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Aliases for KRAS Gene

Aliases for KRAS Gene

  • Kirsten Rat Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog 2 3
  • V-Ki-Ras2 Kirsten Rat Sarcoma 2 Viral Oncogene Homolog 2 3
  • C-Ki-Ras 3 4
  • K-Ras 2 3 4
  • C-K-RAS 3 4
  • KI-RAS 3 4
  • KRAS2 3 4
  • RASK2 3 4
  • V-Ki-Ras2 Kirsten Rat Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog 2
  • Cellular C-Ki-Ras2 Proto-Oncogene 3
  • Transforming Protein P21 3
  • PR310 C-K-Ras Oncogene 3
  • C-Kirsten-Ras Protein 3
  • K-Ras P21 Protein 3
  • Oncogene KRAS2 3
  • K-RAS2A 3
  • K-RAS2B 3
  • K-RAS4A 3
  • K-RAS4B 3
  • KRAS1 3
  • CFC2 3
  • RALD 3
  • NS3 3
  • NS 3

External Ids for KRAS Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for KRAS Gene

  • KRAS2

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for KRAS Gene

  • GC12M025250
  • GC12M025358
  • GC12M025128

Summaries for KRAS Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for KRAS Gene

  • This gene, a Kirsten ras oncogene homolog from the mammalian ras gene family, encodes a protein that is a member of the small GTPase superfamily. A single amino acid substitution is responsible for an activating mutation. The transforming protein that results is implicated in various malignancies, including lung adenocarcinoma, mucinous adenoma, ductal carcinoma of the pancreas and colorectal carcinoma. Alternative splicing leads to variants encoding two isoforms that differ in the C-terminal region. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for KRAS Gene

KRAS (Kirsten Rat Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with KRAS include kras-related cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome and kras-related noonan syndrome. Among its related pathways are PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and MAPK signaling pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include GTP binding and protein complex binding. An important paralog of this gene is HRAS.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for KRAS Gene

  • Ras proteins bind GDP/GTP and possess intrinsic GTPase activity. Plays an important role in the regulation of cell proliferation (PubMed:23698361, PubMed:22711838).

Gene Wiki entry for KRAS Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for KRAS Gene

Genomics for KRAS Gene

Regulatory Elements for KRAS Gene

Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the KRAS gene promoter:

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for KRAS Gene

25,204,789 bp from pter
25,250,936 bp from pter
46,148 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for KRAS Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for KRAS Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for KRAS Gene

Proteins for KRAS Gene

  • Protein details for KRAS Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    GTPase KRas
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K8Z5
    • B0LPF9
    • P01118
    • Q96D10

    Protein attributes for KRAS Gene

    189 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    21656 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with PHLPP. Interacts (active GTP-bound form preferentially) with RGS14 (By similarity). Interacts (when farnesylated) with PDE6D; this promotes dissociation from the cell membrane (PubMed:23698361). Interacts with SOS1 (PubMed:22431598).

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for KRAS Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for KRAS Gene


neXtProt entry for KRAS Gene

Proteomics data for KRAS Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for KRAS Gene

  • Acetylation at Lys-104 prevents interaction with guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs).
  • Ubiquitination at Lys 88, Lys 117, and Lys 128
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for KRAS Gene

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for KRAS (KRas)

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for KRAS Gene

Domains & Families for KRAS Gene

Gene Families for KRAS Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for KRAS Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the small GTPase superfamily. Ras family.
  • Belongs to the small GTPase superfamily. Ras family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with KRAS: view

Function for KRAS Gene

Molecular function for KRAS Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Alternates between an inactive form bound to GDP and an active form bound to GTP. Activated by a guanine nucleotide-exchange factor (GEF) and inactivated by a GTPase-activating protein (GAP). Interaction with SOS1 promotes exchange of bound GDP by GTP.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Ras proteins bind GDP/GTP and possess intrinsic GTPase activity. Plays an important role in the regulation of cell proliferation (PubMed:23698361, PubMed:22711838).

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for KRAS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003924 GTPase activity --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 12732644
GO:0005525 GTP binding IEA --
GO:0019002 GMP binding IEA --
GO:0019003 GDP binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with KRAS: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with KRAS: view

Animal Models for KRAS Gene

MGI Knock Outs for KRAS:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for KRAS Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target KRAS

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for KRAS

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for KRAS Gene

Localization for KRAS Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for KRAS Gene

Cell membrane; Lipid-anchor; Cytoplasmic side. Cytoplasm, cytosol.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for KRAS Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for KRAS gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
cytosol 3
nucleus 3
cytoskeleton 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
extracellular 2
mitochondrion 2
endosome 1
golgi apparatus 1
lysosome 1
vacuole 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for KRAS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005622 intracellular --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA 23698361
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol IEA --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with KRAS: view

Pathways & Interactions for KRAS Gene

SuperPathways for KRAS Gene

Superpath Contained pathways
1 Interleukin receptor SHC signaling
2 IL-2 Pathway
3 IL-7 Signaling Pathways
4 GPCR Pathway
5 Apoptotic Pathways in Synovial Fibroblasts
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with KRAS: view

Pathways by source for KRAS Gene

PCR Array Products

SIGNOR curated interactions for KRAS Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for KRAS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000165 MAPK cascade TAS --
GO:0000186 activation of MAPKK activity TAS --
GO:0001934 positive regulation of protein phosphorylation IMP 22065586
GO:0002223 stimulatory C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway TAS --
GO:0006886 intracellular protein transport --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with KRAS: view

Drugs & Compounds for KRAS Gene

(66) Drugs for KRAS Gene - From: DGIdb, ClinicalTrials, NovoSeek, PharmGKB, ApexBio, DrugBank, and HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Cetuximab Approved Pharma Antibody, Biomarker, inhibitor EGFR Inhibitors, Therapeutic Antibodies, Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors 696
Erlotinib Approved, Investigational Pharma Inhibition, inhibitor, Biomarker EGFR inhibitor, EGFR Inhibitors, Kinase Inhibitors, Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors 759
Panitumumab Approved, Investigational Pharma inhibitor, Biomarker, antibody EGFR inhibitor, EGFR Inhibitors, Therapeutic Antibodies, Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors 0
Everolimus Approved Pharma inhibitor, Biomarker mTOR inhibitor, mTOR Inhibitors, Kinase Inhibitors, Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors 1742
regorafenib Approved Pharma inhibitor Inhibitor of VEGFR/PDGFR/FGFR/mutant kit/RET/Raf-1, Kinase Inhibitors, Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor (VEGFR) inhibitors 0

(19) Additional Compounds for KRAS Gene - From: NovoSeek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Fatty acid
Partial agonist, Agonist
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with KRAS: view

Transcripts for KRAS Gene

Unigene Clusters for KRAS Gene

V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog:
Representative Sequences:

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for KRAS

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for KRAS Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for KRAS Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for KRAS Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for KRAS Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for KRAS Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain (12.2) and Tlymphocyte (8.5).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for KRAS Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for KRAS Gene Hs.505033

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with KRAS: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for KRAS Gene

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for KRAS Gene

Orthologs for KRAS Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for KRAS Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia KRAS 35
  • 95.21 (n)
  • 97.01 (a)
  • 91 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia KRAS 35
  • 98.59 (n)
  • 98.94 (a)
K-RAS 36
  • 91 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Kras 35
  • 87.06 (n)
  • 88.83 (a)
Kras 16
Kras 36
  • 89 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia KRAS 35
  • 99.82 (n)
  • 100 (a)
  • 100 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Kras 35
  • 87.77 (n)
  • 89.36 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 90 (a)
  • 91 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia KRAS 36
  • 91 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves KRAS 35
  • 83.69 (n)
  • 90.96 (a)
  • 91 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 36
  • 89 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100485959 35
  • 80.95 (n)
  • 97.88 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.24980 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii kras 35
  • 74.82 (n)
  • 88.3 (a)
kras 36
  • 88 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP002219 35
  • 69.7 (n)
  • 85.45 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Ras85D 35
  • 70.71 (n)
  • 85.45 (a)
Ras85D 36
  • 76 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea let-60 35
  • 65.58 (n)
  • 76.63 (a)
let-60 36
  • 76 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes RAS1 36
  • 35 (a)
RAS2 36
  • 34 (a)
Species with no ortholog for KRAS:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for KRAS Gene

Gene Tree for KRAS (if available)
Gene Tree for KRAS (if available)

Paralogs for KRAS Gene

Paralogs for KRAS Gene Pseudogenes for KRAS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with KRAS: view

Variants for KRAS Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for KRAS Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 12 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs712 -- 25,209,618(-) TCCTC(G/T)AAGTG utr-variant-3-prime, downstream-variant-500B
rs8720 -- 25,206,009(-) TAATG(A/G)TTTCT utr-variant-3-prime
rs9266 -- 25,209,283(-) CCTGA(C/T)GAATG utr-variant-3-prime
rs12245 -- 25,205,716(-) GCAGA(A/T)ATGTT utr-variant-3-prime
rs12587 -- 25,205,894(-) GAGAA(A/C)CTGAA utr-variant-3-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for KRAS Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv898922 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv1394n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv470279 CNV Gain 18288195
nsv898927 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv522233 CNV Loss 19592680

Variation tolerance for KRAS Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 37.94% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.13; 2.86% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for KRAS Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for KRAS Gene

Disorders for KRAS Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(134) MalaCards diseases for KRAS Gene - From: OMIM, ClinVar, GeneTests, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, NovoSeek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
kras-related cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome
  • kras-related cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome
kras-related noonan syndrome
  • noonan syndrome 3
linear nevus sebaceus syndrome
  • nevus sebaceus of jadassohn
oculoectodermal syndrome
  • aplasia cutis congenita with epibulbar dermoids
pancreatic carcinoma, familial
  • familial pancreatic carcinoma
- elite association
Search KRAS in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome 2 (CFC2) [MIM:615278]: A form of cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome, a multiple congenital anomaly disorder characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, heart defects and mental retardation. Heart defects include pulmonic stenosis, atrial septal defects and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Some affected individuals present with ectodermal abnormalities such as sparse, friable hair, hyperkeratotic skin lesions and a generalized ichthyosis-like condition. Typical facial features are similar to Noonan syndrome. They include high forehead with bitemporal constriction, hypoplastic supraorbital ridges, downslanting palpebral fissures, a depressed nasal bridge, and posteriorly angulated ears with prominent helices. CFC2 patients often do not have the skin abnormalities, such as ichthyosis, hyperkeratosis, and hemangioma observed in CFC1. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:16474404, ECO:0000269 PubMed:16474405, ECO:0000269 PubMed:17056636, ECO:0000269 PubMed:21797849}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Gastric cancer (GASC) [MIM:613659]: A malignant disease which starts in the stomach, can spread to the esophagus or the small intestine, and can extend through the stomach wall to nearby lymph nodes and organs. It also can metastasize to other parts of the body. The term gastric cancer or gastric carcinoma refers to adenocarcinoma of the stomach that accounts for most of all gastric malignant tumors. Two main histologic types are recognized, diffuse type and intestinal type carcinomas. Diffuse tumors are poorly differentiated infiltrating lesions, resulting in thickening of the stomach. In contrast, intestinal tumors are usually exophytic, often ulcerating, and associated with intestinal metaplasia of the stomach, most often observed in sporadic disease. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:14534542, ECO:0000269 PubMed:3034404, ECO:0000269 PubMed:7773929}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Leukemia, acute myelogenous (AML) [MIM:601626]: A subtype of acute leukemia, a cancer of the white blood cells. AML is a malignant disease of bone marrow characterized by maturational arrest of hematopoietic precursors at an early stage of development. Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts occurs in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myelogenous leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils and monocytes. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:8955068}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Leukemia, juvenile myelomonocytic (JMML) [MIM:607785]: An aggressive pediatric myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative disorder characterized by malignant transformation in the hematopoietic stem cell compartment with proliferation of differentiated progeny. Patients have splenomegaly, enlarged lymph nodes, rashes, and hemorrhages. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Noonan syndrome 3 (NS3) [MIM:609942]: A form of Noonan syndrome, a disease characterized by short stature, facial dysmorphic features such as hypertelorism, a downward eyeslant and low-set posteriorly rotated ears, and a high incidence of congenital heart defects and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Other features can include a short neck with webbing or redundancy of skin, deafness, motor delay, variable intellectual deficits, multiple skeletal defects, cryptorchidism, and bleeding diathesis. Individuals with Noonan syndrome are at risk of juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by excessive production of myelomonocytic cells. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:16474405, ECO:0000269 PubMed:16773572, ECO:0000269 PubMed:17056636, ECO:0000269 PubMed:17468812, ECO:0000269 PubMed:19396835}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Note=Defects in KRAS are a cause of pylocytic astrocytoma (PA). Pylocytic astrocytomas are neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors.
  • Note=KRAS mutations are involved in cancer development.

Relevant External Links for KRAS

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with KRAS: view

No data available for Genatlas for KRAS Gene

Publications for KRAS Gene

  1. KRAS mutation correlates with accelerated metastatic progression in patients with colorectal liver metastases. (PMID: 19727962) Nash G.M. … Paty P.B. (Ann. Surg. Oncol. 2010) 23 67
  2. Sensitive and specific KRAS somatic mutation analysis on whole-genome amplified DNA from archival tissues. (PMID: 19959798) van Eijk R. … van Wezel T. (J Mol Diagn 2010) 23 67
  3. KRAS mutation testing in human cancers: The pathologist's role in the era of personalized medicine. (PMID: 20032635) Wang H.L. … Patterson S.D. (Adv Anat Pathol 2010) 23 67
  4. Lung tumor development and spontaneous regression in lambs coinfected with Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus and ovine lentivirus. (PMID: 20080496) Hudachek S.F. … Dernell W.S. (Vet. Pathol. 2010) 23 67
  5. KRAS mutation screening in colorectal cancer: From paper to practice. (PMID: 20100685) Fakih M.M. (Clin Colorectal Cancer 2010) 23 67

Products for KRAS Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for KRAS

Sources for KRAS Gene

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