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LCK Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 77
GCID: GC01P032716

Lymphocyte-Specific Protein Tyrosine Kinase

  See LCK-related disease
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Lymphocyte-Specific Protein Tyrosine Kinase1 2     pp58lck2
Leukocyte C-Terminal Src Kinase2 3     Proto-Oncogene Tyrosine-Protein Kinase LCK2
Lymphocyte Cell-Specific Protein-Tyrosine Kinase2 3     T-Lymphocyte Specific Protein Tyrosine Kinase P56lck2
T Cell-Specific Protein-Tyrosine Kinase2 3     Tyrosine-Protein Kinase Lck2
LSK2 3     p56-LCK3
EC 2.7.10.23 8     Protein YT163
YT162     Proto-Oncogene Lck3
P56(LSTRA) Protein-Tyrosine Kinase2     EC 2.7.108
p56lck2     

External Ids:    HGNC: 65241   Entrez Gene: 39322   Ensembl: ENSG000001828667   OMIM: 1533905   UniProtKB: P062393   

Export aliases for LCK gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC01U990096 GC01P032143 GC01P032219 GC01P032386 GC01P032489 GC01P030833


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for LCK Gene:
This gene is a member of the Src family of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs). The encoded protein is a key signaling
molecule in the selection and maturation of developing T-cells. It contains N-terminal sites for myristylation
and palmitylation, a PTK domain, and SH2 and SH3 domains which are involved in mediating protein-protein
interactions with phosphotyrosine-containing and proline-rich motifs, respectively. The protein localizes to the
plasma membrane and pericentrosomal vesicles, and binds to cell surface receptors, including CD4 and CD8, and
other signaling molecules. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been
described. (provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for LCK Gene:
LCK (lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with LCK include immunodeficiency 22. GO annotations related to this gene include protein C-terminus binding and identical protein binding. An important paralog of this gene is FRK.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: LCK_HUMAN, P06239
Function: Non-receptor tyrosine-protein kinase that plays an essential role in the selection and maturation of
developing T-cells in the thymus and in the function of mature T-cells. Plays a key role in T-cell antigen
receptor (TCR)-linked signal transduction pathways. Constitutively associated with the cytoplasmic portions of
the CD4 and CD8 surface receptors. Association of the TCR with a peptide antigen-bound MHC complex facilitates
the interaction of CD4 and CD8 with MHC class II and class I molecules, respectively, thereby recruiting the
associated LCK protein to the vicinity of the TCR/CD3 complex. LCK then phosphorylates tyrosines residues within
the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAM) of the cytoplasmic tails of the TCR-gamma chains and
CD3 subunits, initiating the TCR/CD3 signaling pathway. Once stimulated, the TCR recruits the tyrosine kinase
ZAP70, that becomes phosphorylated and activated by LCK. Following this, a large number of signaling molecules
are recruited, ultimately leading to lymphokine production. LCK also contributes to signaling by other receptor
molecules. Associates directly with the cytoplasmic tail of CD2, which leads to hyperphosphorylation and
activation of LCK. Also plays a role in the IL2 receptor-linked signaling pathway that controls the T-cell
proliferative response. Binding of IL2 to its receptor results in increased activity of LCK. Is expressed at all
stages of thymocyte development and is required for the regulation of maturation events that are governed by both
pre-TCR and mature alpha beta TCR. Phosphorylates other substrates including RUNX3, PTK2B/PYK2, the
microtubule-associated protein MAPT, RHOH or TYROBP

summary for LCK Gene:
Src kinases consist of eight non-receptor tyrosine kinases (Src, Fyn, Yes, Lck, Lyn, Hck, Fgr and Blk) that
interact with the intracellular domains of growth factor/cytokine receptors, GPCRs and integrins. Members of
the Src kinase family have a very similar domain structure with a high degree of homology in the SH1
(catalytic), linker, SH2 (p-Tyr binding), SH3 (protein-protein interaction) and SH4 (membrane association)
domains. c-Src, Fyn and Yes are ubiquitously expressed, although high levels of c-Src are found in
platelets, neural tissue and osteoclasts. For c-Src, autophosphorylation of Tyr418 and dephosphorylation of
Tyr530 is required to switch the kinase from the inactive closed formation to the active open formation.
c-Src can be inactivated by two kinases, c-Src kinase (CSK) and CSK homologous kinase (CHK), both of which
phosphorylate Tyr530 of c-Src. The activity of the Src kinase family can also be regulated by phosphatases
(e.g. SHP1), binding to adaptor proteins (e.g. Cbp) and proteasomal degradation. Src kinases are key
upstream mediators of both the PI 3-K and MAPK signaling pathways, and have been shown to have important
roles in cell proliferation, migration and survival.

Gene Wiki entry for LCK (Lck) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000001.10  NT_032977.10  NC_018912.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the LCK gene promoter:
         STAT1   Sp1   AP-1   AML1a   STAT3   STAT1alpha   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids (see all 2): LCK promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for LCK

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat LCK


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 1p34.3   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  1p35.1   HGNC cytogenetic band: 1p34.3

LCK Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
LCK gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 1         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC01P032716:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
32,716,840 bp from pter      End:
32,751,766 bp from pter
Size:
34,927 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, antibodies-online, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: LCK_HUMAN, P06239 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Tyrosine-protein kinase Lck  
Size: 509 amino acids; 58001 Da
Subunit: Binds to the cytoplasmic domain of cell surface receptors, such as AXL, CD2, CD4, CD5, CD8, CD44, CD45
and CD122. Also binds to effector molecules, such as PI4K, VAV1, RASA1, FYB and to other protein kinases
including CDK1, RAF1, ZAP70 and SYK. Binds to phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K) from T-lymphocytes through
its SH3 domain and to the tyrosine phosphorylated form of KHDRBS1/p70 through its SH2 domain. Binds to HIV-1 Nef
through its SH3 domain. This interaction inhibits its tyrosine-kinase activity. Interacts with SQSTM1. Interacts
with phosphorylated LIME1. Interacts with CBLB and PTPRH. Interacts with RUNX3. Forms a signaling complex with
EPHA1, PTK2B AND PI3-KINASE; upon activation by EFNA1 which may regulate T-lymphocyte migration. Associates with
ZAP70 and RHOH; these interactions allow LCK-mediated RHOH and CD3 subunit phosphorylation in the presence of
functional ZAP70
Mass spectrometry: Mass=57869.42; Method=MALDI; Range=2-509; Source=PubMed:11840567;
Sequence caution: Sequence=CAI22320.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended;
Sequence=CAI22321.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended;
Selected PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for LCK (see all 52):
1BHF (3D)        1BHH (3D)        1CWD (3D)        1CWE (3D)        1FBZ (3D)        1H92 (3D)    
Secondary accessions: D3DPP8 P07100 Q12850 Q13152 Q5TDH8 Q5TDH9 Q7RTZ3 Q96DW4 Q9NYT8
Alternative splicing: 3 isoforms:  P06239-1   P06239-2   P06239-3   (No experimental confirmation available)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for LCK: NX_P06239

Explore proteomics data for LCK at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Autophosphorylated on Tyr-394, increasing enzymatic activity, this site is dephosphorylated by PTN22.
    Phosphorylated on Tyr-505 by CSK, decreasing activity. Dephosphorylated by PTPRC/CD45. Dephosphorylation at
    Tyr-394 by PTPN2 negatively regulates T-cell receptor signaling1
  • Myristoylation is required prior to palmitoylation (By similarity)1
  • Palmitoylation regulates subcellular location (By similarity)1
  • Ubiquitination2 at Lys99, Lys118, Lys130, Lys179, Lys269, Lys276, Lys293, Lys379, Lys401, Lys405
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Selected DME Specific Peptides for LCK (P06239) (see all 36)
     LSVRDFD  KWTAPEA  EIVTHGR  DMAAQIA 


    See LCK Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001036236.1  NP_005347.3  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000337825   ENSP00000431517   ENSP00000435605   ENSP00000434525   ENSP00000362663  
     ENSP00000436554   ENSP00000362658   ENSP00000328213   ENSP00000362665  
    Reactome Protein details: P06239

    LCK Human Recombinant Protein Products:

    EMD Millipore Purified and/or Recombinant LCK Protein
    R&D Systems Recombinant & Natural Proteins for LCK
    Enzo Life Sciences proteins for LCK
    OriGene Purified Protein for LCK
    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for LCK
    OriGene MassSpec for LCK
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for LCK
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for LCK
    Novus Biologicals LCK Proteins
    Novus Biologicals LCK Lysates
    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
    Sino Biological Cell Lysate for LCK
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for LCK

     
    Search eBioscience for Proteins for LCK 

     
    antibodies-online proteins for LCK (7 products) 

     
    antibodies-online peptides for LCK

    LCK Antibody Products:

    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of LCK
    R&D Systems Antibodies for LCK
    Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for LCK 
    OriGene Antibodies for LCK
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for LCK
    Novus Biologicals LCK Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for LCK
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Antibodies for LCK
    ThermoFisher Antibody for LCK
    antibodies-online antibodies for LCK (277 products) 

    LCK Assay Products:

    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for LCK
    R&D Systems Proteome Profiler Antibody Arrays for LCK
    GenScript LCK-Activity-based Kinase Assay for Compound Screening
    Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Sandwich ELISA Kits for LCK
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for LCK
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for LCK
    Search eBioscience for ELISAs for LCK 
    antibodies-online kits for LCK (13 products) 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    SH2D: SH2 domain containing

    IUPHAR Guide to PHARMACOLOGY protein family classification: lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase
    Src family

    Selected InterPro protein domains (see all 8):
     IPR017441 Protein_kinase_ATP_BS
     IPR001245 Ser-Thr/Tyr_kinase_cat_dom
     IPR011009 Kinase-like_dom
     IPR000980 SH2
     IPR001452 SH3_domain

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P06239

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P06239

    3 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB000980 SH2 domain signature
    IPB001452 SH3 domain signature
    IPB008266 Tyrosine protein kinase


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: LCK_HUMAN, P06239
    Domain: The SH2 domain mediates interaction with SQSTM1. Interaction is regulated by Ser-59 phosphorylation
    Similarity: Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Tyr protein kinase family. SRC subfamily
    Similarity: Contains 1 protein kinase domain
    Similarity: Contains 1 SH2 domain
    Similarity: Contains 1 SH3 domain


    Find genes that share domains with LCK           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: LCK_HUMAN, P06239
    Function: Non-receptor tyrosine-protein kinase that plays an essential role in the selection and maturation of
    developing T-cells in the thymus and in the function of mature T-cells. Plays a key role in T-cell antigen
    receptor (TCR)-linked signal transduction pathways. Constitutively associated with the cytoplasmic portions of
    the CD4 and CD8 surface receptors. Association of the TCR with a peptide antigen-bound MHC complex facilitates
    the interaction of CD4 and CD8 with MHC class II and class I molecules, respectively, thereby recruiting the
    associated LCK protein to the vicinity of the TCR/CD3 complex. LCK then phosphorylates tyrosines residues within
    the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAM) of the cytoplasmic tails of the TCR-gamma chains and
    CD3 subunits, initiating the TCR/CD3 signaling pathway. Once stimulated, the TCR recruits the tyrosine kinase
    ZAP70, that becomes phosphorylated and activated by LCK. Following this, a large number of signaling molecules
    are recruited, ultimately leading to lymphokine production. LCK also contributes to signaling by other receptor
    molecules. Associates directly with the cytoplasmic tail of CD2, which leads to hyperphosphorylation and
    activation of LCK. Also plays a role in the IL2 receptor-linked signaling pathway that controls the T-cell
    proliferative response. Binding of IL2 to its receptor results in increased activity of LCK. Is expressed at all
    stages of thymocyte development and is required for the regulation of maturation events that are governed by both
    pre-TCR and mature alpha beta TCR. Phosphorylates other substrates including RUNX3, PTK2B/PYK2, the
    microtubule-associated protein MAPT, RHOH or TYROBP
    Catalytic activity: ATP + a [protein]-L-tyrosine = ADP + a [protein]-L-tyrosine phosphate
    Enzyme regulation: The relative activities of the inhibitory tyrosine-protein kinase CSK and the activating
    tyrosine-protein phosphatase PTPRC/CD45 determine the level of LCK activity. These interactions allow rapid and
    efficient activation of LCK in response to TCR stimulation

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for LCK:
    breakpoint in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia with translocations t(1;7)(p34;q34)

         Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB): EC 2.7.10.21 2 EC 2.7.102

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 19):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001948glycoprotein binding IPI14625311
    GO:0003823antigen binding IEA--
    GO:0004672protein kinase activity ----
    GO:0004713protein tyrosine kinase activity TAS--
    GO:0004715non-membrane spanning protein tyrosine kinase activity IEA--
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with LCK           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         3 GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for LCK:
     Decreased substrate adherent c  Increased apoptosis  Increased cell death HMECs cel 

         4 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 6 alleles(MGI details for Lck):
     embryogenesis  hematopoietic system  immune system  reproductive system 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with LCK           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-outs for LCK: Lcktm1Mak Lcktm1.1Litt

       genOway: Develop your customized and physiologically relevant rodent model for LCK

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target LCK:
    hsa-mir-335-5p (MIRT017673)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat LCK using miScript Target Protectors
    2 qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate LCK:
    hsa-miR-202 hsa-miR-4257
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidLCK 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for LCK
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat LCK

    Gene Editing
    Products:
    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for LCK

    Clone
    Products:
         
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for LCK (see all 13)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for LCK
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 2): LCK (NM_005356)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for LCK
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for LCK
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat LCK
    Addgene plasmids for LCK 

    Cell Line
    Products:
         
    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for LCK
    Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for LCK 
    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for LCK


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    LCK_HUMAN, P06239: Cytoplasm. Cell membrane; Lipid-anchor; Cytoplasmic side. Note=Present in lipid rafts in an
    inactive form
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    cytoskeleton5
    plasma membrane5
    cytosol4
    endosome2
    extracellular2
    mitochondrion2
    nucleus2
    endoplasmic reticulum1
    golgi apparatus1

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected cellular component terms (see all 7):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000242pericentriolar material ISS--
    GO:0001772immunological synapse IDA--
    GO:0005829cytosol TAS--
    GO:0005886plasma membrane TAS--
    GO:0030139endocytic vesicle IEA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with LCK           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for LCK About   (see all 64)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathSelected contained pathways About (see all per SuperPath)
    1CD28 co-stimulation
    CD28 co-stimulation0.66
    GPVI-mediated activation cascade0.31
    CD28 dependent PI3K/Akt signaling0.66
    CTLA4 Signaling0.30
    Costimulation by the CD28 family0.44
    CD28 dependent Vav1 pathway0.00
    CTLA4 inhibitory signaling0.32
    2Immune response Role of DAP12 receptors in NK cells
    Immune response Role of DAP12 receptors in NK cells0.33
    Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity0.31
    Immune response CD16 signaling in NK cells0.33
    3IL2-mediated signaling events
    IL-2 Signaling pathway0.49
    IL2-mediated signaling events0.49
    4PI-3K cascade
    PI3K/AKT activation0.93
    PI3K events in ERBB4 signaling0.88
    GAB1 signalosome0.93
    Role of LAT2/NTAL/LAB on calcium mobilization0.80
    Constitutive PI3K/AKT Signaling in Cancer0.88
    Signaling by SCF-KIT0.72
    PIP3 activates AKT signaling0.88
    Signaling by ERBB40.66
    5Signaling by FGFR
    Signaling by FGFR0.91
    DAP12 interactions0.89
    Signaling by FGFR in disease0.91
    Signaling by PDGF0.87
    Downstream signaling of activated FGFR0.91
    Signaling by EGFR0.83
    Downstream signal transduction0.90
    Signaling by EGFR in Cancer0.82


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with LCK           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    Selected Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for LCK (see all 14)
        Calcium Mediated T-Cell Apoptosis
    ICos-ICosL Pathway in T-Helper Cell
    Rap1 Pathway
    CD28 Signaling in T-Helper Cell
    IL-2 Pathway

    3 Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Pathways for LCK
        MAP Kinase Signaling
    Lymphocyte Signaling
    Tyrosine Kinases / Adaptors

    Selected GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathways for LCK (see all 15)
        G-protein signaling H-RAS regulation pathway
    G-protein signaling M-RAS regulation pathway
    Immune response CD28 signaling
    Immune response CD16 signaling in NK cells
    G-protein signaling N-RAS regulation pathway

    Selected BioSystems Pathways for LCK (see all 26)
        Interferon type I
    IL-4 signaling Pathway
    Id Signaling Pathway
    Delta-Notch Signaling Pathway
    B Cell Receptor Signaling Pathway


    Selected Reactome Pathways for LCK (see all 19)
        CD28 dependent Vav1 pathway
    Nef Mediated CD4 Down-regulation
    DAP12 signaling
    PD-1 signaling
    Regulation of KIT signaling


    Selected Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for LCK) (see all 6):
        NF-kappa B signaling pathway
    Osteoclast differentiation
    Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity
    T cell receptor signaling pathway
    HTLV-I infection

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including LCK: 
              Lung Cancer in human mouse rat
              Apoptosis 384HT in human mouse rat
              T-cell & B-cell Activation in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for LCK

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for LCK (P062391, 2, 3 ENSP000003378254) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 306)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    SYKP434051, 2, 3, ENSP000003648984EBI-1348,EBI-78302 MINT-8036452 MINT-8036467 MINT-16945 MINT-8033612 MINT-56730 MINT-8036437 MINT-8033597 MINT-8033582 I2D: score=4 STRING: ENSP00000364898
    SH2D2AQ9NP311, 2, 3, ENSP000003571824EBI-1348,EBI-490630 MINT-7303133 MINT-7303194 MINT-7135547 MINT-7135623 MINT-7303144 MINT-7135538 MINT-7135634 MINT-7135612 MINT-7135817 MINT-7135583 MINT-7303166 I2D: score=6 STRING: ENSP00000357182
    -P225751, 2EBI-1348,EBI-7709835 MINT-7301103 MINT-7301088 EBI-1348,EBI-866709 MINT-50691 MINT-4652881 MINT-4652900 MINT-3375858 MINT-3375824 MINT-50692 MINT-3375792 MINT-3375894
    PTPRCP085751, 2, 3, ENSP000003563464EBI-1348,EBI-1341 MINT-8310873 MINT-8310398 MINT-8310416 MINT-8311622 MINT-8310648 I2D: score=7 STRING: ENSP00000356346
    PTPN6P293501, 2, 3, ENSP000003915924EBI-1348,EBI-78260 MINT-8310748 MINT-8310738 MINT-8310762 MINT-8310776 I2D: score=4 STRING: ENSP00000391592
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 41):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006468protein phosphorylation IDA214242
    GO:0006882cellular zinc ion homeostasis ISS--
    GO:0006915apoptotic process ----
    GO:0006919activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process ISS--
    GO:0007166cell surface receptor signaling pathway ----

    Find genes that share ontologies with LCK           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Enzo Life Sciences drugs & compounds for LCK
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Compounds for LCK available from Tocris Bioscience    About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    1-Naphthyl PP1Src family kinase inhibitor; also inhibits c-Abl[221243-82-9]
    PP 2 Potent, selective Src family kinase inhibitor [172889-27-9]
    PP 3Negative control for PP 2 (Cat. No. 1407)[5334-30-5]
    BosutinibDual Src-Abl inhibitor; antiproliferative[380843-75-4]
    PP 1 Potent, selective Src family kinase inhibitor [172889-26-8]

    3 HMDB Compounds for LCK    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    ADPadenosindiphosphorsaeure (see all 8)58-64-0--
    Adenosine triphosphate5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate) Adenosine (see all 24)56-65-5--
    PhosphateNFB Orthophosphate (see all 13)14265-44-2--

    Selected DrugBank Compounds for LCK (see all 13)    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    1-Tert-Butyl-3-(4-Chloro-Phenyl)-1h-Pyrazolo[3,4-D]Pyrimidin-4-Ylamine-- --target--17139284 17016423 10592235
    Dasatinib-- 302962-49-8targetmultitarget20072833 11752352 17154512
    (4-{2-Acetylamino-2-[1-(3-Carbamoyl-4-Cyclohexylmethoxy-Phenyl)-Ethylcarbamoyl}-Ethyl}-2-Phosphono-Phenoxy)-Acetic Acid-- --target--17139284 17016423
    Phosphoaminophosphonic Acid-Adenylate Ester-- --target--17139284 17016423
    Staurosporine-- 62996-74-1target--17139284 17016423
    {4-[2-Acetylamino-2-(3-Carbamoyl-2-Cyclohexylmethoxy-6,7,8,9-Tetrahydro-5h-Benzocyclohepten-5ylcarbamoyl)-Ethyl]-2-Phosphono-Phenyl}-Phosphonic Acid-- --target--17139284 17016423
    2,3-DIPHENYL-N-(2-PIPERAZIN-1-YLETHYL)FURO[2,3-B]PYRIDIN-4-AMINE-- --target--10592235
    3-(2-AMINOQUINAZOLIN-6-YL)-4-METHYL-N-[3-(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)PHENYL]BENZAMIDE-- --target--10592235
    5,6-DIPHENYL-N-(2-PIPERAZIN-1-YLETHYL)FURO[2,3-D]PYRIMIDIN-4-AMINE-- --target--10592235
    N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-5-phenylimidazo[1,5-a]pyrazin-8-amine-- --target--10592235

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for LCK gene (see all 68)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    tyrosine 90.7 1050 16154907 (5), 8756658 (4), 1697929 (4), 9225005 (4) (see all 99)
    phosphotyrosine 80 35 8618896 (2), 7539434 (2), 8626636 (2), 12922168 (2) (see all 26)
    herbimycin a 73.6 8 7615501 (1), 9341768 (1), 9207149 (1), 9531565 (1) (see all 7)
    damnacanthal 70 8 7547985 (3), 10050753 (1), 11182374 (1)
    a 201 57.7 2 17123354 (1)
    ara-m 56.7 1 7509083 (1)
    phosphatidylinositol 54.4 25 8845017 (3), 10636929 (1), 11694268 (1), 8096851 (1) (see all 18)
    st-pc 52.6 1 17266559 (1)
    serine 50.7 58 9225005 (3), 1385559 (3), 12589038 (3), 8910336 (3) (see all 34)
    threonine 49.5 19 7547985 (1), 8794306 (1), 10762062 (1), 8887682 (1) (see all 15)

    1 PharmGKB related drug/compound annotation for LCK gene    About this table
    Drug/compound PharmGKB Annotation
    pazopanib



    Find genes that share compounds with LCK           About GenesLikeMe



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
    About This Section

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    REFSEQ mRNAs for LCK gene (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001042771.2  NM_005356.4  

    Unigene Cluster for LCK:

    Lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase
    Hs.470627  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: BC013200
    13 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000336890(uc001bux.3 uc001bva.3) ENST00000482949 ENST00000495610
    ENST00000355928 ENST00000476457 ENST00000469765 ENST00000461712 ENST00000373562
    ENST00000477031 ENST00000373557 ENST00000333070(uc010ohc.1 uc001buy.3 uc001buz.3)
    ENST00000469956 ENST00000373564
    miRNA
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    hsa-miR-202 hsa-miR-4257
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      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat LCK

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AF228313.1 AJ865079.1 AK098027.1 AK303073.1 BC013200.1 M36881.1 U07236.1 X04476.1 
    X05027.1 X06369.1 X13529.1 

    19 DOTS entries:

    DT.91672474  DT.91762501  DT.95346527  DT.121325198  DT.121325457  DT.100021868  DT.414928  DT.121325377 
    DT.100749446  DT.121325427  DT.121325430  DT.75198010  DT.100739523  DT.100749445  DT.40106180  DT.91985416 
    DT.100662923  DT.121325197  DT.97804498 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 114):

    CB115016 AA354022 BM919471 BM918144 AA306569 BM917288 BI063930 BC013200 
    BI062867 BQ711028 BI820532 BI062346 BG686106 AW084769 CR594236 BI062938 
    BF128825 AA961253 AL558447 AA357039 BG756739 AF228313 AA469965 BX437615 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    Selected Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for LCK (see all 11)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d · 1e ^ 2a · 2b · 2c · 2d ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b · 5c ^ 6a · 6b · 6c ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10a · 10b ^ 11a · 11b ^
    SP1:                                                              -                             -                 -                                             
    SP2:                                -     -     -     -           -                             -                 -                                   -         
    SP3:                                -     -     -     -           -                             -                 -                                   -         
    SP4:                                                              -                             -                 -                 -                 -         
    SP5:                                                                                            -                 -                 -                           

    ExUns: 12 ^ 13 ^ 14a · 14b · 14c
    SP1:                              
    SP2:                              
    SP3:                              
    SP4:                              
    SP5:                              


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for LCK

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

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    LCK expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: TATGTCTTGG
    LCK Expression
    About this image


    LCK expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 6) fully expand
     
     Thymus (Hematopoietic System)    fully expand to see all 5 entries
             Double Negative 3 Thymocytes Thymus
             Thymus
     
     Blood (Cardiovascular System)    fully expand to see all 5 entries
             T Helper Cells Peripheral Blood
     
     Inner Cell Mass (Early Embryonic Tissues)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Human embryonic stem cells (family)
     
     Bone (Muscoskeletal System)
             Bone Marrow
     
     Tonsil (Hematopoietic System)
    LCK Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    LCK Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.470627

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: LCK_HUMAN, P06239
    Tissue specificity: Expressed specifically in lymphoid cells

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including LCK: 
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              Apoptosis 384HT in human mouse rat
              T-cell & B-cell Activation in human mouse rat

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

    Orthologs for LCK gene from Selected species (see all 13)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Lck1 , 5 lymphocyte protein tyrosine kinase1, 5 88.8(n)1
    96.86(a)1
      4 (63.26 cM)5
    168181  NM_001162432.11  NP_001155904.11 
     1295483495 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves LCK1 lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase 80.18(n)
    82.87(a)
      396460  XM_004947815.1  XP_004947872.1 
    tropical clawed frog
    (Xenopus tropicalis)
    Amphibia lck1 lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase 69.94(n)
    76.42(a)
      100497656  XM_002939295.2  XP_002939341.2 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii lck1 lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase 67.54(n)
    71.29(a)
      414333  NM_001001596.1  NP_001001596.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for LCK (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for LCK (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for LCK gene
    FRK2  BLK2  LYN2  FGR2  PTK62  YES12  HCK2  ABL12  
    SRC2  FYN2  ABL22  SRMS2  
    Selected SIMAP similar genes for LCK using alignment to 8 protein entries:     LCK_HUMAN (see all proteins) (see all similar genes):
    FYN    BLK    SRC    YES1    LYN    tec
    HCK    ABL1    FGR    DKFZp686M05208    EPHA2    PTPN6
    SH3GL2    NCK1    c-fgr    NCK2    SLA2    TXK

    Find genes that share paralogs with LCK           About GenesLikeMe



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for LCK (see all 785)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 1 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    VAR_0134654
    Leukemia4--see VAR_0134652 A V mis40--------
    VAR_0134634
    Leukemia4--see VAR_0134632 V L mis40--------
    VAR_0134664
    Leukemia4--see VAR_0134662 P L mis40--------
    rs341258381,2
    C--32717497(+) AGAGA-/GAGAGAG 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- GA:0.00NA 2
    rs341496981,2
    C,F,H--32717538(+) GAGAGA/CCAGAG 1 -- int12Minor allele frequency- C:0.22NS NA 286
    rs720257311,2
    C--32719452(+) CACAC-/AC    
       
    /ACAC
    ACACA
    1 -- int10--------
    rs106569361,2
    C--32724890(+) CAGGT-/AAAA  
      
    /AAAAA
    aaaaa
    1 -- int1 trp30--------
    rs106962861,2
    C--32724891(+) Taaaa-/AAAA  
      
    /AAAAA
    aaaaa
    1 -- int1 trp31NA 2
    rs1119384401,2
    C,F--32727278(+) GGGCCG/AGGTGT 1 -- int12Minor allele frequency- A:0.50NA CSA 4
    rs1390460101,2
    --32732174(+) GAGCTA/GCTACG 1 -- int10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for LCK (32716840 - 32751766 bp)

    Structural Variations
          Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) variations for LCK: --
    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): LCK
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing LCK
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for LCK

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 153390    OMIM disorders: --

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: LCK_HUMAN, P06239
  • Note=A chromosomal aberration involving LCK is found in leukemias. Translocation t(1;7)(p34;q34) with
    TCRB

  • 1 disease for LCK:    
    About MalaCards
    immunodeficiency 22

    3 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for LCK:
    Lymphoma     Leukemia     Leukopenia

    Find genes that share disorders with LCK           About GenesLikeMe

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for LCK gene (see all 50)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    leukemia t-cell 65 25 2116390 (2), 8139546 (2), 9032329 (2), 2384277 (2) (see all 13)
    immunodeficiency 34.3 16 1535787 (2), 11351273 (1), 15976924 (1), 8794306 (1) (see all 13)
    thymoma 29.9 4 7997241 (1), 14688799 (1), 15634634 (1)
    t-all 23.1 3 1663780 (1), 1680958 (1), 12542476 (1)
    lymphoma t-cell 22.4 2 2285146 (1), 15513966 (1)
    autoimmune diseases 19.9 6 19267483 (1), 11717807 (1), 17082661 (1), 16673863 (1)
    hematopoietic malignancies 16.3 3 8712692 (1), 8086341 (1)
    leukemia 7.33 5 7506428 (1), 20185581 (1), 18314490 (1), 7997241 (1)
    asthma 5.58 2 18683785 (1), 18537718 (1)
    metastasis 5.08 7 8869106 (2), 11180095 (2), 11668504 (1), 15634634 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): LCK
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: LCK (4 documents)
    Tumor Gene Database (TGDB): LCK

    Export disorders for LCK gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for LCK gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 1055):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with LCK)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. No association between lck gene polymorphisms and protein level in type 1 diabetes. (PubMed id 12401726)1, 2, 4 Nervi S.... Vialettes B. (Diabetes 2002)
    2. Structure of the two promoters of the human lck gene: differential accumulation of two classes of lck transcripts in T cells. (PubMed id 2787474)1, 2, 3 Takadera T.... Mak T.W. (Mol. Cell. Biol. 1989)
    3. Oncogenic activation of the Lck protein accompanies translocation of the LCK gene in the human HSB2 T-cell leukemia. (PubMed id 8139546)1, 2, 9 Wright D.D.... Kamps M.P. (Mol. Cell. Biol. 1994)
    4. Identification of substrates of human protein-tyrosine phosphatase PTPN22. (PubMed id 16461343)1, 2, 9 Wu J....Clark J.M. (J. Biol. Chem. 2006)
    5. Intracellular signaling of the Ufo/Axl receptor tyrosine kinase is mediated mainly by a multi-substrate docking-site. (PubMed id 9178760)1, 2, 9 Braunger J.... Janssen J.W. (Oncogene 1997)
    6. p70 phosphorylation and binding to p56lck is an early event in interleukin-2-induced onset of cell cycle progression in T- lymphocytes. (PubMed id 7852312)1, 2, 9 Vogel L.B. and Fujita D.J. (J. Biol. Chem. 1995)
    7. Interaction of SAP-1, a transmembrane-type protein-tyrosine phosphatase, with the tyrosine kinase Lck. Roles in regulation of T cell function. (PubMed id 12837766)1, 2, 9 Ito T.... Matozaki T. (J. Biol. Chem. 2003)
    8. Phosphotyrosine-independent binding of a 62-kDa protein to the src homology 2 (SH2) domain of p56lck and its regulation by phosphorylation of Ser-59 in the lck unique N-terminal region. (PubMed id 8618896)1, 2, 9 Park I.... Shin J. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1995)
    9. Structural basis for activation of human lymphocyte kinase Lck upon tyrosine phosphorylation. (PubMed id 8945479)1, 2, 9 Yamaguchi H. and Hendrickson W.A. (Nature 1996)
    10. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef binds directly to LCK and mitogen-activated protein kinase, inhibiting kinase activity. (PubMed id 8794306)1, 2, 9 Greenway A.L.... McPhee D.A. (J. Virol. 1996)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 3932 HGNC: 6524 AceView: LCK Ensembl:ENSG00000182866 euGenes: HUgn3932
    ECgene: LCK Kegg: 3932 H-InvDB: LCK

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section

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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section

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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for LCK Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for LCK Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
    Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lck

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for LCK gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving LCK

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, eBioscience, antibodies-online, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Animal models from genOway)
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    GeneCards Homepage - Last full update: 7 May 2014 - Incrementals: 9 May 2014 , 2 Jun 2014 , 26 Jun 2014 , 30 Jun 2014 , 21 Aug 2014 , 8 Sep 2014 , 7 Oct 2014

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