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KRAS Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 73
GCID: GC12M025358

Kirsten Rat Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog

(Previous names: v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma 2 viral oncogene homolog,...)
(Previous symbol: KRAS2)
  See KRAS-related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Kirsten Rat Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog1 2     K-RAS4B2
KRAS21 2 3 5     KI-RAS2
RASK22 3 5     KRAS12
V-Ki-Ras2 Kirsten Rat Sarcoma 2 Viral Oncogene Homolog1 2     NS32
V-Ki-Ras2 Kirsten Rat Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog1 2     C-Kirsten-Ras Protein2
c-Ki-ras2 3     Cellular C-Ki-Ras2 Proto-Oncogene2
K-Ras 22 3     GTPase KRas2
CFC22 5     K-Ras P21 Protein2
NS2 5     Oncogene KRAS22
C-K-RAS2     PR310 C-K-Ras Oncogene2
K-RAS2A2     Transforming Protein P212
K-RAS2B2     Ki-Ras3
K-RAS4A2     c-K-ras3

External Ids:    HGNC: 64071   Entrez Gene: 38452   Ensembl: ENSG000001337037   OMIM: 1900705   UniProtKB: P011163   

Export aliases for KRAS gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC12M025250 GC12M025128


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for KRAS Gene:
This gene, a Kirsten ras oncogene homolog from the mammalian ras gene family, encodes a protein that is a member
of the small GTPase superfamily. A single amino acid substitution is responsible for an activating mutation. The
transforming protein that results is implicated in various malignancies, including lung adenocarcinoma, mucinous
adenoma, ductal carcinoma of the pancreas and colorectal carcinoma. Alternative splicing leads to variants
encoding two isoforms that differ in the C-terminal region. (provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for KRAS Gene:
KRAS (Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with KRAS include lung adenocarcinoma, and cronkhite-canada syndrome. GO annotations related to this gene include GDP binding and GTP binding. An important paralog of this gene is REM1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: RASK_HUMAN, P01116
Function: Ras proteins bind GDP/GTP and possess intrinsic GTPase activity

Gene Wiki entry for KRAS Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000012.11  NT_009714.18  NC_018923.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the KRAS gene promoter:
         TBP   ATF-2   c-Jun   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids (see all 2): KRAS promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for KRAS

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat KRAS


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 12p12.1   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  12p12.1   HGNC cytogenetic band: 12p12.1

KRAS Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
KRAS gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 12         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC12M025358:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
25,357,723 bp from pter      End:
25,403,870 bp from pter
Size:
46,148 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, antibodies-online, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: RASK_HUMAN, P01116 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: GTPase KRas precursor  
Size: 189 amino acids; 21656 Da
Subunit: Interacts with PHLPP. Interacts (active GTP-bound form preferentially) with RGS14 (By similarity)
Selected PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for KRAS (see all 28):
1D8D (3D)        1D8E (3D)        1KZO (3D)        1KZP (3D)        3GFT (3D)        4DSN (3D)    
Secondary accessions: A8K8Z5 B0LPF9 P01118 Q96D10
Alternative splicing: 2 isoforms:  P01116-1   P01116-2, P01118-1   (Variant in position: 152:V->G (in NS3). Variant in position: 153:D->V (in CFC2 and NS3, exhibits only minor alterations in its in vitro biochemical behavior compared to wild-type protein). Variant in position: 156:F->I (in NS3/CFC2). Variant in position: 156:F->L (found in a patient with Costello syndrome, exhibits an increase in intrinsic and guanine nucleotide exchange factor catalyzed nucleotide exchange in combination with an impaired GTPase-activating protein-stimulated GTP hydrolysis but functional in interaction with effectors))

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for KRAS: NX_P01116

Explore proteomics data for KRAS at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Acetylation at Lys-104 prevents interaction with guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs)1
  • Ubiquitination2 at Lys88, Lys117, Lys128
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See KRAS Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_004976.2  NP_203524.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000308495   ENSP00000452512   ENSP00000256078   ENSP00000451856  
    Reactome Protein details: P01116

    KRAS Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    OriGene Purified Proteins for KRAS
    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for KRAS
    OriGene MassSpec for KRAS
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    Novus Biologicals KRAS Proteins
    Novus Biologicals KRAS Lysates
    Sino Biological Recombinant Protein for KRAS
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
    ProSpec Recombinant Protein for KRAS
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for KRAS

     
    Search eBioscience for Proteins for KRAS 

     
    antibodies-online proteins for KRAS (40 products) 

     
    antibodies-online peptides for KRAS

    KRAS Antibody Products:

    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of KRAS
    R&D Systems Antibodies for KRAS (Ras)
    Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for KRAS 
    OriGene Antibodies for KRAS
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for KRAS
    Novus Biologicals KRAS Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for KRAS (P01116, P01112, P01111)
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Antibodies for KRAS
    ThermoFisher Antibody for KRAS
    antibodies-online antibodies for KRAS (92 products) 

    KRAS Assay Products:

    EMD Millipore Kits and Assays for the Analysis of KRAS
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for KRAS
    Browse R&D Systems for biochemical assays
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for KRAS
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for KRAS
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for KRAS
    Search eBioscience for ELISAs for KRAS 
    antibodies-online kits for KRAS (9 products) 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    4 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR027417 P-loop_NTPase
     IPR005225 Small_GTP-bd_dom
     IPR001806 Small_GTPase
     IPR020849 Small_GTPase_Ras

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P01116

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P01116

    2 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB001806 Transforming protein P21 RAS signature
    IPB003577 Ras small GTPase


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: RASK_HUMAN, P01116
    Similarity: Belongs to the small GTPase superfamily. Ras family


    Find genes that share domains with KRAS           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: RASK_HUMAN, P01116
    Function: Ras proteins bind GDP/GTP and possess intrinsic GTPase activity
    Enzyme regulation: Alternates between an inactive form bound to GDP and an active form bound to GTP. Activated by
    a guanine nucleotide-exchange factor (GEF) and inactivated by a GTPase-activating protein (GAP)

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 7):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0003924GTPase activity ----
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI12732644
    GO:0005525GTP binding IEA--
    GO:0019002GMP binding IEA--
    GO:0019003GDP binding IEA--
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with KRAS           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         3 GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for KRAS:
     Decreased TP53 protein express  Decreased viability  Synthetic lethal with Ras 

         Selected MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 14 alleles(MGI details for Kras) (see all 23):
     behavior/neurological  cardiovascular system  cellular  digestive/alimentary  embryogenesis 
     endocrine/exocrine gland  growth/size/body  hematopoietic system  homeostasis/metabolism  immune system 
     integument  limbs/digits/tail  liver/biliary system  mortality/aging  muscle 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with KRAS           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-outs for KRAS: Krastm1Epa Krastm1Mok Krastm1Tyj

       genOway: Develop your customized and physiologically relevant rodent model for KRAS

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target KRAS:
    hsa-mir-181c-5p (MIRT003210), hsa-mir-143-3p (MIRT000312), hsa-mir-217 (MIRT006501), hsa-mir-18a-3p (MIRT000230), hsa-let-7a-5p (MIRT001855), hsa-mir-622 (MIRT006220), hsa-mir-193b-3p (MIRT016516), hsa-let-7g-5p (MIRT000399), hsa-mir-181a-5p (MIRT025201), hsa-mir-126-3p (MIRT006450), hsa-mir-96-5p (MIRT005553), hsa-mir-155-5p (MIRT005100)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat KRAS using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate KRAS (see all 122):
    hsa-miR-323-3p hsa-miR-193a-3p hsa-miR-300 hsa-miR-15a hsa-miR-134 hsa-miR-605 hsa-miR-30d hsa-miR-3653
    Browse SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmids
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for KRAS
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat KRAS

    Gene Editing
    Products:
    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for KRAS

    Clone
    Products:
         
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for KRAS (see all 11)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for KRAS
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript Custom all cDNA clones Services for KRAS
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for KRAS
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for KRAS
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat KRAS
    Addgene plasmids for KRAS 

    Cell Line
    Products:
         
    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for KRAS
    Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for KRAS 
    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for KRAS


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    RASK_HUMAN, P01116: Cell membrane; Lipid-anchor; Cytoplasmic side
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    plasma membrane5
    cytosol3
    nucleus3
    cytoskeleton2
    endoplasmic reticulum2
    extracellular2
    mitochondrion2
    endosome1
    golgi apparatus1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005622intracellular ----
    GO:0005739mitochondrion IEA--
    GO:0005886plasma membrane TAS--
    GO:0016020membrane ----
    GO:0045121membrane raft IEA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with KRAS           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for KRAS About   (see all 79)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathSelected contained pathways About (see all per SuperPath)
    1ErbB signaling pathway
    ErbB signaling pathway0.52
    EGFR Inhibitor Pathway, Pharmacodynamics0.49
    ErbB signaling pathway0.52
    2Glioma
    Glioma0.51
    Prostate cancer0.39
    Non-small cell lung cancer0.51
    Signaling Pathways in Glioblastoma0.36
    Melanoma0.43
    Bladder cancer0.31
    3G protein signaling Ras family GTPases in kinase cascades scheme
    G protein signaling Ras family GTPases in kinase cascades scheme 0.44
    Oncostatin M Signaling Pathway0.37
    MAPK Cascade0.44
    4Sorafenib Pharmacodynamics
    Sorafenib Pharmacodynamics0.37
    VEGF Pathway0.36
    Vemurafenib Pathway, Pharmacodynamics0.37
    5Immune response Fc epsilon RI pathway
    Fc epsilon RI signaling pathway0.41
    VEGF - VEGF R2 Signaling Pathways0.35
    VEGF signaling pathway0.39


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with KRAS           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    Selected R&D Systems Pathways for KRAS (see all 12)
        IL-21 Signaling Pathways
    IL-2 Signaling Pathways
    IL-4 Signaling Pathways
    Adipocytokines & Insulin Signaling
    Pathogen or Damage-activated C-Type Lectin Receptor Signaling Pathways

    Selected Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for KRAS (see all 113)
        Fc-GammaR Pathway
    Telomerase Components in Cell Signaling
    Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer
    eIF2 Pathway
    Intracellular Calcium Signaling

    1 Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Pathway for KRAS
        MAP Kinase Signaling

    5 Tocris Bioscience Pathways for KRAS
        Insulin Pathway
    Apoptosis Pathway
    TGF-beta Pathway
    NF-kappaB Pathway
    VEGF Pathway

    4 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathways for KRAS
        Development EPO-induced MAPK pathway
    G-protein signaling Ras family GTPases in kinase cascades (scheme)
    Development EGFR signaling via small GTPases
    G-protein signaling K-RAS regulation pathway

    Selected BioSystems Pathways for KRAS (see all 12)
        MAPK signaling pathway
    EGFR1 Signaling Pathway
    ErbB signaling pathway
    G Protein Signaling Pathways
    Integrated Breast Cancer Pathway

    2 Sino Biological Pathways for KRAS
        VEGF Signaling
    TGF-beta Signaling Pathway

    Selected Reactome Pathways for KRAS (see all 24)
        FCERI mediated MAPK activation
    RAF activation
    RAF phosphorylates MEK
    FRS2-mediated cascade
    EGFR Transactivation by Gastrin

    5 PharmGKB Pathways for KRAS
        Bisphosphonate Pathway, Pharmacodynamics
    EGFR Inhibitor Pathway, Pharmacodynamics
    Sorafenib Pharmacodynamics
    VEGF Signaling Pathway
    Vemurafenib Pathway, Pharmacodynamics

    Selected Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for KRAS) (see all 51):
        MAPK signaling pathway
    ErbB signaling pathway
    Ras signaling pathway
    Rap1 signaling pathway
    Chemokine signaling pathway

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including KRAS (see all 13): 
              mTOR Signaling in human mouse rat
              Oncogenes & Tumor Suppressor Genes in human mouse rat
              Lung Cancer in human mouse rat
              Insulin Signaling Pathway in human mouse rat
              VEGF Signaling in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for KRAS

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for KRAS (P011161, 2, 3 ENSP000002560784) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 389)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    PDE4DIPQ5VU432, 3MINT-8259285 I2D: score=2 
    DEAF1O753982, 3MINT-8258478 I2D: score=1 
    ENSG00000237825O152113, ENSP000003900984I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000390098
    ENSG00000206282O152113I2D: score=1 
    ENSG00000224841O152113I2D: score=1 
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 35):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000165MAPK cascade TAS--
    GO:0000186activation of MAPKK activity TAS--
    GO:0001934positive regulation of protein phosphorylation IMP--
    GO:0006184GTP catabolic process IEA--
    GO:0006886intracellular protein transport ----

    Find genes that share ontologies with KRAS           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for KRAS (RASK)

    1 HMDB Compound for KRAS    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    Guanosine triphosphate5'-GTP (see all 10)86-01-1--

    3 DrugBank Compounds for KRAS    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    FARNESYL-- --target--10592235
    FARNESYL DIPHOSPHATE-- --target--10592235
    [(3,7,11-TRIMETHYL-DODECA-2,6,10-TRIENYLOXYCARBAMOYL)-METHYL]-PHOSPHONIC ACID-- --target--10592235

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for KRAS gene (see all 37)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    panitumumab 92.6 77 20481659 (4), 20044619 (3), 20130433 (3), 19806185 (3) (see all 42)
    cetuximab 91.6 159 20010090 (5), 16618717 (4), 19398573 (4), 18577988 (4) (see all 72)
    erlotinib 84.3 23 15696205 (3), 18626007 (3), 16043828 (2), 19447865 (2) (see all 13)
    gefitinib 81.3 28 15696205 (3), 18334834 (3), 18418018 (3), 17409929 (2) (see all 16)
    crcs 80.3 21 19474002 (4), 19147861 (3), 19679400 (2), 19678923 (1) (see all 12)
    irinotecan 65.3 18 19398573 (3), 19164213 (3), 19179548 (2), 19546597 (1) (see all 9)
    oxaliplatin 63.1 5 19581179 (1), 20146801 (1), 19884549 (1), 20397915 (1)
    tyrosine 59.9 31 18776048 (3), 19855375 (2), 15753357 (1), 20080496 (1) (see all 28)
    o6-methylguanine 56.2 5 19164452 (1), 17867575 (1), 18300810 (1), 16118624 (1) (see all 5)
    pd-184352 54.7 1 16957420 (1)

    3 PharmGKB related drug/compound annotations for KRAS gene    About this table
    Drug/compound PharmGKB Annotation
    cetuximab  CA  
    panitumumab  CA  
    regorafenib



    Find genes that share compounds with KRAS           About GenesLikeMe



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for KRAS gene (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_004985.4  NM_033360.3  

    Unigene Cluster for KRAS:

    V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog
    Hs.505033  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_033360
    4 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000311936(uc001rgp.1 uc001rgq.1) ENST00000557334 ENST00000256078
    ENST00000556131(uc001rgr.3)
    miRNA
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    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat KRAS using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate KRAS (see all 122):
    hsa-miR-323-3p hsa-miR-193a-3p hsa-miR-300 hsa-miR-15a hsa-miR-134 hsa-miR-605 hsa-miR-30d hsa-miR-3653
    Browse SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmids
    Inhib. RNA
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    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for KRAS
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat KRAS
    Clone
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    OriGene clones in human, mouse for KRAS (see all 11)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for KRAS
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript Custom all cDNA clones Services for KRAS
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for KRAS
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat KRAS
    Addgene plasmids for KRAS 
    Primer
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    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for KRAS
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for KRAS
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat KRAS
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat KRAS
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat KRAS

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AF493917.1 AK292510.1 BC010502.1 BC013572.2 BC029545.1 BT007153.1 M17087.1 M35504.1 
    M35505.1 

    17 DOTS entries:

    DT.92460446  DT.99948002  DT.92460454  DT.95114183  DT.95114192  DT.95205786  DT.100696548  DT.92008862 
    DT.121177012  DT.100811094  DT.100705577  DT.100696549  DT.100755557  DT.100810349  DT.95114240  DT.95249640 
    DT.100701816 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 280):

    AW173466 AW160515 CR625034 AW167917 BQ423435 NM_033360 AA255527 BE464958 
    AL553212 AA281094 AA287927 AA808271 AA232870 AI889481 F01713 BU189436 
    AI281159 AA356548 H85554 AA281015 AI500024 AI015987 NM_004985 AA564243 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

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    KRAS expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: AACTGTACTA
    KRAS Expression
    About this image


    KRAS expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 5) fully expand
     
     Liver (Hepatobiliary System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             Hepatoblasts Liver Bud
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Cerebral Cortex
     
     Ovary (Reproductive System)
             Oviduct
     
     Bone (Muscoskeletal System)
             Bone Marrow
     
     Epithelial Cells
             Hepatoblasts Liver Bud
    KRAS Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    KRAS Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.505033
        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including KRAS (see all 13): 
              mTOR Signaling in human mouse rat
              Oncogenes & Tumor Suppressor Genes in human mouse rat
              Lung Cancer in human mouse rat
              Insulin Signaling Pathway in human mouse rat
              VEGF Signaling in human mouse rat

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

    Orthologs for KRAS gene from Selected species (see all 16)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Kras1 , 5 v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog1, 5 87.06(n)1
    88.83(a)1
      6 (77.37 cM)5
    166531  NM_021284.61  NP_067259.41 
     1452166995 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves KRAS1 v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog 83.69(n)
    90.96(a)
      418207  NM_001256162.1  NP_001243091.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia --
    Uncharacterized protein
    89(a)
    1 → many
    GL343355.1(167031-175434)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia Xl.249802 X.laevis mRNA for proto-oncogene K-Ras2A 81.16(n)    Y12715.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii kras1 v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog 74.82(n)
    88.3(a)
      445289  NM_001003744.1  NP_001003744.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta Ras85D1 Ras oncogene at 85D 70.71(n)
    85.45(a)
      41140  NM_057351.5  NP_476699.1 
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea let-601 let-60 65.58(n)
    76.63(a)
      178104  NM_069812.3  NP_502213.3 
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes RAS16
    RAS26
    GTPase involved in G-protein signaling in the aden...
    GTP-binding protein that regulates the nitrogen st...
    35(a)
    34(a)
    many ↔ many
    many ↔ many
    XV(515244-516173) YOR101W
    XIV(439602-440570) YNL098C


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for KRAS (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for KRAS (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for KRAS gene
    REM12  RALA2  RRAS2  RALB2  ERAS2  RRAD2  NRAS2  REM22  
    GEM2  RRAS22  HRAS2  MRAS2  
    Selected SIMAP similar genes for KRAS using alignment to 30 protein entries:     RASK_HUMAN (see all proteins) (see all similar genes):
    N-ras    K-RAS    c-bas/has    HRAS    H-RAS    K-ras
    NRAS    RAP1B    RALA    RAP2A    RIT2    RRAS2
    RALB    RIT1    DKFZp547A0616    RERG    RAP1A    RAP2C

    Find genes that share paralogs with KRAS           About GenesLikeMe


    1 Pseudogenes.org Pseudogene for KRAS
    PGOHUM00000250209


    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for KRAS (see all 1033)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 12 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs178510451,2,,4
    CLung carcinoma4 untested125248577(-) GGTCAA/C/TGAGGA 4 Q H mis1 ese32NA 4
    VAR_0648494
    Gastric cancer (GASC)4--see VAR_0648492 K N mis40--------
    VAR_0261094
    Noonan syndrome 3 (NS3)4--see VAR_0261092 V I mis40--------
    VAR_0160264
    Pancreatic carcinoma4--see VAR_0160262 G D mis40--------
    VAR_0651464
    Noonan syndrome 3 (NS3)4--see VAR_0651462 G S mis40--------
    VAR_0261104
    Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome 2 (CFC2)4--see VAR_0261102 P R mis40--------
    VAR_0651444
    Noonan syndrome 3 (NS3)4--see VAR_0651442 K E mis40--------
    VAR_0160274
    Lung cancer4--see VAR_0160272 G R mis40--------
    VAR_0697844
    Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome 2 (CFC2)4--see VAR_0697842 Y H mis40--------
    VAR_0363054
    A colorectal cancer sample4--see VAR_0363052 G A mis40--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for KRAS (25357723 - 25403870 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 5 variations for KRAS:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv898922CNV Loss21882294
    dgv1394n71CNV Loss21882294
    nsv522233CNV Loss19592680
    nsv898927CNV Loss21882294
    nsv470279CNV Gain18288195

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): KRAS
    Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB): KRAS

    Selected Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays for KRAS (see all 29):
    Cosmic IdAA Change
    549p.Q61K
    528p.G13S
    546p.A59T
    534p.G13V
    553p.Q61L
    Selected Site Specific Cancer Mutation PCR Panels containing KRAS (see all 33):
    Breast Cancer
    Cancer Comprehensive Panel 384HT
    Lung Cancer
    Liver Cancer
    2 Copy Number PCR Panels containing KRAS:
    Oncogenes & Tumor Suppressor Genes 384HC
    Lung Cancer
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing KRAS
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for KRAS

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 190070   
    OMIM disorders: 211980  109800  260350  137215  609942  615278  114480  163200  
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: RASK_HUMAN, P01116
  • Leukemia, acute myelogenous (AML) [MIM:601626]: A subtype of acute leukemia, a cancer of the white blood
    cells. AML is a malignant disease of bone marrow characterized by maturational arrest of hematopoietic precursors
    at an early stage of development. Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts occurs in bone marrow, blood, and other
    tissue. Myelogenous leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce neutrophils, basophils,
    eosinophils and monocytes. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry
  • Leukemia, juvenile myelomonocytic (JMML) [MIM:607785]: An aggressive pediatric myelodysplastic
    syndrome/myeloproliferative disorder characterized by malignant transformation in the hematopoietic stem cell
    compartment with proliferation of differentiated progeny. Patients have splenomegaly, enlarged lymph nodes,
    rashes, and hemorrhages. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry
  • Noonan syndrome 3 (NS3) [MIM:609942]: A form of Noonan syndrome, a disease characterized by short
    stature, facial dysmorphic features such as hypertelorism, a downward eyeslant and low-set posteriorly rotated
    ears, and a high incidence of congenital heart defects and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Other features can
    include a short neck with webbing or redundancy of skin, deafness, motor delay, variable intellectual deficits,
    multiple skeletal defects, cryptorchidism, and bleeding diathesis. Individuals with Noonan syndrome are at risk
    of juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by excessive production of
    myelomonocytic cells. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry
  • Gastric cancer (GASC) [MIM:613659]: A malignant disease which starts in the stomach, can spread to the
    esophagus or the small intestine, and can extend through the stomach wall to nearby lymph nodes and organs. It
    also can metastasize to other parts of the body. The term gastric cancer or gastric carcinoma refers to
    adenocarcinoma of the stomach that accounts for most of all gastric malignant tumors. Two main histologic types
    are recognized, diffuse type and intestinal type carcinomas. Diffuse tumors are poorly differentiated
    infiltrating lesions, resulting in thickening of the stomach. In contrast, intestinal tumors are usually
    exophytic, often ulcerating, and associated with intestinal metaplasia of the stomach, most often observed in
    sporadic disease. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry
  • Note=Defects in KRAS are a cause of pylocytic astrocytoma (PA). Pylocytic astrocytomas are neoplasms of
    the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly
    anaplastic and malignant tumors
  • Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome 2 (CFC2) [MIM:615278]: A form of cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome, a multiple
    congenital anomaly disorder characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, heart defects and mental
    retardation. Heart defects include pulmonic stenosis, atrial septal defects and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Some
    affected individuals present with ectodermal abnormalities such as sparse, friable hair, hyperkeratotic skin
    lesions and a generalized ichthyosis-like condition. Typical facial features are similar to Noonan syndrome. They
    include high forehead with bitemporal constriction, hypoplastic supraorbital ridges, downslanting palpebral
    fissures, a depressed nasal bridge, and posteriorly angulated ears with prominent helices. CFC2 patients often do
    not have the skin abnormalities, such as ichthyosis, hyperkeratosis, and hemangioma observed in CFC1. Note=The
    disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry
  • Note=KRAS mutations are involved in cancer development

  • Selected diseases for KRAS (see all 52):    
    About MalaCards
    lung adenocarcinoma    cronkhite-canada syndrome    noonan syndrome 3    liver angiosarcoma
    ras-associated autoimmune leukoproliferative disease    lung cancer, somatic    kras-related cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome    congenital pulmonary airway malformation
    intestinal neoplasm    sfm syndrome, somatic mosaic    kras-related noonan syndrome    acute myeloid leukemia, adult
    cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome 2    gastric cancer, somatic    breast cancer, somatic    mutyh-associated polyposis
    pancreatic carcinoma, somatic    schimmelpenning-feuerstein-mims syndrome, somatic mosaic    bladder cancer, somatic    bladder adenocarcinoma

    Selected diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for KRAS (see all 23):
    Colorectal cancer     Carcinoma     Pancreatic cancer     Lung cancer
    Adenoma     Hepatitis C     Hepatitis     Melanoma
    Leukemia     Noonan syndrome     Pancreatitis     Endometrial cancer
    Familial adenomatous polyposis     Gallbladder cancer     Hepatocellular carcinoma     Exanthem
    Yellow fever     Ovarian cancer     Lynch syndrome     Dengue disease

    Find genes that share disorders with KRAS           About GenesLikeMe

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for KRAS gene (see all 94)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    microsatellite instability 87.1 85 9921983 (3), 16429393 (3), 15118616 (2), 15481028 (2) (see all 71)
    colorectal cancer 85.2 250 15069679 (5), 19712476 (4), 19832985 (4), 19515263 (4) (see all 99)
    somatic mutations 80.8 42 19959798 (2), 10545700 (1), 15781646 (1), 17047397 (1) (see all 37)
    nsclc 80.6 205 19787214 (6), 19789349 (6), 14601056 (6), 20145159 (5) (see all 77)
    adenocarcinoma lung 78.4 68 9645349 (3), 15696205 (3), 19855375 (3), 9332768 (3) (see all 36)
    adenocarcinoma 75.5 110 14511407 (4), 18075308 (4), 14724583 (4), 17360030 (4) (see all 61)
    tumors 75.3 615 20145159 (5), 12893203 (5), 20010090 (5), 9921983 (5) (see all 99)
    juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia 74.8 6 20471511 (1), 19066392 (1), 18561174 (1), 17332249 (1) (see all 5)
    colorectal tumors 73.5 20 18602919 (3), 20020061 (2), 18259212 (2), 18632722 (1) (see all 16)
    cancer lung 72.9 79 20108024 (3), 17510423 (3), 12606951 (2), 18927287 (2) (see all 52)

    GeneTests: KRAS
    GeneReviews: KRAS
    Genetic Association Database (GAD): KRAS
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: KRAS (400 documents)

    Export disorders for KRAS gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for KRAS gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 1818):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with KRAS)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. [Effect of KRAS mutation on efficacy of Cetuximab combined with chemotherapy in advanced colorectal cancer patients]. (PubMed id 19921572)1, 4, 9 Pu X.X....Lin T.Y. (Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi 2009)
    2. Potential clinical significance of a plasma-based KRAS mutation analysis in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. (PubMed id 20145159)1, 4, 9 Wang S....Wu M. (Clin. Cancer Res. 2010)
    3. Activating KRAS mutations and overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor as independent predictors in metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated with cetuximab. (PubMed id 20010090)1, 4, 9 Yen L.C....Wang J.Y. (Ann. Surg. 2010)
    4. Mutation detection of KRAS by high-resolution melting analysis in Chinese with gastric cancer. (PubMed id 19639197)1, 4, 9 Liu Z.M....Lu S. (Oncol. Rep. 2009)
    5. KRAS mutation correlates with accelerated metastatic progression in patients with colorectal liver metastases. (PubMed id 19727962)1, 4, 9 Nash G.M....Paty P.B. (Ann. Surg. Oncol. 2010)
    6. Detection of EGFR and KRAS mutations on trans-thoracic needle aspiration of lung nodules by high resolution melting analysis. (PubMed id 19640859)1, 4, 9 Fassina A....Rossi G.P. (J. Clin. Pathol. 2009)
    7. KRAS and BRAF mutations in patients with rectal cancer treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy. (PubMed id 19913317)1, 4, 9 Gaedcke J....Ghadimi M. (Radiother Oncol 2010)
    8. KRAS mutations in primary colorectal cancer tumors and related metastases: a potential role in prediction of lung metastasis. (PubMed id 20020061)1, 4, 9 Cejas P....Feliu J. (PLoS ONE 2009)
    9. In pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma blood concentrations of some organochlorine compounds and coffee intake are independently associated with KRAS mutations. (PubMed id 19797353)1, 4, 9 Porta M....Real F.X. (Mutagenesis 2009)
    10. KRAS mutation analysis in ovarian samples using a high sensitivity biochip assay. (PubMed id 19358724)1, 4, 9 Auner V....Zeillinger R. (BMC Cancer 2009)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 3845 HGNC: 6407 AceView: KRAS2 Ensembl:ENSG00000133703 euGenes: HUgn3845
    ECgene: KRAS Kegg: 3845 H-InvDB: KRAS

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for KRAS Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for KRAS Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
    GeneReviewshttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1116/?term=KRAS[genesymbol]
    SHMPDhttp://shmpd.bii.a-star.edu.sg/gene.php?genestart=A&genename=KRAS

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for KRAS gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving KRAS

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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