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Aliases for KRAS Gene

Aliases for KRAS Gene

  • KRAS Proto-Oncogene, GTPase 2 3 5
  • V-Ki-Ras2 Kirsten Rat Sarcoma 2 Viral Oncogene Homolog 2 3
  • Kirsten Rat Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog 2 3
  • C-Ki-Ras 3 4
  • K-Ras 2 3 4
  • C-K-RAS 3 4
  • KI-RAS 3 4
  • KRAS2 3 4
  • RASK2 3 4
  • V-Ki-Ras2 Kirsten Rat Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog 2
  • Cellular Transforming Proto-Oncogene 3
  • Cellular C-Ki-Ras2 Proto-Oncogene 3
  • Transforming Protein P21 3
  • PR310 C-K-Ras Oncogene 3
  • C-Kirsten-Ras Protein 3
  • K-Ras P21 Protein 3
  • Oncogene KRAS2 3
  • GTPase KRas 3
  • C-Ki-Ras2 3
  • K-RAS2A 3
  • K-RAS2B 3
  • K-RAS4A 3
  • K-RAS4B 3
  • KRAS1 3
  • CFC2 3
  • RALD 3
  • NS3 3
  • NS 3

External Ids for KRAS Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for KRAS Gene

  • KRAS2

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for KRAS Gene

  • GC12M025250
  • GC12M025358
  • GC12M025128

Summaries for KRAS Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for KRAS Gene

  • This gene, a Kirsten ras oncogene homolog from the mammalian ras gene family, encodes a protein that is a member of the small GTPase superfamily. A single amino acid substitution is responsible for an activating mutation. The transforming protein that results is implicated in various malignancies, including lung adenocarcinoma, mucinous adenoma, ductal carcinoma of the pancreas and colorectal carcinoma. Alternative splicing leads to variants encoding two isoforms that differ in the C-terminal region. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CIViC summary for KRAS Gene

  • Mutations in the RAS family of proteins are frequently observed across cancer types. The amino acid positions that account for the overwhelming majority of these mutations are G12, G13 and Q61. The different protein isoforms, despite their raw similarity, also behave very differently when expressed in non-native tissue types, likely due to differences in the C-terminal hyper-variable regions. Mis-regulation of isoform expression has been shown to be a driving event in cancer, as well as missense mutations at the three hotspots previously mentioned. While highly recurrent in cancer, attempts to target these RAS mutants with inhibitors have not been successful, and has not yet become common practice in the clinic. The prognostic implications for KRAS mutations vary between cancer types, but have been shown to be associated with poor outcome in colorectal cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, and others.

GeneCards Summary for KRAS Gene

KRAS (KRAS Proto-Oncogene, GTPase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with KRAS include Noonan Syndrome 3 and Cardiofaciocutaneous Syndrome 2. Among its related pathways are Bisphosphonate Pathway, Pharmacodynamics and Signaling in Gap Junctions. GO annotations related to this gene include GTP binding and protein complex binding. An important paralog of this gene is NRAS.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for KRAS Gene

  • Ras proteins bind GDP/GTP and possess intrinsic GTPase activity. Plays an important role in the regulation of cell proliferation (PubMed:23698361, PubMed:22711838). Plays a role in promoting oncogenic events by inducing transcriptional silencing of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells in a ZNF304-dependent manner (PubMed:24623306).

Gene Wiki entry for KRAS Gene

PharmGKB "VIP" Summary for KRAS Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for KRAS Gene

Genomics for KRAS Gene

Regulatory Elements for KRAS Gene

Enhancers for KRAS Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH12G025384 1.4 ENCODE dbSUPER 13.7 -135.0 -134982 4.1 PKNOX1 FOXA2 MLX CREB3L1 AGO1 WRNIP1 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 KRAS ENSG00000278743 GC12M025381
GH12G025275 1.3 Ensembl ENCODE 12.1 -25.5 -25474 1.2 PKNOX1 FOXA2 ATF1 BRCA1 YY1 TCF12 ZNF766 GLIS2 FOS SP3 KRAS RASSF8-AS1 PIR53457
GH12G025194 1.1 ENCODE 14.3 +55.4 55430 2.8 HDGF PKNOX1 ARNT ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 SP3 SP5 MXD4 CASC1 KRAS ETFRF1 RASSF8-AS1 ENSG00000274987
GH12G025376 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 12.7 -126.6 -126597 1.5 CTCF ZFHX2 GATA2 MAX FOS FOXP2 MYC KRAS GC12M025379 GC12P025376
GH12G025381 1 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 12.7 -131.9 -131856 1.8 KLF1 ZNF133 SPI1 KRAS GC12M025379 GC12M025381
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around KRAS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for KRAS Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00000049839 136 2001 FOXA2 ARID4B SIN3A YY1 ZNF143 KLF13 SP3 SP5 JUNB REST

Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the KRAS gene promoter:

Genomic Location for KRAS Gene

25,204,789 bp from pter
25,250,936 bp from pter
46,148 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for KRAS Gene

Genes around KRAS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
KRAS Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for KRAS Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for KRAS Gene

Proteins for KRAS Gene

  • Protein details for KRAS Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    GTPase KRas
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K8Z5
    • B0LPF9
    • P01118
    • Q96D10

    Protein attributes for KRAS Gene

    189 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    21656 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with PHLPP. Interacts (active GTP-bound form preferentially) with RGS14 (By similarity). Interacts (when farnesylated) with PDE6D; this promotes dissociation from the cell membrane (PubMed:23698361). Interacts with SOS1 (PubMed:22431598).

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for KRAS Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for KRAS Gene


neXtProt entry for KRAS Gene

Post-translational modifications for KRAS Gene

  • Acetylation at Lys-104 prevents interaction with guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs).
  • Ubiquitination at posLast=8888, isoforms=2117, and posLast=128128
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for KRAS (KRas)

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for KRAS Gene

Domains & Families for KRAS Gene

Gene Families for KRAS Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for KRAS Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the small GTPase superfamily. Ras family.
  • Belongs to the small GTPase superfamily. Ras family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with KRAS: view

Function for KRAS Gene

Molecular function for KRAS Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Alternates between an inactive form bound to GDP and an active form bound to GTP. Activated by a guanine nucleotide-exchange factor (GEF) and inactivated by a GTPase-activating protein (GAP). Interaction with SOS1 promotes exchange of bound GDP by GTP.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Ras proteins bind GDP/GTP and possess intrinsic GTPase activity. Plays an important role in the regulation of cell proliferation (PubMed:23698361, PubMed:22711838). Plays a role in promoting oncogenic events by inducing transcriptional silencing of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells in a ZNF304-dependent manner (PubMed:24623306).

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for KRAS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000166 nucleotide binding IEA --
GO:0003924 GTPase activity IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 12732644
GO:0005525 GTP binding IEA --
GO:0019002 GMP binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with KRAS: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with KRAS: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for KRAS Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for KRAS Gene

MGI Knock Outs for KRAS:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for KRAS Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target KRAS

Inhibitory RNA Products

Cell Line Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for KRAS Gene

Localization for KRAS Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for KRAS Gene

Cell membrane; Lipid-anchor; Cytoplasmic side. Cytoplasm, cytosol.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for KRAS gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
cytosol 5
mitochondrion 4
nucleus 3
extracellular 2
cytoskeleton 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
endosome 2
lysosome 1
golgi apparatus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for KRAS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005622 intracellular IEA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA,IEA 23698361
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol IEA --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with KRAS: view

Pathways & Interactions for KRAS Gene

SuperPathway Contained pathways
1 RET signaling
2 Downstream signaling of activated FGFR2
3 IL-2 Pathway
4 Glioma
5 Common Cytokine Receptor Gamma-Chain Family Signaling Pathways
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with KRAS: view

Pathways by source for KRAS Gene

SIGNOR curated interactions for KRAS Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for KRAS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000165 MAPK cascade TAS --
GO:0001889 liver development IEA --
GO:0001934 positive regulation of protein phosphorylation IMP 22065586
GO:0002223 stimulatory C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway TAS --
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with KRAS: view

Drugs & Compounds for KRAS Gene

(101) Drugs for KRAS Gene - From: DrugBank, PharmGKB, ClinicalTrials, ApexBio, DGIdb, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Cetuximab Approved Pharma Antibody, Biomarker, inhibitor EGFR Inhibitors, Therapeutic Antibodies, Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors 752
Panitumumab Approved, Investigational Pharma inhibitor, Biomarker, antibody EGFR inhibitor, EGFR Inhibitors, Therapeutic Antibodies, Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors 0
leucovorin Approved Nutra 3235,1128
Everolimus Approved Pharma inhibitor, Biomarker mTOR inhibitor, mTOR Inhibitors, Kinase Inhibitors, Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors 1940
regorafenib Approved Pharma inhibitor Inhibitor of VEGFR/PDGFR/FGFR/mutant kit/RET/Raf-1, Kinase Inhibitors, Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor (VEGFR) inhibitors 0

(18) Additional Compounds for KRAS Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs

(9) ApexBio Compounds for KRAS Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
AMG-47A destabilizer of the KRAS oncoprotein 882663-88-9
Deltarasin KRAS-PDEδ interaction inhibitor 1440898-61-2
Deltarasin hydrochloride inhibitor of KRAS-PDEδ interaction, potent and selective 1440898-82-7
Kobe0065 Ras inhibitor 436133-68-5
kobe2602 Ras inhibitor 454453-49-7
K-Ras(G12C) inhibitor 12 1469337-95-8
K-Ras(G12C) inhibitor 6 K-Ras (G12C) inhibitor
Salirasib Inhibitor of active Ras protein 162520-00-5
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with KRAS: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for KRAS Gene

Unigene Clusters for KRAS Gene

V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for KRAS Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for KRAS Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for KRAS Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for KRAS Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for KRAS Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain (12.2) and Tlymphocyte (8.5).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for KRAS Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for KRAS Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of KRAS Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for KRAS Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for KRAS Gene

  • Lung(4.7)
  • Nervous system(4.7)
  • Intestine(3.8)
  • Thyroid gland(3.3)
  • Liver(3.2)
  • Pancreas(3.1)
  • Blood(2.9)
  • Lymph node(2.9)
  • Gall bladder(2.8)
  • Kidney(2.7)
  • Skin(2.5)
  • Spleen(2.5)
  • Stomach(2.5)
  • Bone marrow(2.3)
  • Heart(2.1)
  • Muscle(2)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for KRAS Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
  • cardiovascular
  • digestive
  • endocrine
  • immune
  • integumentary
  • lymphatic
  • nervous
  • reproductive
  • respiratory
  • skeletal muscle
  • skeleton
  • urinary
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • cerebellum
  • cerebrospinal fluid
  • cheek
  • chin
  • cranial nerve
  • ear
  • epiglottis
  • eye
  • eyelid
  • face
  • forehead
  • head
  • jaw
  • larynx
  • lip
  • mandible
  • maxilla
  • meninges
  • mouth
  • neck
  • nose
  • outer ear
  • scalp
  • skull
  • thyroid
  • tongue
  • tooth
  • vocal cord
  • aorta
  • breast
  • chest wall
  • clavicle
  • esophagus
  • heart
  • heart valve
  • lung
  • rib
  • rib cage
  • scapula
  • sternum
  • trachea
  • abdominal wall
  • biliary tract
  • gallbladder
  • intestine
  • kidney
  • large intestine
  • liver
  • pancreas
  • small intestine
  • spleen
  • stomach
  • anus
  • ovary
  • pelvis
  • placenta
  • rectum
  • testicle
  • ureter
  • urethra
  • urinary bladder
  • uterus
  • ankle
  • arm
  • digit
  • elbow
  • femur
  • fibula
  • finger
  • foot
  • forearm
  • hand
  • hip
  • humerus
  • knee
  • lower limb
  • nail
  • radius
  • shin
  • shoulder
  • thigh
  • tibia
  • toe
  • ulna
  • upper limb
  • wrist
  • blood
  • blood vessel
  • bone marrow
  • coagulation system
  • hair
  • lymph node
  • lymph vessel
  • peripheral nerve
  • peripheral nervous system
  • red blood cell
  • skin
  • spinal column
  • spinal cord
  • sweat gland
  • vertebrae
  • white blood cell
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with KRAS: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for KRAS Gene

Orthologs for KRAS Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for KRAS Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia KRAS 34 35
  • 99.82 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia KRAS 34
  • 98.59 (n)
K-RAS 35
  • 91 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia KRAS 34 35
  • 95.21 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia KRAS 35
  • 91 (a)
-- 35
  • 90 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia KRAS 35
  • 91 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Kras 34
  • 87.77 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Kras 34 16 35
  • 87.06 (n)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves KRAS 34 35
  • 83.69 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 35
  • 89 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100485959 34
  • 80.95 (n)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.24980 34
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii kras 34 35
  • 74.82 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Ras85D 34 35
  • 70.71 (n)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP002219 34
  • 69.7 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea let-60 34 35
  • 65.58 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes RAS1 35
  • 35 (a)
RAS2 35
  • 34 (a)
Species where no ortholog for KRAS was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for KRAS Gene

Gene Tree for KRAS (if available)
Gene Tree for KRAS (if available)

Paralogs for KRAS Gene

Paralogs for KRAS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with KRAS: view

Variants for KRAS Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for KRAS Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 12 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs104894359 Pathogenic, Noonan syndrome 3 (NS3) [MIM:609942], Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome 2 (CFC2) [MIM:615278] 25,227,346(-) CAGCA(A/C/G)GTCAA reference, missense
rs104894361 Pathogenic, Gastric cancer (GASC) [MIM:613659] 25,245,370(-) TATAA(A/C/T)CTTGT nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense
rs104894364 Pathogenic, Noonan syndrome 3 (NS3) [MIM:609942] 25,227,351(-) CGACA(C/T)AGCAG reference, missense
rs104894365 Pathogenic, Noonan syndrome 3 (NS3) [MIM:609942] 25,245,345(-) GTGGC(A/G)TAGGC nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense
rs104894366 Pathogenic, Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome 2 (CFC2) [MIM:615278], Noonan syndrome 3 (NS3) [MIM:609942] 25,245,284(-) TGATC(C/G/T)AACAA nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for KRAS Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv3580196 CNV loss 25503493
esv3628892 CNV loss 21293372
nsv1048631 CNV loss 25217958
nsv470279 CNV gain 18288195
nsv522233 CNV loss 19592680
nsv557798 CNV loss 21841781

Variation tolerance for KRAS Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 37.9% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.13; 2.86% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for KRAS Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for KRAS Gene

Disorders for KRAS Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(131) MalaCards diseases for KRAS Gene - From: OMIM, ClinVar, GeneTests, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
noonan syndrome 3
  • ns3
cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome 2
  • cfc2
bladder cancer, somatic
  • bladder carcinoma
pilocytic astrocytoma
  • grade i astrocytic tumor
ras-associated autoimmune leukoproliferative disorder
  • autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome type iv
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search KRAS in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome 2 (CFC2) [MIM:615278]: A form of cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome, a multiple congenital anomaly disorder characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, heart defects and mental retardation. Heart defects include pulmonic stenosis, atrial septal defects and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Some affected individuals present with ectodermal abnormalities such as sparse, friable hair, hyperkeratotic skin lesions and a generalized ichthyosis-like condition. Typical facial features are similar to Noonan syndrome. They include high forehead with bitemporal constriction, hypoplastic supraorbital ridges, downslanting palpebral fissures, a depressed nasal bridge, and posteriorly angulated ears with prominent helices. CFC2 patients often do not have the skin abnormalities, such as ichthyosis, hyperkeratosis, and hemangioma observed in CFC1. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:16474404, ECO:0000269 PubMed:16474405, ECO:0000269 PubMed:17056636, ECO:0000269 PubMed:20949621, ECO:0000269 PubMed:21797849}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Gastric cancer (GASC) [MIM:613659]: A malignant disease which starts in the stomach, can spread to the esophagus or the small intestine, and can extend through the stomach wall to nearby lymph nodes and organs. It also can metastasize to other parts of the body. The term gastric cancer or gastric carcinoma refers to adenocarcinoma of the stomach that accounts for most of all gastric malignant tumors. Two main histologic types are recognized, diffuse type and intestinal type carcinomas. Diffuse tumors are poorly differentiated infiltrating lesions, resulting in thickening of the stomach. In contrast, intestinal tumors are usually exophytic, often ulcerating, and associated with intestinal metaplasia of the stomach, most often observed in sporadic disease. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:14534542, ECO:0000269 PubMed:3034404, ECO:0000269 PubMed:7773929}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Leukemia, acute myelogenous (AML) [MIM:601626]: A subtype of acute leukemia, a cancer of the white blood cells. AML is a malignant disease of bone marrow characterized by maturational arrest of hematopoietic precursors at an early stage of development. Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts occurs in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myelogenous leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils and monocytes. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:8955068}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Leukemia, juvenile myelomonocytic (JMML) [MIM:607785]: An aggressive pediatric myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative disorder characterized by malignant transformation in the hematopoietic stem cell compartment with proliferation of differentiated progeny. Patients have splenomegaly, enlarged lymph nodes, rashes, and hemorrhages. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:17332249}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Noonan syndrome 3 (NS3) [MIM:609942]: A form of Noonan syndrome, a disease characterized by short stature, facial dysmorphic features such as hypertelorism, a downward eyeslant and low-set posteriorly rotated ears, and a high incidence of congenital heart defects and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Other features can include a short neck with webbing or redundancy of skin, deafness, motor delay, variable intellectual deficits, multiple skeletal defects, cryptorchidism, and bleeding diathesis. Individuals with Noonan syndrome are at risk of juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by excessive production of myelomonocytic cells. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:16474405, ECO:0000269 PubMed:16773572, ECO:0000269 PubMed:17056636, ECO:0000269 PubMed:17468812, ECO:0000269 PubMed:19396835, ECO:0000269 PubMed:20949621}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Note=Defects in KRAS are a cause of pylocytic astrocytoma (PA). Pylocytic astrocytomas are neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:16247081}.
  • Note=KRAS mutations are involved in cancer development. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:14534542, ECO:0000269 PubMed:1553789, ECO:0000269 PubMed:16533793, ECO:0000269 PubMed:24623306, ECO:0000269 PubMed:3034404, ECO:0000269 PubMed:3627975, ECO:0000269 PubMed:6092920, ECO:0000269 PubMed:6695174, ECO:0000269 PubMed:7773929}.

Relevant External Links for KRAS

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with KRAS: view

No data available for Genatlas for KRAS Gene

Publications for KRAS Gene

  1. Potential clinical significance of a plasma-based KRAS mutation analysis in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. (PMID: 20145159) Wang S. … Wu M. (Clin. Cancer Res. 2010) 3 22 46 64
  2. KRAS mutation correlates with accelerated metastatic progression in patients with colorectal liver metastases. (PMID: 19727962) Nash G.M. … Paty P.B. (Ann. Surg. Oncol. 2010) 3 22 46 64
  3. KRAS mutation and microsatellite instability: two genetic markers of early tumor development that influence the prognosis of colorectal cancer. (PMID: 19813061) Nash G.M. … Paty P.B. (Ann. Surg. Oncol. 2010) 3 22 46 64
  4. Clinical outcome of patients with non-small cell lung cancer receiving front-line chemotherapy according to EGFR and K-RAS mutation status. (PMID: 19854533) Kalikaki A. … Voutsina A. (Lung Cancer 2010) 3 22 46 64
  5. Clinicopathological predictors of EGFR/KRAS mutational status in primary lung adenocarcinomas. (PMID: 19855375) Dacic S. … Nikiforova M. (Mod. Pathol. 2010) 3 22 46 64

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