Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for KYNU Gene

Aliases for KYNU Gene

  • Kynureninase 2 3 3 5
  • L-Kynurenine Hydrolase 2 3 4
  • EC 3.7.1.3 4 58
  • Kynureninase (L-Kynurenine Hydrolase) 2
  • KYNUU 3

External Ids for KYNU Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for KYNU Gene

  • GC02P141324
  • GC02P141952
  • GC02P143657
  • GC02P143845
  • GC02P143468
  • GC02P143351
  • GC02P135626
  • GC02P142877

Summaries for KYNU Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for KYNU Gene

  • Kynureninase is a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (pyridoxal-P) dependent enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of L-kynurenine and L-3-hydroxykynurenine into anthranilic and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acids, respectively. Kynureninase is involved in the biosynthesis of NAD cofactors from tryptophan through the kynurenine pathway. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

GeneCards Summary for KYNU Gene

KYNU (Kynureninase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with KYNU include Hydroxykynureninuria and Pellagra. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and superpathway of tryptophan utilization. GO annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and kynureninase activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for KYNU Gene

  • Catalyzes the cleavage of L-kynurenine (L-Kyn) and L-3-hydroxykynurenine (L-3OHKyn) into anthranilic acid (AA) and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-OHAA), respectively. Has a preference for the L-3-hydroxy form. Also has cysteine-conjugate-beta-lyase activity.

Gene Wiki entry for KYNU Gene

Additional gene information for KYNU Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for KYNU Gene

Genomics for KYNU Gene

Regulatory Elements for KYNU Gene

Enhancers for KYNU Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH02H142864 2 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 50.6 +124.3 124291 16 HDGF PKNOX1 FOXA2 ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 YY1 FOS SP5 KYNU LOC105373652 GC02P142899
GH02H142862 1.9 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 48.1 +114.5 114491 2 FOXA2 ATF1 MLX ZFP64 ARID4B DMAP1 SLC30A9 FOS ATF7 SP5 KYNU LOC105373652 GC02P142855
GH02H142855 1.3 FANTOM5 ENCODE dbSUPER 32.4 +109.4 109398 4 TBP FOXA2 JUN CEBPG GTF3C2 GATA3 FOS NFE2L2 SMARCE1 HLF KYNU GC02P142855 LOC105373652
GH02H142834 0.6 FANTOM5 38.9 +85.3 85336 0 JUN RUNX3 KYNU LOC100129955
GH02H143083 1.1 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 19.7 +334.9 334875 1 JUN CEBPB FOS EP300 KYNU ARHGAP15 GC02P143075 GC02P143090
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around KYNU on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for KYNU Gene

Chromosome:
2
Start:
142,748,928 bp from pter
End:
143,055,832 bp from pter
Size:
306,905 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for KYNU Gene

Genes around KYNU on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
KYNU Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for KYNU Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for KYNU Gene

Proteins for KYNU Gene

  • Protein details for KYNU Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q16719-KYNU_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Kynureninase
    Protein Accession:
    Q16719
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2RCZ5
    • D3DP79
    • Q6I9T2
    • Q9BVW3

    Protein attributes for KYNU Gene

    Size:
    465 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    52352 Da
    Cofactor:
    Name=pyridoxal 5-phosphate; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:597326;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for KYNU Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for KYNU Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for KYNU Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for KYNU Gene

Q16719:
  • LTVNLHL
  • DLAHAVGN
  • APVPLYN
  • GNSLGLQP
  • KAFPSDHYA
  • WCSYKYLN
  • RISNPPI

Post-translational modifications for KYNU Gene

  • Ubiquitination at posLast=9696
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Antibody Products

Domains & Families for KYNU Gene

Gene Families for KYNU Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Disease related genes
  • Enzymes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Potential drug targets
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for KYNU Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q16719

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

KYNU_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the kynureninase family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the kynureninase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with KYNU: view

Function for KYNU Gene

Molecular function for KYNU Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties:
Kinetic parameters: KM=493 uM for L-kynurenine (at pH 7.0) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11985583, ECO:0000269 PubMed:17300176, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8706755, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9180257}; KM=28.3 uM for DL-3-hydroxykynurenine (at pH 7.0) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11985583, ECO:0000269 PubMed:17300176, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8706755, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9180257}; KM=3.0 uM for DL-3-hydroxykynurenine (at pH 7.9) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11985583, ECO:0000269 PubMed:17300176, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8706755, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9180257}; pH dependence: Optimum pH is 8.25 with DL-3-hydroxykynurenine as substrate. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11985583, ECO:0000269 PubMed:17300176, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8706755, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9180257};
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
L-kynurenine + H(2)O = anthranilate + L-alanine.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
L-3-hydroxykynurenine + H(2)O = 3-hydroxyanthranilate + L-alanine.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Inhibited by o-methoxybenzoylalanine (OMBA).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Catalyzes the cleavage of L-kynurenine (L-Kyn) and L-3-hydroxykynurenine (L-3OHKyn) into anthranilic acid (AA) and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-OHAA), respectively. Has a preference for the L-3-hydroxy form. Also has cysteine-conjugate-beta-lyase activity.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
Increased levels in several cerebral and systemic inflammatory conditions.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for KYNU Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for KYNU Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for KYNU Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0016787 hydrolase activity IEA --
GO:0030170 pyridoxal phosphate binding IEA --
GO:0030429 kynureninase activity TAS,IEA --
GO:0042803 protein homodimerization activity IDA 11985583
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with KYNU: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with KYNU: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for KYNU Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Applied Biological Materials Clones for KYNU
  • Vectors and viruses for ORF, Lenti, Retro, Adenovirus, AAV, and more

No data available for Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for KYNU Gene

Localization for KYNU Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for KYNU Gene

Cytoplasm.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for KYNU gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
cytosol 5
nucleus 3
plasma membrane 2

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for KYNU Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IDA 6468727
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with KYNU: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for KYNU Gene

Pathways & Interactions for KYNU Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with KYNU: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Q16719-KYNU_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Amino-acid degradation; L-kynurenine degradation; L-alanine and anthranilate from L-kynurenine: step 1/1.
  • Pathway: Cofactor biosynthesis; NAD(+) biosynthesis; quinolinate from L-kynurenine: step 2/3.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for KYNU Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006569 tryptophan catabolic process TAS,IEA --
GO:0009435 NAD biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0019363 pyridine nucleotide biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0019441 tryptophan catabolic process to kynurenine IBA --
GO:0019442 tryptophan catabolic process to acetyl-CoA IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with KYNU: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for KYNU Gene

Drugs & Compounds for KYNU Gene

(18) Drugs for KYNU Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
L-Alanine Approved Nutra Full agonist, Agonist, Target Glycine receptor agonist 0
Water Approved Pharma 0
3-hydroxyanthranilic acid Experimental Pharma 0
3-Hydroxyhippuric acid Experimental Pharma Target 0
Anthranilic acid Experimental Pharma 1

(12) Additional Compounds for KYNU Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Formylanthranilic acid
  • 2-(Formylamino)-benzoate
  • 2-(Formylamino)-benzoic acid
  • 2-(Formylamino)benzoate
  • 2-(Formylamino)benzoic acid
  • 2-Formamidobenzoate
3342-77-6
Hydroxykynurenine
  • 3-(3-Hydroxyanthraniloyl)-Alanine
  • 3-Hydroxy-DL-kynurenine
  • 3-Hydroxy-Kynurenine
  • 3-Hydroxykynurenine
  • DL-3-Hydroxykynurenine
484-78-6
L-3-Hydroxykynurenine
  • 3-(2-Amino-3-hydroxybenzoyl)-L-alanine
  • 3-(3-Hydroxyanthraniloyl)-L-alanine
  • 3-Hydroxy-L-kynurenine
  • L-3-HK
606-14-4
L-Formylkynurenine
N'-Formylkynurenine
  • 3-(N-Formylanthraniloyl)-Alanine
  • alpha-Amino-2-(formylamino)-gamma-oxo-Benzenebutanoate
  • alpha-Amino-2-(formylamino)-gamma-oxo-Benzenebutanoic acid
  • Formylkynurenine
  • N'-Formyl-Kynurenine
1022-31-7
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with KYNU: view

Transcripts for KYNU Gene

Unigene Clusters for KYNU Gene

Kynureninase:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Applied Biological Materials Clones for KYNU
  • Vectors and viruses for ORF, Lenti, Retro, Adenovirus, AAV, and more

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for KYNU Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for KYNU Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
KYNU
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
KYNU

Expression for KYNU Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for KYNU Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for KYNU Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (x11.1) and Whole Blood (x7.8).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for KYNU Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Tonsil (13.4), Stomach (13.2), and Monocytes (9.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for KYNU Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for KYNU Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of KYNU Gene:

KYNU

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for KYNU Gene:

Hs.470126

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for KYNU Gene:

Q16719-KYNU_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Expressed in all tissues tested (heart, brain placenta, lung, liver, skeletal muscle, kidney and pancreas). Highest levels found in placenta, liver and lung. Expressed in all brain regions.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for KYNU Gene

  • Liver(4.5)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for KYNU Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
Systems:
  • cardiovascular
  • nervous
  • respiratory
  • skeletal muscle
  • urinary
Organs:
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • ear
  • head
Thorax:
  • heart
  • heart valve
Abdomen:
  • kidney
General:
  • blood vessel
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with KYNU: view

Primer Products

Orthologs for KYNU Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for KYNU Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia KYNU 33 34
  • 99.71 (n)
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia KYNU 33 34
  • 89.51 (n)
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia KYNU 33 34
  • 88.77 (n)
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Kynu 33
  • 84.63 (n)
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Kynu 33 16 34
  • 84.27 (n)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia KYNU 34
  • 73 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia KYNU 34
  • 44 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves KYNU 33 34
  • 70.9 (n)
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia KYNU 34
  • 69 (a)
OneToOne
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii KYNU (1 of 2) 34
  • 59 (a)
OneToMany
KYNU (2 of 2) 34
  • 48 (a)
OneToMany
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.8241 33
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea C15H9.7 35 33
  • 55 (n)
flu-2 34
  • 47 (a)
OneToOne
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes BNA5 33 34 36
  • 52.28 (n)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AGL098W 33
  • 46.94 (n)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU00463 33
  • 52.39 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 47 (a)
OneToMany
-- 34
  • 47 (a)
OneToMany
-- 34
  • 46 (a)
OneToMany
-- 34
  • 46 (a)
OneToMany
-- 34
  • 44 (a)
OneToMany
-- 34
  • 43 (a)
OneToMany
-- 34
  • 42 (a)
OneToMany
-- 34
  • 37 (a)
OneToMany
CSA.3700 34
  • 32 (a)
OneToMany
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.13357 33
Species where no ortholog for KYNU was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for KYNU Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for KYNU (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for KYNU (if available)

Paralogs for KYNU Gene

Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for KYNU Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with KYNU: view

No data available for Paralogs for KYNU Gene

Variants for KYNU Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for KYNU Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 02 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs606231307 Pathogenic, Hydroxykynureninuria (HYXKY) [MIM:236800] 142,960,633(+) AAGAA(A/G)CCTTA nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense
rs2304705 Uncertain significance 142,957,696(+) TATGC(A/C/G)GATGA nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense
rs1000021755 -- 142,957,225(+) TGGTA(C/T)TCTTA intron-variant
rs1000022988 -- 143,002,796(+) ATTTT(A/G)AATCA intron-variant
rs1000035084 -- 142,924,165(+) AGTGG(C/T)GTGAT intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for KYNU Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv22318 CNV loss 19812545
esv3592745 CNV loss 21293372
esv3592747 CNV loss 21293372
nsv507038 OTHER sequence alteration 20534489
nsv515932 CNV loss 19592680
nsv517623 CNV loss 19592680
nsv834395 CNV gain 17160897

Variation tolerance for KYNU Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 28% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.61; 31.01% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for KYNU Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
KYNU
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
KYNU

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for KYNU Gene

Disorders for KYNU Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(3) MalaCards diseases for KYNU Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
hydroxykynureninuria
  • kynureninase deficiency
pellagra
  • niacin deficiency
transient cerebral ischemia
  • tia
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search KYNU in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

KYNU_HUMAN
  • Hydroxykynureninuria (HYXKY) [MIM:236800]: An inborn error of amino acid metabolism characterized by massive urinary excretion of large amounts of kynurenine, 3-hydroxykynurenine and xanthurenic acid. Affected individuals manifest renal tubular dysfunction, metabolic acidosis, psychomotor retardation, non-progressive encephalopathy, and muscular hypertonia. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:17334708}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Relevant External Links for KYNU

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
KYNU
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
KYNU
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
KYNU
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with KYNU: view

No data available for Genatlas for KYNU Gene

Publications for KYNU Gene

  1. Xanthurenic aciduria due to a mutation in KYNU encoding kynureninase. (PMID: 17334708) Christensen M … Christensen E (Journal of inherited metabolic disease 2007) 3 4 22 25 60
  2. Cloning and recombinant expression of rat and human kynureninase. (PMID: 9180257) Toma S … Benatti L (FEBS letters 1997) 2 3 4 22 60
  3. Isolation and expression of a cDNA clone encoding human kynureninase. (PMID: 8706755) Alberati-Giani D … Cesura AM (European journal of biochemistry 1996) 2 3 4 22 60
  4. Crystal structure of Homo sapiens kynureninase. (PMID: 17300176) Lima S … Phillips RS (Biochemistry 2007) 4 22 25 60
  5. [A polymorphism of kynureninase gene in a hypertensive candidate chromosomal region is associated with essential hypertension]. (PMID: 16080802) Zhang Y … Zhu DL (Zhonghua xin xue guan bing za zhi 2005) 3 22 45 60

Products for KYNU Gene

Sources for KYNU Gene

Content
Loading form....