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Aliases for KYNU Gene

Aliases for KYNU Gene

  • Kynureninase 2 3
  • L-Kynurenine Hydrolase 2 3 4
  • EC 3.7.1.3 4 64
  • Kynureninase (L-Kynurenine Hydrolase) 2
  • KYNUU 3

External Ids for KYNU Gene

Summaries for KYNU Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for KYNU Gene

  • Kynureninase is a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (pyridoxal-P) dependent enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of L-kynurenine and L-3-hydroxykynurenine into anthranilic and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acids, respectively. Kynureninase is involved in the biosynthesis of NAD cofactors from tryptophan through the kynurenine pathway. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

GeneCards Summary for KYNU Gene

KYNU (Kynureninase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with KYNU include hydroxykynureninuria and transient cerebral ischemia. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and kynureninase activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for KYNU Gene

  • Catalyzes the cleavage of L-kynurenine (L-Kyn) and L-3-hydroxykynurenine (L-3OHKyn) into anthranilic acid (AA) and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-OHAA), respectively. Has a preference for the L-3-hydroxy form. Also has cysteine-conjugate-beta-lyase activity

Gene Wiki entry for KYNU Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for KYNU Gene

Genomics for KYNU Gene

Genomic Location for KYNU Gene

Start:
142,877,498 bp from pter
End:
143,055,832 bp from pter
Size:
178,335 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for KYNU Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for KYNU Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for KYNU Gene

Regulatory Elements for KYNU Gene

Proteins for KYNU Gene

  • Protein details for KYNU Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q16719-KYNU_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Kynureninase
    Protein Accession:
    Q16719
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2RCZ5
    • D3DP79
    • Q6I9T2
    • Q9BVW3

    Protein attributes for KYNU Gene

    Size:
    465 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    52352 Da
    Cofactor:
    Name=pyridoxal 5-phosphate; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:597326;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for KYNU Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for KYNU Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for KYNU Gene

Proteomics data for KYNU Gene at MOPED

Selected DME Specific Peptides for KYNU Gene

Post-translational modifications for KYNU Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Ubiquitination at Lys96

Other Protein References for KYNU Gene

Domains for KYNU Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

KYNU_HUMAN
Family:
  • Belongs to the kynureninase family.:
    • Q16719
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with KYNU: view

No data available for Gene Families for KYNU Gene

Function for KYNU Gene

Molecular function for KYNU Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties: Kinetic parameters: KM=493 uM for L-kynurenine (at pH 7.0) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11985583, ECO:0000269 PubMed:17300176, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8706755, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9180257}; KM=28.3 uM for DL-3-hydroxykynurenine (at pH 7.0) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11985583, ECO:0000269 PubMed:17300176, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8706755, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9180257}; KM=3.0 uM for DL-3-hydroxykynurenine (at pH 7.9) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11985583, ECO:0000269 PubMed:17300176, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8706755, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9180257}; pH dependence: Optimum pH is 8.25 with DL-3-hydroxykynurenine as substrate. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11985583, ECO:0000269 PubMed:17300176, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8706755, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9180257};
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity: L-kynurenine + H(2)O = anthranilate + L-alanine.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity: L-3-hydroxykynurenine + H(2)O = 3-hydroxyanthranilate + L-alanine.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation: Inhibited by o-methoxybenzoylalanine (OMBA).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Catalyzes the cleavage of L-kynurenine (L-Kyn) and L-3-hydroxykynurenine (L-3OHKyn) into anthranilic acid (AA) and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-OHAA), respectively. Has a preference for the L-3-hydroxy form. Also has cysteine-conjugate-beta-lyase activity
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction: Increased levels in several cerebral and systemic inflammatory conditions

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for KYNU Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for KYNU Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0030170 pyridoxal phosphate binding IEA --
GO:0030429 kynureninase activity TAS --
GO:0042803 protein homodimerization activity IDA 11985583
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with KYNU: view

Phenotypes for KYNU Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with KYNU: view

No data available for Animal Models , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for KYNU Gene

Localization for KYNU Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for KYNU Gene

Cytoplasm.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for KYNU Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for KYNU gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
mitochondrion 5
nucleus 4
plasma membrane 2
extracellular 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for KYNU Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm IDA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IDA 6468727
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with KYNU: view

Pathways for KYNU Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with KYNU: view

Pathways by source for KYNU Gene

1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters Life Sciences Research) pathway for KYNU Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Q16719-KYNU_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Amino-acid degradation; L-kynurenine degradation; L-alanine and anthranilate from L-kynurenine: step 1/1.
  • Pathway: Cofactor biosynthesis; NAD(+) biosynthesis; quinolinate from L-kynurenine: step 2/3.

Interacting Proteins for KYNU Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for KYNU Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006569 tryptophan catabolic process TAS --
GO:0008152 metabolic process --
GO:0009435 NAD biosynthetic process --
GO:0019441 tryptophan catabolic process to kynurenine IEA --
GO:0019442 tryptophan catabolic process to acetyl-CoA IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with KYNU: view

Compounds for KYNU Gene

(11) HMDB Compounds for KYNU Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
2-Aminobenzoic acid
  • 1-Amino-2-carboxybenzene
118-92-3
3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid
  • 2-Amino-3-hydroxybenzoate
548-93-6
Formylanthranilic acid
  • 2-(Formylamino)-benzoic acid
3342-77-6
Hydroxykynurenine
  • 3-(3-hydroxyanthraniloyl)-Alanine
484-78-6
L-3-Hydroxykynurenine
  • 3-Hydroxy-L-kynurenine
606-14-4

(3) Drugbank Compounds for KYNU Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number Type Actions PubMed IDs
3-Hydroxyhippuric acid
target
L-Alanine
  • (2S)-2-Aminopropanoic acid
56-41-7 target
Pyridoxal Phosphate
  • Codecarboxylase
54-47-7 target cofactor

(18) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for KYNU Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
kynurenine 94.8 39
3-hydroxyanthranilic acid 91.7 8
3-hydroxykynurenine 90.5 7
quinolinic acid 84.8 6
indoleamine 77.6 6
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with KYNU: view

Transcripts for KYNU Gene

Unigene Clusters for KYNU Gene

Kynureninase:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for KYNU Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for KYNU Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
KYNU
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
KYNU

Expression for KYNU Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for KYNU Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for KYNU Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (11.1) and Whole Blood (7.8).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for KYNU Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for KYNU Gene Hs.470126

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for KYNU Gene

Q16719-KYNU_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Expressed in all tissues tested (heart, brain placenta, lung, liver, skeletal muscle, kidney and pancreas). Highest levels found in placenta, liver and lung. Expressed in all brain regions.
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with KYNU: view

Orthologs for KYNU Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for KYNU Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia KYNU 36
  • 99.71 (n)
  • 99.57 (a)
KYNU 37
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia KYNU 36
  • 88.77 (n)
  • 86.61 (a)
KYNU 37
  • 87 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia KYNU 36
  • 89.51 (n)
  • 87.72 (a)
KYNU 37
  • 88 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Kynu 36
  • 84.27 (n)
  • 83.77 (a)
Kynu 16
Kynu 37
  • 83 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia KYNU 37
  • 73 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia KYNU 37
  • 44 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Kynu 36
  • 84.63 (n)
  • 85.28 (a)
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves KYNU 36
  • 70.9 (n)
  • 71.61 (a)
KYNU 37
  • 65 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia KYNU 37
  • 69 (a)
OneToOne
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.8241 36
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii KYNU (1 of 2) 37
  • 59 (a)
OneToMany
KYNU (2 of 2) 37
  • 48 (a)
OneToMany
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea C15H9.7 36
  • 55 (n)
  • 50.45 (a)
flu-2 37
  • 47 (a)
OneToOne
C15H9.7 38
  • 50 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AGL098W 36
  • 46.94 (n)
  • 42.24 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes BNA5 36
  • 52.28 (n)
  • 47.88 (a)
BNA5 37
  • 43 (a)
OneToOne
BNA5 39
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU00463 36
  • 52.39 (n)
  • 47.53 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.13357 36
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 37
  • 42 (a)
OneToMany
-- 37
  • 37 (a)
OneToMany
-- 37
  • 46 (a)
OneToMany
-- 37
  • 43 (a)
OneToMany
-- 37
  • 44 (a)
OneToMany
-- 37
  • 47 (a)
OneToMany
-- 37
  • 46 (a)
OneToMany
-- 37
  • 47 (a)
OneToMany
CSA.3700 37
  • 32 (a)
OneToMany
Species with no ortholog for KYNU:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for KYNU Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for KYNU (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for KYNU (if available)

Paralogs for KYNU Gene

Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for KYNU Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with KYNU: view

No data available for Paralogs for KYNU Gene

Variants for KYNU Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for KYNU Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 02 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs2643 -- 143,042,212(-) AGCAG(C/T)TTTCA utr-variant-3-prime
rs9013 - 143,040,620(-) ATCTT(C/T)GTTTG reference, missense
rs164605 -- 142,965,888(-) AAAGA(C/G)GAAAG intron-variant
rs164731 -- 142,922,995(-) TGAGG(A/T)TACAG intron-variant
rs164732 -- 142,909,531(-) tttaa(A/G)tggga intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for KYNU Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv875258 CNV Gain 21882294
nsv834395 CNV Gain 17160897
nsv875259 CNV Gain 21882294
esv22318 CNV Loss 19812545
nsv517623 CNV Loss 19592680
nsv515932 CNV Loss 19592680
nsv507038 CNV Insertion 20534489

Relevant External Links for KYNU Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
KYNU
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
KYNU

Disorders for KYNU Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

KYNU_HUMAN
  • Hydroxykynureninuria (HYXKY) [MIM:236800]: An inborn error of amino acid metabolism characterized by massive urinary excretion of large amounts of kynurenine, 3-hydroxykynurenine and xanthurenic acid. Affected individuals manifest renal tubular dysfunction, metabolic acidosis, psychomotor retardation, non-progressive encephalopathy, and muscular hypertonia. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:17334708}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

(1) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for KYNU Gene

(3) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for KYNU Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
hydroxykynureninuria 95.1 2
transient cerebral ischemia 56.8 1
cerebral ischemia 19.5 1

Relevant External Links for KYNU

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
KYNU
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
KYNU
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with KYNU: view

Publications for KYNU Gene

  1. Isolation and expression of a cDNA clone encoding human kynureninase. (PMID: 8706755) Alberati-Giani D. … Cesura A.M. (Eur. J. Biochem. 1996) 2 3 4 23
  2. Cloning and recombinant expression of rat and human kynureninase. (PMID: 9180257) Toma S. … Benatti L. (FEBS Lett. 1997) 2 3 4 23
  3. Purification and biochemical characterization of some of the properties of recombinant human kynureninase. (PMID: 11985583) Walsh H.A. … Botting N.P. (Eur. J. Biochem. 2002) 3 4 23 25
  4. Xanthurenic aciduria due to a mutation in KYNU encoding kynureninase. (PMID: 17334708) Christensen M. … Christensen E. (J. Inherit. Metab. Dis. 2007) 3 4 23 25
  5. [A polymorphism of kynureninase gene in a hypertensive candidate chromosomal region is associated with essential hypertension]. (PMID: 16080802) Zhang Y. … Zhu D.L. (Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi 2005) 3 23 49

Products for KYNU Gene

Sources for KYNU Gene

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