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Aliases for KMO Gene

Aliases for KMO Gene

  • Kynurenine 3-Monooxygenase (Kynurenine 3-Hydroxylase) 2 3
  • Kynurenine 3-Hydroxylase 3 4
  • EC 1.14.13.9 4 63
  • DJ317G22.1 3

External Ids for KMO Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for KMO Gene

  • GC01P239781
  • GC01P237149
  • GC01P237992
  • GC01P238736
  • GC01P238020
  • GC01P241695
  • GC01P212153

Summaries for KMO Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for KMO Gene

  • This gene encodes a mitochondrion outer membrane protein that catalyzes the hydroxylation of L-tryptophan metabolite, L-kynurenine, to form L-3-hydroxykynurenine. Studies in yeast identified this gene as a therapeutic target for Huntington disease. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

GeneCards Summary for KMO Gene

KMO (Kynurenine 3-Monooxygenase (Kynurenine 3-Hydroxylase)) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with KMO include transient cerebral ischemia and pneumococcal meningitis. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and CDK-mediated phosphorylation and removal of Cdc6. GO annotations related to this gene include flavin adenine dinucleotide binding and kynurenine 3-monooxygenase activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for KMO Gene

  • Catalyzes the hydroxylation of L-kynurenine (L-Kyn) to form 3-hydroxy-L-kynurenine (L-3OHKyn). Required for synthesis of quinolinic acid, a neurotoxic NMDA receptor antagonist and potential endogenous inhibitor of NMDA receptor signaling in axonal targeting, synaptogenesis and apoptosis during brain development. Quinolinic acid may also affect NMDA receptor signaling in pancreatic beta cells, osteoblasts, myocardial cells, and the gastrointestinal tract

Tocris Summary for KMO Gene

  • Hydroxylases are enzymes that catalyze the addition of hydroxyl groups to substrates during oxidation reactions. This diverse group of enzymes includes tryptophan hydroxylase (E.C. 1.14.16.4), steroid 11-beta hydroxylase (E.C. 1.14.15.4), and LTB4 omega-hydroxylase (E.C. 1.14.13.30).

Gene Wiki entry for KMO Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for KMO Gene

Genomics for KMO Gene

Regulatory Elements for KMO Gene

Genomic Location for KMO Gene

Chromosome:
1
Start:
241,531,889 bp from pter
End:
241,595,647 bp from pter
Size:
63,759 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for KMO Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for KMO Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for KMO Gene

Proteins for KMO Gene

  • Protein details for KMO Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    O15229-KMO_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase
    Protein Accession:
    O15229
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A2A2U8
    • A2A2U9
    • A2A2V0
    • Q5SY07
    • Q5SY08
    • Q5SY09

    Protein attributes for KMO Gene

    Size:
    486 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    55810 Da
    Cofactor:
    Name=FAD; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:57692;
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    Miscellaneous:
    • Increased in neuroinflammatory conditions. Inhibitors are investigated as potential neuroprotective drugs since they lead to an increased level of kynurenic acid, a neuroprotective NMDA receptor agonist.

    Alternative splice isoforms for KMO Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for KMO Gene

Proteomics data for KMO Gene at MOPED

Selected DME Specific Peptides for KMO Gene

Post-translational modifications for KMO Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for KMO Gene

Antibody Products

  • Santa Cruz Biotechnology (SCBT) Antibodies for KMO

Domains & Families for KMO Gene

Protein Domains for KMO Gene

InterPro:
ProtoNet:

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for KMO Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

O15229

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

KMO_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the aromatic-ring hydroxylase family. KMO subfamily.
Family:
  • Belongs to the aromatic-ring hydroxylase family. KMO subfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with KMO: view

No data available for Gene Families for KMO Gene

Function for KMO Gene

Molecular function for KMO Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
kynurenine 3-monooxygenase,55.8kDa,NADPH flavin monooxygenase,expressed in liver,placenta,kidney
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties:
Kinetic parameters: KM=24.1 uM for L-kynurenine {ECO:0000269 PubMed:10672018, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9237672}; Vmax=8.5 umol/min/mg enzyme {ECO:0000269 PubMed:10672018, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9237672}; pH dependence: Optimum pH is 7.5. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:10672018, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9237672};
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
L-kynurenine + NADPH + O(2) = 3-hydroxy-L-kynurenine + NADP(+) + H(2)O.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Catalyzes the hydroxylation of L-kynurenine (L-Kyn) to form 3-hydroxy-L-kynurenine (L-3OHKyn). Required for synthesis of quinolinic acid, a neurotoxic NMDA receptor antagonist and potential endogenous inhibitor of NMDA receptor signaling in axonal targeting, synaptogenesis and apoptosis during brain development. Quinolinic acid may also affect NMDA receptor signaling in pancreatic beta cells, osteoblasts, myocardial cells, and the gastrointestinal tract

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for KMO Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for KMO Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004502 kynurenine 3-monooxygenase activity IDA 9237672
GO:0016174 NAD(P)H oxidase activity IDA 10672018
GO:0050660 flavin adenine dinucleotide binding IDA 10672018
GO:0071949 FAD binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with KMO: view

Phenotypes for KMO Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with KMO: view

Animal Model Products

No data available for Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for KMO Gene

Localization for KMO Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for KMO Gene

Mitochondrion outer membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for KMO Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for KMO gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
cytosol 4
mitochondrion 4

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for KMO Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IBA --
GO:0005741 mitochondrial outer membrane ISS 10672018
GO:0005743 mitochondrial inner membrane IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with KMO: view

Pathways & Interactions for KMO Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with KMO: view

PCR Array Products

  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot O15229-KMO_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Cofactor biosynthesis; NAD(+) biosynthesis; quinolinate from L-kynurenine: step 1/3.

Interacting Proteins for KMO Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for KMO Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006569 tryptophan catabolic process TAS --
GO:0009651 response to salt stress IDA 10672018
GO:0019441 tryptophan catabolic process to kynurenine IEA --
GO:0019674 NAD metabolic process IBA --
GO:0019805 quinolinate biosynthetic process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with KMO: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for KMO Gene

Drugs & Compounds for KMO Gene

(9) Drugs for KMO Gene - From: NovoSeek, HMDB, and Tocris

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
FAD Approved Pharma 0
Metyrapone Approved Pharma 11-beta hydroxylase inhibitor 11
Quinine Approved Pharma Inhibition, Inhibitor 38
L-Tryptophan Approved Nutra Inhibition, Inhibitor 0
quinolinic acid Experimental Pharma 0

(15) Additional Compounds for KMO Gene - From: HMDB, NovoSeek, and Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
nadph
  • 2'-(Dihydrogen phosphate) 5'-(trihydrogen pyrophosphate) Adenosine 5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-b-D-ribofuranosylnicotinamide
  • 2'-(Dihydrogen phosphate) 5'-(trihydrogen pyrophosphate) Adenosine 5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-beta-delta-ribofuranosylnicotinamide
  • Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate) 2'-(dihydrogen phosphate) P'-5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-3-pyridinecarboxamide
  • Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate) 2'-(dihydrogen phosphate) P'-5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-beta-delta-ribofuranosyl-3-pyridinecarboxamide
  • b-NADPH
53-57-6
oxygen
  • Dioxygen
  • Molecular oxygen
  • O2
  • Oxygen
  • Oxygen molecule
7782-44-7
Hydrogen Ion
  • Hydrogen cation
  • Hydron
  • Proton
Hydroxykynurenine
  • 3-(3-Hydroxyanthraniloyl)-Alanine
  • 3-Hydroxy-DL-kynurenine
  • 3-Hydroxy-Kynurenine
  • 3-Hydroxykynurenine
  • DL-3-Hydroxykynurenine
484-78-6
L-3-Hydroxykynurenine
  • 3-(2-Amino-3-hydroxybenzoyl)-L-alanine
  • 3-(3-Hydroxyanthraniloyl)-L-alanine
  • 3-Hydroxy-L-kynurenine
  • L-3-HK
606-14-4
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with KMO: view

Transcripts for KMO Gene

Unigene Clusters for KMO Gene

Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (kynurenine 3-hydroxylase):
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for KMO Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d · 1e ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b · 8c ^ 9 ^ 10a · 10b ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14a · 14b ^ 15
SP1: - - - - -
SP2: - - - -
SP3: - - -
SP4: -
SP5: - - - - - -
SP6: -
SP7: - -

Relevant External Links for KMO Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
KMO
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
KMO

Expression for KMO Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for KMO Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for KMO Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (x24.2) and Kidney - Cortex (x6.0).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for KMO Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Gallbladder (42.4), Liver (7.3), and Kidney (6.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for KMO Gene



SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for KMO Gene Hs.744065

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for KMO Gene

O15229-KMO_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Highest levels in placenta and liver. Detectable in kidney.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with KMO: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for KMO Gene

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

Orthologs for KMO Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for KMO Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia KMO 35
  • 87.63 (n)
  • 85.19 (a)
KMO 36
  • 83 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia KMO 35
  • 88.2 (n)
  • 86.27 (a)
KMO 36
  • 84 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Kmo 35
  • 81.54 (n)
  • 80.21 (a)
Kmo 16
Kmo 36
  • 79 (a)
OneToOne
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia KMO 35
  • 99.18 (n)
  • 98.56 (a)
KMO 36
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Kmo 35
  • 82.68 (n)
  • 81.22 (a)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia KMO 36
  • 78 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia KMO 36
  • 72 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves KMO 35
  • 69.16 (n)
  • 70.51 (a)
KMO 36
  • 69 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia KMO 36
  • 67 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia kmo 35
  • 68.41 (n)
  • 67.65 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.14429 35
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii kmo 35
  • 66.52 (n)
  • 65.68 (a)
kmo 36
  • 61 (a)
OneToMany
KMO (2 of 2) 36
  • 65 (a)
OneToMany
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta cn 37
  • 45 (a)
cn 35
  • 49.65 (n)
  • 44.55 (a)
cn 36
  • 39 (a)
OneToOne
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta KMO_ANOGA 35
  • 53.89 (n)
  • 52.86 (a)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea R07B7.4 37
  • 35 (a)
R07B7.5 37
  • 45 (a)
R07B7.5 35
  • 53.04 (n)
  • 47.9 (a)
kmo-1 36
  • 44 (a)
OneToMany
R07B7.4 36
  • 35 (a)
OneToMany
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AGL276W 35
  • 47.22 (n)
  • 39.13 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes BNA4 35
  • 50.28 (n)
  • 40.1 (a)
BNA4 36
  • 35 (a)
OneToOne
BNA4 38
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU06924 35
  • 46.84 (n)
  • 42.21 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.1968 36
  • 53 (a)
OneToOne
Species with no ortholog for KMO:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for KMO Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for KMO (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for KMO (if available)

Paralogs for KMO Gene

No data available for Paralogs for KMO Gene

Variants for KMO Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for KMO Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs600839 -- 241,578,840(+) catgt(A/G)gctag intron-variant
rs600841 -- 241,578,844(+) tggct(A/G)gggag intron-variant
rs602627 -- 241,581,051(+) ttacc(A/G)aattg intron-variant
rs604958 -- 241,581,602(+) agaaa(A/G)aagaa intron-variant
rs631682 -- 241,581,165(+) atttc(C/T)atttg intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for KMO Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv873368 CNV Gain 21882294
nsv873371 CNV Gain 21882294
nsv873372 CNV Gain 21882294
esv8534 CNV Gain 19470904
nsv525983 CNV Loss 19592680
esv2726207 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2726218 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2670654 CNV Deletion 23128226

Variation tolerance for KMO Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 55.75% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 4.23; 62.23% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for KMO Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
KMO
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
KMO

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for KMO Gene

Disorders for KMO Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(2) MalaCards diseases for KMO Gene - From: NovoSeek and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
transient cerebral ischemia
  • transient cerebral ischaemia nos
pneumococcal meningitis
  • meningitis, pneumococcal
- elite association
Search KMO in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for KMO

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
KMO
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
KMO
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
KMO
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with KMO: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for KMO Gene

Publications for KMO Gene

  1. Cloning and functional expression of human kynurenine 3- monooxygenase. (PMID: 9237672) Alberati-Giani D. … Malherbe P. (FEBS Lett. 1997) 2 23 67
  2. Cortical kynurenine pathway metabolism: a novel target for cognitive enhancement in Schizophrenia. (PMID: 20147364) Wonodi I. … Schwarcz R. (Schizophr Bull 2010) 23 67
  3. Protective actions of ovarian hormones in the serotonin system of macaques. (PMID: 19394356) Bethea C.L. … Lima F.B. (Front Neuroendocrinol 2009) 23 67
  4. Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase from Pseudomonas fluorescens: substrate-like inhibitors both stimulate flavin reduction and stabilize the flavin-peroxo intermediate yet result in the production of hydrogen peroxide. (PMID: 18954092) Crozier-Reabe K.R. … Moran G.R. (Biochemistry 2008) 23 67
  5. Effects of the kynurenine 3-hydroxylase inhibitor Ro 61-8048 after intrastriatal injections on the severity of dystonia in the dt sz mutant. (PMID: 18353306) Hamann M. … Richter A. (Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2008) 23 67

Products for KMO Gene

Sources for KMO Gene

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