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IRX1 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 48
GCID: GC05P003596

Iroquois Homeobox 1

  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Iroquois Homeobox 11 2
Homeodomain Protein IRXA12 3
Iroquois Homeobox Protein 12 3
IRXA12 3
IRX-52
Iroquois-Class Homeodomain Protein IRX-12

External Ids:    HGNC: 143581   Entrez Gene: 791922   Ensembl: ENSG000001705497   OMIM: 6061975   UniProtKB: P784143   

Export aliases for IRX1 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC05P003743 GC05P003629 GC05P003648 GC05P003649


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for IRX1 Gene:
This gene encodes a member of the Iroquois homeobox protein family. Homeobox genes in this family are involved in
pattern formation in the embryo. The gene product has been identified as a tumor suppressor in gastric (PMID:
21602894, 20440264) and head and neck cancers (PMID: 18559491). A pseudogene of this gene is located on
chromosome 13. (provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011)

GeneCards Summary for IRX1 Gene:
IRX1 (iroquois homeobox 1) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with IRX1 include labyrinthitis, and myopia. GO annotations related to this gene include sequence-specific DNA binding and sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity. An important paralog of this gene is IRX3.

Gene Wiki entry for IRX1 Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000005.10  NC_018916.2  NT_006576.17  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the IRX1 gene promoter:
         LHX3b/Lhx3b   FOXC1   Nkx6-1   LHX3a/Lhx3a   CUTL1   MRF-2   GATA-2   FOXL1   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidIRX1 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for IRX1

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat IRX1


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 5p15.3   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  5p15.33   HGNC cytogenetic band: 5p15.33

IRX1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
IRX1 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 5         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC05P003596:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
3,596,168 bp from pter      End:
3,601,517 bp from pter
Size:
5,350 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: IRX1_HUMAN, P78414 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Iroquois-class homeodomain protein IRX-1  
Size: 480 amino acids; 49621 Da
Secondary accessions: Q7Z2F8 Q8N312

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for IRX1: NX_P78414

Explore proteomics data for IRX1 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Modification sites at neXtProt
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See IRX1 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_077313.3  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000305244  

    IRX1 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for IRX1


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    TALE: Homeoboxes / TALE class

    5 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR003893 Iroquois_homeo
     IPR008422 Homeobox_KN_domain
     IPR017970 Homeobox_CS
     IPR001356 Homeobox_dom
     IPR009057 Homeodomain-like

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P78414

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P78414

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB003893 Iroquois-class homeodomain protein

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: IRX1_HUMAN, P78414
    Similarity: Belongs to the TALE/IRO homeobox family
    Similarity: Contains 1 homeobox DNA-binding domain


    IRX1 for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, and Vector BioLabs, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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         Gene Ontology (GO): 3 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0003677DNA binding ----
    GO:0003700sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity IEA--
    GO:0043565sequence-specific DNA binding IEA--
         
    IRX1 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Animal Models:
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for IRX1
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       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for IRX1
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for IRX1

    miRNA
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    5 qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate IRX1:
    hsa-miR-579 hsa-miR-676 hsa-miR-2355-3p hsa-miR-639 hsa-let-7f-2*
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidIRX1 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
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    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat IRX1

    Gene Editing
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: IRX1 (NM_024337)
    Browse Sino Biological Human cDNA Clones
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    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat IRX1

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    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    IRX1_HUMAN, P78414: Nucleus (Probable)
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    nucleus4
    cytosol2
    golgi apparatus1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 1 cellular component term:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005634nucleus IEA--

    IRX1 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for IRX1
    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for IRX1

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 6)

    Selected Interacting proteins for IRX1 (P784143 ENSP000003052444) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 7)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    SMAD2Q157963I2D: score=1 
    ELAVL1ENSP000003852694STRING: ENSP00000385269
    MTX2ENSP000002494424STRING: ENSP00000249442
    SRFENSP000002653544STRING: ENSP00000265354
    TSHZ3ENSP000002405874STRING: ENSP00000240587
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 4 biological process terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001656metanephros development ----
    GO:0006355regulation of transcription, DNA-templated ----
    GO:0072086specification of loop of Henle identity IEA--
    GO:0072272proximal/distal pattern formation involved in metanephric nephron development IEA--

    IRX1 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for IRX1



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for IRX1 gene: 
    NM_024337.3  

    Unigene Cluster for IRX1:

    Iroquois homeobox 1
    Hs.424156  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: AY335938
    1 Ensembl transcript including schematic representation, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000302006(uc003jde.3)
    miRNA
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    5 qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate IRX1:
    hsa-miR-579 hsa-miR-676 hsa-miR-2355-3p hsa-miR-639 hsa-let-7f-2*
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidIRX1 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat IRX1
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    Primer
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      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat IRX1
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat IRX1

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AY335938.1 BC029160.1 U90307.1 

    2 DOTS entries:

    DT.209962  DT.100735000 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 30):

    NM_024337 AI871044 AI360276 AI146494 BX100124 BM129035 AI870490 BE464039 
    AW242710 BC029160 AA918639 AA969931 AI937828 AY335938 CF456886 BI822773 
    BM129268 N67364 AA932154 U90307 AI571199 AI391677 BM716106 AW294109 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    IRX1 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: GCCCTCACCT
    IRX1 Expression
    About this image


    IRX1 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 11) fully expand
     
     Kidney (Urinary System)    fully expand to see all 10 entries
             Loop of Henle Cells Loop of Henle
             Metanephros
     
     Neural Tube (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 5 entries
             Metencephalon
     
     Heart (Cardiovascular System)
             Cardiomyocytes Outer Curvature
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 4 entries
             Thalamus
     
     Lung (Respiratory System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             Alveolar Progenitor Cells Terminal Sacs
             Trachea
    IRX1 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    IRX1 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.424156
        Custom PCR Arrays for IRX1
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    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for IRX1

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

    Orthologs for IRX1 gene from Selected species (see all 12)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Irx11 , 5 Iroquois related homeobox 1 (Drosophila)1, 5 85.9(n)1
    91.46(a)1
      13 (38.43 cM)5
    163711  NM_010573.21  NP_034703.21 
     719579215 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves IRX11 iroquois homeobox 1 71.61(n)
    72.47(a)
      374185  NM_001030338.1  NP_001025509.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia IRX16
    iroquois homeobox 1
    72(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    GL343292.1(773931-784086)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia LOC3979762 homeobox Iro protein 77.42(n)    AJ001834.2 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii Dr.126132 Danio rerio iroquois homeobox protein Ziro1 (ziro1) more 79.17(n)    AY043241.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for IRX1 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for IRX1 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for IRX1 gene
    IRX32  IRX52  MKX2  IRX22  IRX62  IRX42  
    3 SIMAP similar genes for IRX1 using alignment to 1 protein entry:     IRX1_HUMAN:
    TGIF1    IRX3    IRX6

    IRX1 for paralogs           About GeneDecksing


    2 Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for IRX1
    PGOHUM00000248334 PGOHUM00000248541


    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for IRX1 (see all 174)    About this table    
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 5 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs623339741,2
    F--3594275(+) TTGAGC/GGCGGG 1 -- us2k14Minor allele frequency- G:0.07NA WA 242
    rs623339751,2
    F--3594296(+) ACTAGC/GAAGAC 1 -- us2k13Minor allele frequency- G:0.10NA 124
    rs623339761,2
    C,F--3594365(+) ACTACC/TATCAC 1 -- us2k14Minor allele frequency- T:0.07NA WA 242
    rs1868470471,2
    C--3594417(+) GTCCTC/TAGGCC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1149053441,2
    C,F--3594432(+) AAACCG/TGAGCC 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- T:0.04WA 118
    rs1897638051,2
    --3594469(+) GCCTCA/GAGGCT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs8283351,2
    C--3594502(+) CAGGGG/AGTGAA 1 -- us2k14Minor allele frequency- A:0.14CSA WA EA 240
    rs346241301,2
    C,F--3594547(+) CTCAAA/CCCACC 1 -- us2k15Minor allele frequency- C:0.06NA WA 244
    rs8283361,2
    C,A--3594679(+) AGAGCG/CGCAGC 1 -- us2k112Minor allele frequency- C:0.19EA NA WA CSA 1675
    rs38118541,2
    C,F,A,H--3594705(-) CAGAGC/ACGGGG 1 -- us2k123Minor allele frequency- A:0.27NS EA NA WA CSA 2351

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for IRX1 (3596168 - 3601517 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 9 variations for IRX1:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv461914CNV Loss19166990
    esv22909CNV Loss19812545
    nsv428461CNV Loss18775914
    nsv516530CNV Loss19592680
    dgv932n67CNV Gain20364138
    nsv822983CNV Gain20364138
    nsv822984CNV Gain20364138
    nsv10658CNV Gain18304495
    dgv1747e1CNV Complex17122850

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing IRX1
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for IRX1

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 606197    OMIM disorders: --

    8 diseases for IRX1:    
    About MalaCards
    labyrinthitis    myopia    peritonitis    smallpox
    bipolar disorder    myocardial infarction    squamous cell carcinoma    schizophrenia


    IRX1 for disorders           About GeneDecksing

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): IRX1
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: IRX1 (3 documents)

    Export disorders for IRX1 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for IRX1 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 22):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with IRX1)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Coeliac disease-associated risk variants in TNFAIP3 and REL implicate altered NF-kappaB signalling. (PubMed id 19240061)1, 4 Trynka G....Wijmenga C. (Gut 2009)
    2. A genome-wide scan maps a novel high myopia locus to 5p15. (PubMed id 18421076)1, 4 Lam C.Y....Lam D.S. (amp 2008)
    3. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    4. Genome-wide association study of antibody response to smallpox vaccine. (PubMed id 22542470)1 Ovsyannikova I.G....Poland G.A. (Vaccine 2012)
    5. SNPs on chromosome 5p15.3 associated with myocardial infarction in Japanese population. (PubMed id 21107343)4 Aoki A....Tanaka T. (J. Hum. Genet. 2011)
    6. Helicobacter pylori induces promoter hypermethylation and downregulates gene expression of IRX1 transcription factor on human gastric mucosa. (PubMed id 21649733)1 Guo X.B....Yu Y.Y. (J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2011)
    7. IRX1 influences peritoneal spreading and metastasis via inhibiting BDKRB2-dependent neovascularization on gastric cancer. (PubMed id 21602894)1 Jiang J....Yu Y. (Oncogene 2011)
    8. A genome-wide meta-analysis identifies novel loci associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. (PubMed id 20889312)4 Wang K.S....Aragam N. (Schizophr. Res. 2010)
    9. A three-stage genome-wide association study of general cognitive ability: hunting the small effects. (PubMed id 20306291)1 Davis O.S....Plomin R. (Behav. Genet. 2010)
    10. Homeobox gene IRX1 is a tumor suppressor gene in gastric carcinoma. (PubMed id 20440264)1 Guo X....Yu Y. (Oncogene 2010)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 79192 HGNC: 14358 AceView: IRX1 Ensembl:ENSG00000170549 euGenes: HUgn79192
    ECgene: IRX1 H-InvDB: IRX1

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for IRX1 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for IRX1 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving IRX1

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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