N-glycan precursor (dolichol lipid-linked oligosaccharide, LLO) and transfer to a nascent protein. GO annotations related to this gene include flavin adenine dinucleotide binding and D-lactate dehydrogenase (cytochrome) activity. An important paralog of this gene is AGPS.

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for LDHD Gene

Genomics for LDHD Gene

Regulatory Elements for LDHD Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for LDHD Gene

75,111,860 bp from pter
75,116,772 bp from pter
4,913 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for LDHD Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for LDHD Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for LDHD Gene

Proteins for LDHD Gene

  • Protein details for LDHD Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Probable D-lactate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q8IZK5

    Protein attributes for LDHD Gene

    507 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    54871 Da
    Name=FAD; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:57692;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with CSRP3.
    • Sequence=AAM50322.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=Several; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Alternative splice isoforms for LDHD Gene


neXtProt entry for LDHD Gene

Proteomics data for LDHD Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for LDHD Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for LDHD Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for LDHD Gene

Domains for LDHD Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for LDHD Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Q86WU2
  • Contains 1 FAD-binding PCMH-type domain.
  • Belongs to the FAD-binding oxidoreductase/transferase type 4 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with LDHD: view

No data available for Gene Families for LDHD Gene

Function for LDHD Gene

Molecular function for LDHD Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
(R)-lactate + 2 ferricytochrome c = pyruvate + 2 ferrocytochrome c + 2 H(+)

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for LDHD Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for LDHD Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003824 catalytic activity --
GO:0004458 D-lactate dehydrogenase (cytochrome) activity IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 12127981
GO:0008762 UDP-N-acetylmuramate dehydrogenase activity IEA --
GO:0016491 oxidoreductase activity --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LDHD: view

Animal Model Products

miRNA for LDHD Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target LDHD

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for LDHD

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Phenotypes , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for LDHD Gene

Localization for LDHD Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for LDHD Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for LDHD Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for LDHD gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 4
cytosol 2
extracellular 1
nucleus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for LDHD Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005739 mitochondrion ISS --
GO:0005743 mitochondrial inner membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LDHD: view

Pathways for LDHD Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with LDHD: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for LDHD Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0055114 oxidation-reduction process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LDHD: view

Compounds for LDHD Gene

(3) HMDB Compounds for LDHD Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
D-Lactic acid
  • (-)-Lactate
  • 1H-Purin-6-amine flavin dinucleotide
Pyruvic acid
  • 2-Oxopropanoate

(4) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for LDHD Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
lactate 68 22
nad+ 59.5 3
pyruvate 55.1 1
nadh 53.6 1
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with LDHD: view

Transcripts for LDHD Gene

mRNA/cDNA for LDHD Gene

Unigene Clusters for LDHD Gene

Lactate dehydrogenase D:
Representative Sequences:

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for LDHD

Primer Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for LDHD Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b · 5c ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11a · 11b
SP1: - -
SP2: - - -
SP4: - -

Relevant External Links for LDHD Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for LDHD Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for LDHD Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for LDHD Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (7.8) and Heart - Left Ventricle (5.9).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues for LDHD Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Heart (16.0), Liver (10.5), Stomach (9.1), and Skin (7.2).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for LDHD Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for LDHD Gene Hs.380929

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for LDHD Gene

Tissue specificity: Expressed moderately in heart and liver and at lower levels in skeletal muscle and kidney.
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with LDHD: view

Expression partners for LDHD Gene

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery for LDHD Gene

Orthologs for LDHD Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for LDHD Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia LDHD 35
  • 86.65 (n)
  • 87.34 (a)
  • 83 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia LDHD 35
  • 84.84 (n)
  • 86.79 (a)
  • 85 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ldhd 35
  • 81.96 (n)
  • 85.33 (a)
Ldhd 16
Ldhd 36
  • 85 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia LDHD 35
  • 99.15 (n)
  • 99.8 (a)
  • 100 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ldhd 35
  • 82.14 (n)
  • 87.38 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia LDHD 36
  • 76 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia LDHD 36
  • 61 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves LDHD 35
  • 72.89 (n)
  • 71.11 (a)
  • 69 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia LDHD 36
  • 42 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia ldhd 35
  • 66.18 (n)
  • 72.27 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.25110 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ldhd 35
  • 64.72 (n)
  • 67.32 (a)
wufi36b04 35
ldhd 36
  • 63 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea F32D8.12 35
  • 50.28 (n)
  • 51.5 (a)
F32D8.12 36
  • 50 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AER321W 35
  • 46.33 (n)
  • 37.77 (a)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0B01397g 35
  • 44.57 (n)
  • 35.94 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes DLD1 36
  • 27 (a)
DLD1 38
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons AT5G06580 35
  • 48.6 (n)
  • 43.14 (a)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU02179 35
  • 50.25 (n)
  • 41.97 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.10533 36
  • 53 (a)
Species with no ortholog for LDHD:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for LDHD Gene

Gene Tree for LDHD (if available)
Gene Tree for LDHD (if available)

Paralogs for LDHD Gene

Paralogs for LDHD Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with LDHD: view

Variants for LDHD Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for LDHD Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 16 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs730168 -- 75,116,377(-) AAAGG(A/G)CCTGG intron-variant
rs755099 -- 75,114,706(+) CAGAA(A/G)GCAGC intron-variant
rs1801065 -- 75,111,928(+) ATCAT(A/C/G/T)ATGTC utr-variant-3-prime
rs3217256 -- 75,111,923(-) ATGAT(-/GAT)AGGTC cds-indel
rs8062827 -- 75,115,983(+) caagc(A/G)atcca intron-variant

Relevant External Links for LDHD Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for LDHD Gene

Disorders for LDHD Gene

Relevant External Links for LDHD

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator

No disorders were found for LDHD Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , OMIM , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , University of Copenhagen DISEASES , Novoseek inferred disease relationships and Genatlas for LDHD Gene

Publications for LDHD Gene

  1. Identification of putative mammalian D-lactate dehydrogenase enzymes. (PMID: 12127981) Flick M.J. … Konieczny S.F. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2002) 2 3 4
  2. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard D.S. … Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004) 3 4
  3. Fine mapping and association studies of a high-density lipoprotein cholesterol linkage region on chromosome 16 in French-Canadian subjects. (PMID: 19844255) Dastani Z. … Genest J. (Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 2010) 3 48
  4. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression. (PMID: 20877624) Hendrickson S.L. … O'Brien S.J. (PLoS ONE 2010) 3 48
  5. Dynamics of cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase network revealed by systematic quantitative proteomics. (PMID: 21145461) Bennett E.J. … Harper J.W. (Cell 2010) 3

Products for LDHD Gene

Sources for LDHD Gene

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