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Aliases for KARS Gene

Aliases for KARS Gene

  • Lysyl-TRNA Synthetase 2 3 4 5
  • Lysine TRNA Ligase 2 3
  • EC 6.1.1.6 4 61
  • LysRS 3 4
  • Deafness, Autosomal Recessive 89 2
  • Lysine--TRNA Ligase 3
  • KIAA0070 4
  • EC 6.1.1 61
  • CMTRIB 3
  • DFNB89 3
  • KARS1 3
  • KARS2 3
  • KRS 3

External Ids for KARS Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for KARS Gene

  • DFNB89

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for KARS Gene

  • GC16M066591
  • GC16M076622
  • GC16M075400
  • GC16M075442
  • GC16M075443
  • GC16M074219
  • GC16M061415

Summaries for KARS Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for KARS Gene

  • Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are a class of enzymes that charge tRNAs with their cognate amino acids. Lysyl-tRNA synthetase is a homodimer localized to the cytoplasm which belongs to the class II family of tRNA synthetases. It has been shown to be a target of autoantibodies in the human autoimmune diseases, polymyositis or dermatomyositis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for KARS Gene

KARS (Lysyl-TRNA Synthetase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with KARS include Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease, Recessive Intermediate, B and Deafness, Autosomal Recessive 89. Among its related pathways are tRNA Aminoacylation and Gene Expression. GO annotations related to this gene include nucleic acid binding and tRNA binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for KARS Gene

  • Catalyzes the specific attachment of an amino acid to its cognate tRNA in a 2 step reaction: the amino acid (AA) is first activated by ATP to form AA-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of the tRNA. When secreted, acts as a signaling molecule that induces immune response through the activation of monocyte/macrophages. Catalyzes the synthesis of diadenosine oligophosphate (Ap4A), a signaling molecule involved in the activation of MITF transcriptional activity. Interacts with HIV-1 virus GAG protein, facilitating the selective packaging of tRNA(3)(Lys), the primer for reverse transcription initiation.

Gene Wiki entry for KARS Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for KARS Gene

Genomics for KARS Gene

Regulatory Elements for KARS Gene

Enhancers for KARS Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
- Elite enhancer/Elite enhancer-gene association

Enhancers around KARS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for KARS Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

Genomic Location for KARS Gene

Chromosome:
16
Start:
75,627,474 bp from pter
End:
75,648,643 bp from pter
Size:
21,170 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for KARS Gene

Genes around KARS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
KARS Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for KARS Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for KARS Gene

Proteins for KARS Gene

  • Protein details for KARS Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q15046-SYK_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Lysine--tRNA ligase
    Protein Accession:
    Q15046
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8MSK1
    • D3DUK4
    • O14946
    • Q96J25
    • Q9HB23

    Protein attributes for KARS Gene

    Size:
    597 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    68048 Da
    Cofactor:
    Name=Ca(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29108;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer; also part of a multisubunit complex that groups AIMP1, AIMP2, EEF1A1 and tRNA ligases for Arg, Asp, Glu, Gln, Ile, Leu, Lys, Met and Pro. Interacts with AIMP2 (via N-terminus) and MITF. Interacts directly with HIV-1 virus GAG protein.
    Miscellaneous:
    • Shares a bidirectional promoter with TERF2IP/RAP1.
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=BAA06688.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally shortened.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for KARS Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for KARS Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for KARS Gene

Post-translational modifications for KARS Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys 78, Lys 127, Lys 305, Lys 363, Lys 407, Lys 421, and Lys 430
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for KARS (KARS)

Domains & Families for KARS Gene

Gene Families for KARS Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for KARS Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q15046

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

SYK_HUMAN :
  • The N-terminal domain (1-65) of the cytoplasmic isoform is a functional tRNA-binding domain (By similarity), is required for nuclear localization, is involved in the interaction with DARS, but has a repulsive role in the binding to EEF1A1. A central domain (208-259) is involved in homodimerization and is required for interaction with HIV-1 GAG and incorporation into virions. The C-terminal domain (452-597) is not required for interaction with AIMP2.
  • Belongs to the class-II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family.
Domain:
  • The N-terminal domain (1-65) of the cytoplasmic isoform is a functional tRNA-binding domain (By similarity), is required for nuclear localization, is involved in the interaction with DARS, but has a repulsive role in the binding to EEF1A1. A central domain (208-259) is involved in homodimerization and is required for interaction with HIV-1 GAG and incorporation into virions. The C-terminal domain (452-597) is not required for interaction with AIMP2.
Family:
  • Belongs to the class-II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with KARS: view

Function for KARS Gene

Molecular function for KARS Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
lysyl-tRNA synthetase,target of autoantibodies in the autoimmune disease polymyositis/dermatomyositis
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + L-lysine + tRNA(Lys) = AMP + diphosphate + L-lysyl-tRNA(Lys).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Up-regulated by DARS and EEF1A1, but not by AIMP2.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Catalyzes the specific attachment of an amino acid to its cognate tRNA in a 2 step reaction: the amino acid (AA) is first activated by ATP to form AA-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of the tRNA. When secreted, acts as a signaling molecule that induces immune response through the activation of monocyte/macrophages. Catalyzes the synthesis of diadenosine oligophosphate (Ap4A), a signaling molecule involved in the activation of MITF transcriptional activity. Interacts with HIV-1 virus GAG protein, facilitating the selective packaging of tRNA(3)(Lys), the primer for reverse transcription initiation.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for KARS Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for KARS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000049 tRNA binding NAS 10952987
GO:0004824 lysine-tRNA ligase activity TAS --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 16189514
GO:0005524 ATP binding IEA --
GO:0016597 amino acid binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with KARS: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with KARS: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for KARS Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for KARS Gene

MGI Knock Outs for KARS:
  • Kars tm2b(EUCOMM)Hmgu

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for KARS Gene

Localization for KARS Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for KARS Gene

Isoform Cytoplasmic: Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Cell membrane; Peripheral membrane protein. Secreted. Note=Secretion is induced by TNF-alpha.
Isoform Mitochondrial: Mitochondrion.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for KARS Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for KARS gene
Compartment Confidence
cytoskeleton 5
cytosol 5
extracellular 5
mitochondrion 5
nucleus 5
plasma membrane 5
endoplasmic reticulum 1
golgi apparatus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for KARS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region IEA --
GO:0005634 nucleus IEA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IDA 10952987
GO:0005759 mitochondrial matrix TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with KARS: view

Pathways & Interactions for KARS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with KARS: view

Pathways by source for KARS Gene

1 KEGG pathway for KARS Gene

SIGNOR curated interactions for KARS Gene

Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for KARS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006418 tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation TAS --
GO:0006430 lysyl-tRNA aminoacylation IDA 10952987
GO:0008033 tRNA processing NAS 10952987
GO:0015966 diadenosine tetraphosphate biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0016032 viral process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with KARS: view

Drugs & Compounds for KARS Gene

(21) Drugs for KARS Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
L-Lysine Approved Nutra Full agonist, Agonist, Target 0
Phosphoric acid Approved Pharma 0
Adenosine monophosphate Approved Nutra 0
Adenosine triphosphate Approved Nutra 0

(8) Additional Compounds for KARS Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
pyrophosphate
  • (4-)Diphosphoric acid ion
  • (P2O74-)Diphosphate
  • Diphosphate
  • Diphosphoric acid
  • PPi
14000-31-8
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with KARS: view

Transcripts for KARS Gene

Unigene Clusters for KARS Gene

Lysyl-tRNA synthetase:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for KARS Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b · 2c · 2d · 2e ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9a · 9b · 9c ^ 10a · 10b ^ 11a · 11b · 11c ^ 12a · 12b ^
SP1: - -
SP2: - - -
SP3: - - - -
SP4: - -
SP5:
SP6: - - - - - - -
SP7: - - - -
SP8: - -
SP9: - - - - - - -
SP10:
SP11: - - - - - - -
SP12: -
SP13: - - - - -
SP14: - -
SP15:
SP16: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

ExUns: 13a · 13b ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16a · 16b ^ 17a · 17b · 17c · 17d
SP1: -
SP2: -
SP3:
SP4:
SP5:
SP6:
SP7:
SP8:
SP9:
SP10:
SP11:
SP12:
SP13:
SP14:
SP15:
SP16: - - - - - -

Relevant External Links for KARS Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
KARS
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
KARS

Expression for KARS Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for KARS Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for KARS Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Lymph node (16.5).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for KARS Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for KARS Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of KARS Gene:

KARS

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for KARS Gene:

Hs.3100
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with KARS: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for KARS Gene

Orthologs for KARS Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for KARS Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia KARS 34
  • 90.8 (n)
  • 93.26 (a)
KARS 35
  • 94 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia KARS 34
  • 91.25 (n)
  • 93.6 (a)
KARS 35
  • 94 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Kars 34
  • 88.78 (n)
  • 91.51 (a)
Kars 16
Kars 35
  • 92 (a)
OneToOne
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia KARS 34
  • 99.63 (n)
  • 99.84 (a)
KARS 35
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Kars 34
  • 88.43 (n)
  • 91.36 (a)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 35
  • 83 (a)
OneToMany
-- 35
  • 88 (a)
OneToMany
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia KARS 35
  • 87 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves KARS 34
  • 77.17 (n)
  • 84.59 (a)
KARS 35
  • 82 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia KARS 35
  • 74 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia kars 34
  • 75.28 (n)
  • 82 (a)
Str.3042 34
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii Dr.28209 34
kars 34
  • 74.97 (n)
  • 82.8 (a)
kars 35
  • 77 (a)
OneToOne
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG12141 36
  • 72 (a)
Aats-lys 34
  • 63.83 (n)
  • 67.45 (a)
Aats-lys 35
  • 66 (a)
OneToOne
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP000325 34
  • 64.91 (n)
  • 69.22 (a)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea krs-1 36
  • 60 (a)
kars-1 34
  • 60.66 (n)
  • 60.54 (a)
kars-1 35
  • 57 (a)
OneToOne
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AGR037C 34
  • 58.91 (n)
  • 59.09 (a)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0F18392g 34
  • 58.85 (n)
  • 58.36 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes KRS1 34
  • 58.85 (n)
  • 59.27 (a)
KRS1 35
  • 56 (a)
OneToOne
KRS1 37
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons ATKRS-1 34
  • 60.26 (n)
  • 58.53 (a)
barley
(Hordeum vulgare)
Liliopsida Hv.10812 34
rice
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os03g0586800 34
  • 61.05 (n)
  • 60.39 (a)
wheat
(Triticum aestivum)
Liliopsida Ta.4293 34
corn
(Zea mays)
Liliopsida Zm.6555 34
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU04020 34
  • 55.78 (n)
  • 54.24 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes krs1 34
  • 58.81 (n)
  • 60.51 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 35
  • 73 (a)
OneToMany
CSA.665 35
  • 68 (a)
OneToMany
Species where no ortholog for KARS was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)

Evolution for KARS Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for KARS (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for KARS (if available)

Paralogs for KARS Gene

Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for KARS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with KARS: view

No data available for Paralogs for KARS Gene

Variants for KARS Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for KARS Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 16 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs6834 - 75,627,905(-) TGGCA(C/G)TTCTG reference, missense
rs11557665 - 75,636,045(-) TCGGG(A/C/G)AGACA reference, missense
rs267607194 Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, recessive, intermediate type, B (CMTRIB) 75,640,258(-) CTCAC(A/T)CACTG reference, missense
rs146955132 Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, recessive, intermediate type, B (CMTRIB) 75,634,266(+) CCTGG(C/G)ATGAT reference, missense
rs397514745 Deafness, autosomal recessive, 89 (DFNB89) 75,636,503(-) TCTTC(C/T)ATGAT reference, missense

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for KARS Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv1065543 CNV loss 25217958
nsv472233 CNV novel sequence insertion 20440878

Variation tolerance for KARS Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 9.72% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 6.48; 77.53% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for KARS Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
KARS
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
KARS

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for KARS Gene

Disorders for KARS Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(10) MalaCards diseases for KARS Gene - From: OMIM, ClinVar, GeneTests, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
charcot-marie-tooth disease, recessive intermediate, b
  • charcot-marie-tooth disease, recessive intermediate b
deafness, autosomal recessive 89
  • deafness, autosomal recessive, 89
kars-related intermediate charcot-marie-tooth neuropathy
  • charcot-marie-tooth disease, recessive intermediate b
autosomal recessive non-syndromic sensorineural deafness type dfnb
  • autosomal recessive isolated neurosensory deafness type dfnb
polymyositis
  • pm
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search KARS in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

SYK_HUMAN
  • Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, recessive, intermediate type, B (CMTRIB) [MIM:613641]: A form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, a disorder of the peripheral nervous system, characterized by progressive weakness and atrophy, initially of the peroneal muscles and later of the distal muscles of the arms. Recessive intermediate forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease are characterized by clinical and pathologic features intermediate between demyelinating and axonal peripheral neuropathies, and motor median nerve conduction velocities ranging from 25 to 45 m/sec. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:20920668}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Deafness, autosomal recessive, 89 (DFNB89) [MIM:613916]: A form of non-syndromic deafness characterized by bilateral, prelingual, moderate to severe hearing loss affecting all frequencies. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:23768514}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Relevant External Links for KARS

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
KARS
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
KARS
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
KARS
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with KARS: view

No data available for Genatlas for KARS Gene

Publications for KARS Gene

  1. Human lysyl-tRNA synthetase accepts nucleotide 73 variants and rescues Escherichia coli double-defective mutant. (PMID: 9278442) Shiba K. … Schimmel P. (J. Biol. Chem. 1997) 2 3 4 22 65
  2. Mutations in KARS, encoding lysyl-tRNA synthetase, cause autosomal-recessive nonsyndromic hearing impairment DFNB89. (PMID: 23768514) Santos-Cortez R.L. … Leal S.M. (Am. J. Hum. Genet. 2013) 2 3 4 65
  3. Crystal structure of tetrameric form of human lysyl-tRNA synthetase: Implications for multisynthetase complex formation. (PMID: 18272479) Guo M. … Yang X.-L. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2008) 3 4 22 65
  4. Cellular distribution of Lysyl-tRNA synthetase and its interaction with Gag during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 assembly. (PMID: 15220430) Halwani R. … Kleiman L. (J. Virol. 2004) 3 4 22 65
  5. The interaction between HIV-1 Gag and human lysyl-tRNA synthetase during viral assembly. (PMID: 12756246) Javanbakht H. … Kleiman L. (J. Biol. Chem. 2003) 3 4 22 65

Products for KARS Gene

Sources for KARS Gene

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