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KRT28 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 45
GCID: GC17M038948

Keratin 28

(Previous name: keratin 25D)
(Previous symbol: KRT25D)
  Search for KRT28
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Keratin 281 2     Keratin, Type I Cytoskeletal 282
KRT25D1 2 3     keratin-25D2
Keratin 25D1 2     keratin-282
Type I Inner Root Sheath-Specific Keratin-K25irs42 3     Type I Inner Root Sheath Specific Keratin 25 Irs42
CK-282 3     Cytokeratin-283
K25D2 3     Keratin-25D3
K282 3     Keratin-283
cytokeratin-282     

External Ids:    HGNC: 308421   Entrez Gene: 1626052   Ensembl: ENSG000001739087   UniProtKB: Q7Z3Y73   

Export aliases for KRT28 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC17M036202 GC17M034742


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for KRT28 Gene:
This gene encodes a member of the type I (acidic) keratin family, which belongs to the superfamily of intermediate
filament (IF) proteins. Keratins are heteropolymeric structural proteins which form the intermediate filament.
These filaments, along with actin microfilaments and microtubules, compose the cytoskeleton of epithelial cells.
The type I keratin genes are clustered in a region of chromosome 17q12-q21. (provided by RefSeq, Jul 2009)

GeneCards Summary for KRT28 Gene:
KRT28 (keratin 28) is a protein-coding gene. GO annotations related to this gene include structural molecule activity. An important paralog of this gene is KRT34.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: K1C28_HUMAN, Q7Z3Y7
Function: Essential for the proper assembly of types I and II keratin protein complexes and the formation of
keratin intermediate filaments in the inner root sheath (irs) (By similarity)




(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000017.10  NC_018928.2  NT_010783.16  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the KRT28 gene promoter:
         C/EBPbeta   NRSF form 1   NRSF form 2   HNF-1A   POU2F1   POU2F1a   HNF-1   POU2F1b   POU2F1c   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidKRT28 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for KRT28

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat KRT28


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 17q21.2   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  17q21.2   HGNC cytogenetic band: 17q21.2

KRT28 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
KRT28 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 17         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC17M038948:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
38,948,448 bp from pter      End:
38,956,211 bp from pter
Size:
7,764 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: K1C28_HUMAN, Q7Z3Y7 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Keratin, type I cytoskeletal 28  
Size: 464 amino acids; 50567 Da
Subunit: Heterotetramer of two type I and two type II keratins
Miscellaneous: There are two types of cytoskeletal and microfibrillar keratin: I (acidic; 40-55 kDa) and II
(neutral to basic; 56-70 kDa)
Sequence caution: Sequence=BAC85240.1; Type=Erroneous initiation;
Secondary accessions: Q6ZP84

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for KRT28: NX_Q7Z3Y7

Explore proteomics data for KRT28 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Modification sites at neXtProt
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See KRT28 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_853513.2  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000305263  

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    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    IFF1: Intermediate filaments type I, keratins (acidic)

    2 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR001664 IF
     IPR002957 Keratin_I

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q7Z3Y7

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q7Z3Y7

    2 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB001664 Intermediate filament protein
    IPB002957 Type I keratin signature


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: K1C28_HUMAN, Q7Z3Y7
    Similarity: Belongs to the intermediate filament family


    Find genes that share domains with KRT28           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: K1C28_HUMAN, Q7Z3Y7
    Function: Essential for the proper assembly of types I and II keratin protein complexes and the formation of
    keratin intermediate filaments in the inner root sheath (irs) (By similarity)

         Gene Ontology (GO): 2 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0003674molecular_function ND--
    GO:0005198structural molecule activity IEA--
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with KRT28           About GenesLikeMe


    Animal Models:
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    miRNA
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    miRTarBase miRNAs that target KRT28:
    hsa-mir-1229-3p (MIRT036264)

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    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    K1C28_HUMAN, Q7Z3Y7: Cytoplasm (By similarity)
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    cytoskeleton3
    cytosol3
    golgi apparatus1
    mitochondrion1
    nucleus1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 3 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005575cellular_component ND--
    GO:0005737cytoplasm IEA--
    GO:0005882intermediate filament IEA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with KRT28           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for KRT28
    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for KRT28

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 2 interactants - click image to see more details)

    3 Interacting proteins for KRT28 (Q7Z3Y73 ENSP000003052634) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    UCHL5Q9Y5K53, ENSP000003564254I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000356425
    RAB24Q969Q53I2D: score=1 
    UBCENSP000003448184STRING: ENSP00000344818
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 1 biological process term:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0008150biological_process ND--

    Find genes that share ontologies with KRT28           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for KRT28 (K1C28)



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for KRT28 gene: 
    NM_181535.3  

    Unigene Cluster for KRT28:

    Keratin 28
    Hs.59736  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_181535
    1 Ensembl transcript including schematic representation, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000306658(uc002hvh.1)
    miRNA
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      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat KRT28

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AJ564207.1 AK129827.1 

    2 DOTS entries:

    DT.91826045  DT.95280475 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 78):

    AK129827 AI800571 AJ564207 BG698319 BG200003 NM_181535 BG215723 BG200495 
    BG217279 BG196885 BG214103 W95802 BG188107 BG197893 BG190786 BG204105 
    BG198395 BG195372 BG190304 BG213540 BG206232 BG193879 BG197381 BG204006 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    KRT28 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: CTCCAAATCA
    KRT28 Expression
    About this image


    KRT28 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 2) fully expand
     
     Epithelial Cells
             Fetal Inner Root Sheath Cells Inner Root Sheath
     
     Hair (Integumentary System)
             Fetal Inner Root Sheath Cells Inner Root Sheath
    KRT28 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    KRT28 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.59736

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: K1C28_HUMAN, Q7Z3Y7
    Tissue specificity: Strongly expressed in skin and scalp, and weak expression observed in thymus. In the hair
    follicle, expressed in Henle layer, Huxley layer and in the irs cuticle. Expression extends from the bulb region
    up to the point of differentiation into the three layers. Also present in the medulla of beard hair (at protein
    level)

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    Assay Products:
     

     
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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of human and mouse.

    Orthologs for KRT28 gene from Selected species (see all 7)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Krt281 , 5 keratin 281, 5 82.47(n)1
    85.71(a)1
      11 (62.92 cM)5
    708431  NM_027574.11  NP_081850.11 
     993648725 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for KRT28 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for KRT28 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for KRT28 gene
    KRT342  KRT172  KRT162  KRT312  KRT252  KRT392  KRT402  KRT202  
    KRT372  KRT272  KRT322  KRT382  KRT362  KRT192  KRT142  KRT132  
    KRT262  KRT102  KRT122  KRT352  KRT152  KRT242  KRT92  KRT33B2  
    KRT33A2  
    Selected SIMAP similar genes for KRT28 using alignment to 1 protein entry:     K1C28_HUMAN(see all similar genes):
    KRT27    KRT25    KRT26    KRT19    KRT10    KRT12
    KRT13    KRT15    JUP    keratin    KRT14    KRT16
    KRT17    KRT24    KRT20    KRT9    KRT33B    KRT40

    Find genes that share paralogs with KRT28           About GenesLikeMe



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for KRT28 (see all 255)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 17 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1164944711,2
    F--39735254(+) GTGATT/CTAAAG 1 -- ds50011Minor allele frequency- C:0.03WA 118
    rs1512466261,2
    --39735282(+) TTTCAC/TATTCA 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1160974211,2
    F--39735301(+) GTGGCG/AGTATT 1 -- ds50011Minor allele frequency- A:0.03WA 118
    rs24295461,2
    C,F,A,H--39735372(+) TGAATG/TAGACA 1 -- ds500124Minor allele frequency- T:0.40NS EA NA WA CSA 2350
    rs801100571,2
    C,F--39735594(+) TTATTC/ATTTTC 1 -- ut311Minor allele frequency- A:0.14WA 118
    rs1404599081,2
    C--39735642(+) CTTGCC/TGTTGG 2 S G mis10--------
    rs2015691081,2
    C--39735648(+) GTTGGC/TCATTT 2 T A mis10--------
    rs1486825801,2
    C,F--39735693(+) TGAAAG/TAACTT 2 I L mis11Minor allele frequency- T:0.01NA 4532
    rs2007088851,2
    --39735801(+) GATTAC/TATGAC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1851845711,2
    --39735873(+) TATTTA/GTAATA 1 -- int10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for KRT28 (38948448 - 38956211 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 2 variations for KRT28:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    dgv3166n71CNV Loss21882294
    nsv908226CNV Loss21882294

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing KRT28
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    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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      --

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for KRT28 gene integrated from 10 sources:
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with KRT28)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. New consensus nomenclature for mammalian keratins. (PubMed id 16831889)1, 3 Schweizer J....Wright M.W. (J. Cell Biol. 2006)
    2. The human type I keratin gene family: characterization of new hair follicle specific members and evaluation of the chromosome 17q21.2 gene domain. (PubMed id 15617563)1, 2 Rogers M.A.... Schweizer J. (Differentiation 2004)
    3. Integrative analysis of the ubiquitin proteome isolated using Tandem Ubiquitin Binding Entities (TUBEs). (PubMed id 22178446)1 Lopitz-Otsoa F....Rodriguez M.S. (J Proteomics 2012)
    4. The interaction between ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase 37 and glucose-regulated protein 78 in hepatocellular carcinoma. (PubMed id 21800051)1 Fang Y....Shen X. (Mol. Cell. Biochem. 2012)
    5. K25 (K25irs1), K26 (K25irs2), K27 (K25irs3), and K28 (K25irs4) represent the type I inner root sheath keratins of the human hair follicle. (PubMed id 16874310)2 Langbein L.... Schweizer J. (J. Invest. Dermatol. 2006)
    6. DNA sequence of human chromosome 17 and analysis of rearrangement in the human lineage. (PubMed id 16625196)2 Zody M.C.... Nusbaum C. (Nature 2006)
    7. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PubMed id 14702039)2 Ota T.... Sugano S. (Nat. Genet. 2004)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 162605 HGNC: 30842 AceView: KRT25D Ensembl:ENSG00000173908 euGenes: HUgn162605
    ECgene: KRT28 H-InvDB: KRT28

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for KRT28 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for KRT28 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving KRT28

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    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, eBioscience, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Animal models from inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway)
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     Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat KRT28 using miScript Target Protectors SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing KRT28
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