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ITGAD Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 53
GCID: GC16P031405

Integrin, Alpha D

  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Integrin, Alpha D1 2     CD11D2 5
Leukointegrin Alpha D2 3     Integrin Alpha-D2
ADB22 3     CD11d Antigen3
CD11 Antigen-Like Family Member D2 3     

External Ids:    HGNC: 61461   Entrez Gene: 36812   Ensembl: ENSG000001568867   OMIM: 6024535   UniProtKB: Q133493   

Export aliases for ITGAD gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC16U990033 GC16P031901 GC16P031401 GC16P031440 GC16P031312 GC16P028964


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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GeneCards Summary for ITGAD Gene:
ITGAD (integrin, alpha D) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with ITGAD include chronic monocytic leukemia, and monocytic leukemia. An important paralog of this gene is ITGA1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: ITAD_HUMAN, Q13349
Function: Integrin alpha-D/beta-2 is a receptor for ICAM3 and VCAM1. May play a role in the atherosclerotic
process such as clearing lipoproteins from plaques and in phagocytosis of blood-borne pathogens, particulate
matter, and senescent erythrocytes from the blood

Gene Wiki entry for ITGAD Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the ITGAD gene promoter:
         AhR   ER-alpha   RP58   Elk-1   p53   CUTL1   LCR-F1   Ik-3   Arnt   Pax-4a   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidITGAD promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for ITGAD

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat ITGAD


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 16p11.2   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  16p11.2   HGNC cytogenetic band: 16p13.1-p11

ITGAD Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
ITGAD gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 16         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC16P031405:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
31,404,633 bp from pter      End:
31,437,826 bp from pter
Size:
33,194 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: ITAD_HUMAN, Q13349 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Integrin alpha-D precursor  
Size: 1161 amino acids; 126758 Da
Subunit: Heterodimer of an alpha and a beta subunit. Alpha-D associates with beta-2
Sequence caution: Sequence=AAB60634.1; Type=Miscellaneous discrepancy;
Secondary accessions: Q15575 Q15576

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for ITGAD: NX_Q13349

Explore proteomics data for ITGAD at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Glycosylation2 at Asn59, Asn87, Asn99, Asn391, Asn690, Asn732, Asn872, Asn956, Asn1045

  • See ITGAD Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_005344.2  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000373854  
    Reactome Protein details: Q13349

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    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    CD: CD molecules
    ITG: Integrins

    5 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR000413 Integrin_alpha
     IPR018184 Integrin_alpha_C_CS
     IPR013649 Integrin_alpha-2
     IPR013519 Int_alpha_beta-p
     IPR002035 VWF_A

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q13349

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q13349

    4 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB000413 Integrins alpha chain
    IPB002035 Von Willebrand factor type A domain signature
    IPB013513 Integrin alpha chain
    IPB013517 FG-GAP


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: ITAD_HUMAN, Q13349
    Domain: The integrin I-domain (insert) is a VWFA domain. Integrins with I-domains do not undergo protease cleavage
    Similarity: Belongs to the integrin alpha chain family
    Similarity: Contains 7 FG-GAP repeats
    Similarity: Contains 1 VWFA domain


    ITGAD for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, and Vector BioLabs, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: ITAD_HUMAN, Q13349
    Function: Integrin alpha-D/beta-2 is a receptor for ICAM3 and VCAM1. May play a role in the atherosclerotic
    process such as clearing lipoproteins from plaques and in phagocytosis of blood-borne pathogens, particulate
    matter, and senescent erythrocytes from the blood

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for ITGAD:
    integrin,alpha D,cell surface adhesion receptor mediating cell-adhesion to extra cellular matrix or to other
    cells,through hetero dimerization and connecting to the cytoskeleton and various signaling molecules within
    cells,arrayed in tandem with ITGAX (CD11C),dimerizing with ITGB2 in fibrinogen,C3b receptor

         Gene Ontology (GO): 1 molecular function term:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0046872metal ion binding IEA--
         
    ITGAD for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         3 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 2 alleles(MGI details for Itgad):
     hematopoietic system  homeostasis/metabolism  immune system 

    ITGAD for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-outs for ITGAD: Itgadtm1Bll Itgadtm1.1Zimm

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for ITGAD
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       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for ITGAD
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for ITGAD

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    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat ITGAD

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    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    ITAD_HUMAN, Q13349: Membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    plasma membrane5
    cytoskeleton1
    cytosol1
    endoplasmic reticulum1
    extracellular1
    mitochondrion1
    peroxisome1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 2 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005886plasma membrane TAS--
    GO:0008305integrin complex TAS--

    ITGAD for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for ITGAD About   (see all 19)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Focal adhesion
    Focal Adhesion0.65
    HGF Pathway0.34
    Integrin-mediated cell adhesion0.38
    2Integrin Pathway
    FAK1 Signaling0.67
    UPA-UPAR Pathway0.56
    Integrin Pathway0.67
    Transendothelial Migration of Leukocytes0.38
    GnRH Signaling0.56
    3Apoptotic Pathways in Synovial Fibroblasts
    PPAR Pathway0.66
    Actin-Based Motility by Rho Family GTPases0.62
    Rac1 Pathway0.65
    Rap1 Pathway0.57
    Glioma Invasiveness0.64
    4ERK Signaling
    Rho Family GTPases0.61
    Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer0.51
    ERK Signaling0.61
    ILK Signaling0.49
    MAPK Signaling0.58
    5Actin Nucleation by ARP-WASP Complex
    Actin Nucleation and Branching0.66
    CDC42 Pathway0.41
    Actin Nucleation by ARP-WASP Complex0.66
    RhoA Pathway0.35

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    Selected Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for ITGAD (see all 35)
        RhoA Pathway
    Paxillin Interactions
    Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer
    CDK5 Pathway
    Tec Kinases Signaling

    2 BioSystems Pathways for ITGAD
        Focal Adhesion
    Integrin-mediated cell adhesion


    1 Reactome Pathway for ITGAD
        Integrin cell surface interactions


    1 Kegg Pathway  (Kegg details for ITGAD):
        Regulation of actin cytoskeleton


    ITGAD for pathways           About GeneDecksing

        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for ITGAD
    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for ITGAD

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for ITGAD (Q133493 ENSP000003738544) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 41)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    ITGB2P051073, ENSP000003032424I2D: score=4 STRING: ENSP00000303242
    ICAM3P329423, ENSP000001602624I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000160262
    VCAM1P193203, ENSP000002947284I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000294728
    VTNP040043I2D: score=1 
    FGAENSP000003063614STRING: ENSP00000306361
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 7):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006955immune response NAS9841932
    GO:0007155cell adhesion IEA--
    GO:0007160cell-matrix adhesion ----
    GO:0007229integrin-mediated signaling pathway IEA--
    GO:0016337cell-cell adhesion ----

    ITGAD for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for ITGAD (ITAD)



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for ITGAD gene: 
    NM_005353.2  

    3 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000389202(uc002ebv.1 uc010cap.1) ENST00000444228(uc010vfl.1 uc002ebw.1)
    ENST00000567308
    miRNA
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    3 AceView cDNA sequences:

    U37028 AK097160 BQ711865 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    3 Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ITGAD    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10a · 10b ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16 ^ 17 ^ 18 ^ 19 ^ 20 ^ 21 ^ 22 ^
    SP1:                                                                                -                                                                           
    SP2:                                                                                -                                                                           
    SP3:                          -     -                 -                                                                                                         

    ExUns: 23 ^ 24 ^ 25 ^ 26 ^ 27 ^ 28 ^ 29 ^ 30a · 30b
    SP1:                                                      
    SP2:                                                      
    SP3:                                                      


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for ITGAD

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    ITGAD expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: AAATGAGGAT
    ITGAD Expression
    About this image

    ITGAD Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    ITGAD Protein Expression

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: ITAD_HUMAN, Q13349
    Tissue specificity: Expressed moderately on myelomonocytic cell lines and subsets of peripheral blood leukocytes
    and strongly on tissue-specialized cells, including macrophages foam cells within atherosclerotic plaques, and on
    splenic red pulp macrophages

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    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for ITGAD

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

    Orthologs for ITGAD gene from Selected species (see all 9)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Itgad1 , 5 integrin, alpha D1, 5 79.47(n)1
    73.48(a)1
      7 (70.00 cM)5
    3819241  NM_001029872.31  NP_001025043.31 
     1281543765 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia --
    --
    (see all 3)
    Uncharacterized protein
    (see all 3)
    46(a)
    45(a)
    (see all 3)
    many ↔ many
    many ↔ many
    (see all 3)
    GL343220.1(2388207-2422669)
    GL343287.1(369977-372197)
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii si:dkey-32n7.46
    si:dkey-32n7.4
    36(a)
    many ↔ many
    12(4794914-4825546) ENSDARG00000002956


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for ITGAD (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for ITGAD (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for ITGAD gene
    ITGA12  ITGA62  ITGA32  ITGA72  ITGA82  ITGAM2  ITGA112  ITGA22  
    ITGA52  ITGAE2  ITGA2B2  ITGAV2  ITGAX2  ITGAL2  ITGA92  ITGA42  
    ITGA102  
    4 SIMAP similar genes for ITGAD using alignment to 1 protein entry:     ITAD_HUMAN:
    ITGAX    ITGAM    FLJ00114    ITGAL

    ITGAD for paralogs           About GeneDecksing



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for ITGAD (see all 908)    About this table    
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 16 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1488744351,2
    C--31402931(+) CTCCCA/TAAGTG 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1898517801,2
    --31403063(+) TTCCTA/GAGCTT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs129324291,2
    C--31403145(+) aatctC/Tgactc 1 -- us2k1 tfbs36Minor allele frequency- T:0.00NA WA CSA 11
    rs1510644641,2
    C--31403275(+) TTTCAA/CCATAT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1814984791,2
    --31403333(+) TCAGCC/TTCTCA 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs80590291,2
    C,F--31403587(+) tggatG/Ttggtg 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- T:0.12WA 118
    rs802796551,2
    C,F--31403598(+) GCTCAC/TGCCTG 1 -- us2k12Minor allele frequency- T:0.03WA 120
    rs1409701551,2
    --31403674(+) TGGGCA/GACATA 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1501978571,2
    --31403681(+) CATAGA/TGCGAT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1387999841,2
    C--31403771(+) GGGAGA/GATTGC 1 -- us2k10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for ITGAD (31404633 - 31437826 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 6 variations for ITGAD:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2714194CNV Deletion23290073
    nsv833194CNV Loss17160897
    dgv2673n71CNV Loss21882294
    nsv905751CNV Loss21882294
    nsv905747CNV Gain21882294
    esv25470CNV Gain19812545

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): ITGAD
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing ITGAD
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for ITGAD

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 602453    OMIM disorders: --

    4 diseases for ITGAD:    
    About MalaCards
    chronic monocytic leukemia    monocytic leukemia    obesity    leukemia

    1 disease from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for ITGAD:
    Chronic monocytic leukemia

    ITGAD for disorders           About GeneDecksing


    Export disorders for ITGAD gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for ITGAD gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 14):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with ITGAD)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Cloning and chromosomal localization of a novel gene-encoding a human beta 2-integrin alpha subunit. (PubMed id 8666289)1, 2, 3 Wong D.A.... Springer T.A. (Gene 1996)
    2. Mapping of the human CD11c (ITGAX) and CD11d (ITGAD) genes demonstrates that they are arranged in tandem separated by no more than 11.5 kb. (PubMed id 9598326)1, 3, 9 Shelley C.S....Arnaout M.A. (Genomics 1998)
    3. Structural and functional characterization of the leukocyte integrin gene CD11d. Essential role of Sp1 and Sp3. (PubMed id 10722744)1, 2 Noti J.D.... Dillon J.D. (J. Biol. Chem. 2000)
    4. The leukocyte integrin alpha D beta 2 binds VCAM-1: evidence for a binding interface between I domain and VCAM-1. (PubMed id 10438935)1, 2 Van der Vieren M.... Staunton D.E. (J. Immunol. 1999)
    5. Alphadbeta2 integrin is expressed on human eosinophils and functions as an alternative ligand for vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM- 1). (PubMed id 9841932)1, 2 Grayson M.H.... Bochner B.S. (J. Exp. Med. 1998)
    6. A novel leukointegrin, alpha d beta 2, binds preferentially to ICAM- 3. (PubMed id 8777714)1, 2 Van der Vieren M.... Gallatin W.M. (Immunity 1995)
    7. Expression of the myeloid-specific leukocyte integrin gene CD11d during macrophage foam cell differentiation and exposure to lipoproteins. (PubMed id 12429998)1, 9 Noti J.D. (Int. J. Mol. Med. 2002)
    8. Treatment with an anti-CD11d integrin antibody reduces neuroinflammation and improves outcome in a rat model of repeated concussion. (PubMed id 23414334)1 Shultz S.R....Brown A. (J Neuroinflammation 2013)
    9. On the potential involvement of CD11d in co-stimulating the production of interferon-I^ by natural killer cells upon interaction with neutrophils via intercellular adhesion molecule-3. (PubMed id 21712539)1 Costantini C....Cassatella M.A. (Haematologica 2011)
    10. Inflammatory phenotyping identifies CD11d as a gene markedly induced in white adipose tissue in obese rodents and women. (PubMed id 21508205)1 Thomas A.P....Adams S.H. (J. Nutr. 2011)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 3681 HGNC: 6146 AceView: ITGAD Ensembl:ENSG00000156886 euGenes: HUgn3681
    ECgene: ITGAD Kegg: 3681 H-InvDB: ITGAD

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for ITGAD Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for ITGAD Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for ITGAD gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving ITGAD

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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