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Aliases for INS Gene

Aliases for INS Gene

  • Insulin 2 3 3 5
  • Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus 2 2
  • Preproinsulin 3
  • Proinsulin 3
  • MODY10 3
  • IDDM1 3
  • IDDM2 3
  • IDDM 3
  • ILPR 3
  • IRDN 3

External Ids for INS Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for INS Gene

  • IDDM2
  • IDDM1

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for INS Gene

  • GC11U990070
  • GC11M002268
  • GC11M002140
  • GC11M002145
  • GC11M002137
  • GC11M002106
  • GC11M002125
  • GC11M002153
  • GC11M001971
  • GC11M002181

Summaries for INS Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for INS Gene

  • After removal of the precursor signal peptide, proinsulin is post-translationally cleaved into three peptides: the B chain and A chain peptides, which are covalently linked via two disulfide bonds to form insulin, and C-peptide. Binding of insulin to the insulin receptor (INSR) stimulates glucose uptake. A multitude of mutant alleles with phenotypic effects have been identified. There is a read-through gene, INS-IGF2, which overlaps with this gene at the 5' region and with the IGF2 gene at the 3' region. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]

GeneCards Summary for INS Gene

INS (Insulin) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with INS include Maturity-Onset Diabetes Of The Young, Type 10 and Hyperproinsulinemia. Among its related pathways are Insulin receptor recycling and RET signaling. GO annotations related to this gene include identical protein binding and protease binding. An important paralog of this gene is INS-IGF2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for INS Gene

  • Insulin decreases blood glucose concentration. It increases cell permeability to monosaccharides, amino acids and fatty acids. It accelerates glycolysis, the pentose phosphate cycle, and glycogen synthesis in liver.

Gene Wiki entry for INS Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for INS Gene

Genomics for INS Gene

Regulatory Elements for INS Gene

Enhancers for INS Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH11G002186 1.3 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.6 -25.5 -25484 0.8 CTCF ZNF473 ZSCAN4 MAX GLI4 CDC5L THRB ZIC2 RAD21 ZNF776 INS-IGF2 INS IGF2 CD81 ENSG00000199550 TH MIR4686 GC11M002206
GH11G002026 0.5 ENCODE 11.4 +131.7 131731 6.4 SCRT2 TRIM22 ZNF16 PRDM4 HNRNPL ENSG00000240801 MIR483 TH IGF2-AS IGF2 INS-IGF2 INS KRTAP5-5 GC11P002011 GC11M002042
GH11G002648 0.4 FANTOM5 1.9 -487.5 -487513 0.3 TRPM5 INS ASCL2 GC11P002647 ENSG00000275666
GH11G002443 0.4 FANTOM5 1.2 -282.7 -282674 0.1 EZH2 TRPM5 INS KCNQ1
GH11G002162 0.5 dbSUPER 0.7 -2.0 -2029 2.7 CTCF GLIS1 PBX2 ZIC2 TH INS GC11P002165
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around INS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for INS Gene

2,159,779 bp from pter
2,161,341 bp from pter
1,563 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for INS Gene

Genes around INS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
INS Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for INS Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for INS Gene

Proteins for INS Gene

  • Protein details for INS Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q5EEX2

    Protein attributes for INS Gene

    110 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    11981 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Heterodimer of a B chain and an A chain linked by two disulfide bonds (PubMed:25423173).
    • Sequence=AAA59179.1; Type=Erroneous gene model prediction; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for INS Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for INS Gene


neXtProt entry for INS Gene

Post-translational modifications for INS Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Assay Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for INS Gene

Domains & Families for INS Gene

Gene Families for INS Gene

Protein Domains for INS Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for INS Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the insulin family.
  • Belongs to the insulin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with INS: view

Function for INS Gene

Molecular function for INS Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Insulin decreases blood glucose concentration. It increases cell permeability to monosaccharides, amino acids and fatty acids. It accelerates glycolysis, the pentose phosphate cycle, and glycogen synthesis in liver.

LifeMap Function Summary for INS Gene

INS as growth factor is involved in stem cell differentiation protocols towards the derivation of the following cells:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for INS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002020 protease binding IPI 20082125
GO:0005158 insulin receptor binding IPI 8452530
GO:0005159 insulin-like growth factor receptor binding IPI,ISS 8452530
GO:0005179 hormone activity IEA,NAS 14986111
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 9388210
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with INS: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with INS: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for INS Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for INS Gene

MGI Knock Outs for INS:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for INS Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target INS

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for INS

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for INS Gene

Localization for INS Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for INS Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for INS gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
endoplasmic reticulum 5
golgi apparatus 5
endosome 5
plasma membrane 4
cytosol 4
cytoskeleton 3
mitochondrion 3
peroxisome 3
nucleus 3
lysosome 3

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for INS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000139 Golgi membrane TAS --
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS,IEA --
GO:0005615 extracellular space ISS,IDA 9667398
GO:0005788 endoplasmic reticulum lumen TAS --
GO:0005796 Golgi lumen TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with INS: view

Pathways & Interactions for INS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with INS: view

Pathways by source for INS Gene

SIGNOR curated interactions for INS Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for INS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000165 MAPK cascade IDA 11278339
GO:0002674 negative regulation of acute inflammatory response IDA 11443198
GO:0005975 carbohydrate metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006006 glucose metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006355 regulation of transcription, DNA-templated NAS 12881524
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with INS: view

Drugs & Compounds for INS Gene

(83) Drugs for INS Gene - From: DrugBank, ApexBio, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
m-Cresol Experimental Pharma Target 0
MYRISTIC ACID Experimental Pharma Target 0
MSDC-0160 Pharma mTOT-modulating insulin sensitizer 0

(48) Additional Compounds for INS Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs

(1) ApexBio Compounds for INS Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
MSDC-0160 mTOT-modulating insulin sensitizer 146062-49-9
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with INS: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for INS Gene

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for INS

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for INS Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for INS Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for INS Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for INS Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for INS Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Pancreas (x52.8).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for INS Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Islet of Langerhans (36.1) and Ovary (32.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for INS Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for INS Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of INS Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for INS Gene

  • Blood(4.8)
  • Pancreas(4.8)
  • Liver(3.9)
  • Muscle(3.9)
  • Nervous system(3.6)
  • Heart(3.4)
  • Kidney(3.2)
  • Intestine(3.1)
  • Adrenal gland(3)
  • Skin(3)
  • Thyroid gland(3)
  • Urine(2.9)
  • Stomach(2.7)
  • Bone(2.4)
  • Lung(2.3)
  • Bone marrow(2.1)
  • Eye(2.1)
  • Spleen(2.1)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for INS Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
  • cardiovascular
  • digestive
  • endocrine
  • immune
  • integumentary
  • nervous
  • reproductive
  • skeletal muscle
  • skeleton
  • urinary
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • ear
  • eye
  • eyelid
  • face
  • forehead
  • head
  • lip
  • nose
  • skull
  • chest wall
  • heart
  • abdominal wall
  • kidney
  • pancreas
  • penis
  • placenta
  • uterus
  • ankle
  • digit
  • elbow
  • finger
  • foot
  • hand
  • hip
  • knee
  • lower limb
  • shoulder
  • toe
  • upper limb
  • wrist
  • blood
  • blood vessel
  • peripheral nerve
  • peripheral nervous system
  • skin
  • white blood cell
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with INS: view

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for INS Gene

Orthologs for INS Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for INS Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia INS 34 35
  • 98.18 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia INS 34
  • 86.06 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia INS 35
  • 84 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ins2 34 16 35
  • 82.42 (n)
Ins1 35
  • 80 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ins2 34
  • 81.21 (n)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves INS 34 35
  • 65.42 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 35
  • 55 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia ins 34
  • 64.08 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ins 34 35
  • 61.78 (n)
insb 35
  • 31 (a)
Species where no ortholog for INS was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for INS Gene

Gene Tree for INS (if available)
Gene Tree for INS (if available)

Paralogs for INS Gene

Paralogs for INS Gene

(3) SIMAP similar genes for INS Gene using alignment to 5 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with INS: view

Variants for INS Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for INS Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 11 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs121908259 untested, Maturity-onset diabetes of the young 10 (MODY10) [MIM:613370] 2,160,955(-) GATGC(A/G)CCTCC nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense
rs121908260 Pathogenic, Maturity-onset diabetes of the young 10 (MODY10) [MIM:613370] 2,160,835(-) GGAAC(A/G)AGGCT nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense
rs121908261 Pathogenic, Diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent, 2 (IDDM2) [MIM:125852] 2,160,809(-) AGACC(C/T)GCCGG nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense
rs121908272 untested, Diabetes mellitus, permanent neonatal (PNDM) [MIM:606176] 2,160,887(-) ACCAA(C/G)ACCTG nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense
rs121908273 untested, Diabetes mellitus, permanent neonatal (PNDM) [MIM:606176] 2,160,868(-) ACACC(C/T)GGTGG nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for INS Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv1566n54 CNV loss 21841781
dgv1567n54 CNV loss 21841781
nsv467645 CNV gain 19166990
nsv553047 CNV gain 21841781
nsv553068 CNV loss 21841781
nsv553069 CNV loss 21841781
nsv553070 CNV loss 21841781
nsv553076 CNV loss 21841781
nsv553077 CNV loss 21841781
nsv553078 CNV loss 21841781
nsv951284 CNV deletion 24416366

Variation tolerance for INS Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 48.7% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.10; 2.26% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for INS Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for INS Gene

Disorders for INS Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(169) MalaCards diseases for INS Gene - From: OMIM, ClinVar, GeneTests, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 10
  • maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 10
  • hpri
diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent, 2
  • type 1 diabetes mellitus 2
diabetes mellitus, permanent neonatal
  • diabetes, permanent neonatal
neonatal diabetes mellitus
  • diabetes mellitus syndrome in newborn infant
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search INS in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent, 2 (IDDM2) [MIM:125852]: A multifactorial disorder of glucose homeostasis that is characterized by susceptibility to ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. Clinical features are polydipsia, polyphagia and polyuria which result from hyperglycemia-induced osmotic diuresis and secondary thirst. These derangements result in long-term complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:18192540}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Diabetes mellitus, permanent neonatal (PNDM) [MIM:606176]: A rare form of diabetes distinct from childhood-onset autoimmune diabetes mellitus type 1. It is characterized by insulin-requiring hyperglycemia that is diagnosed within the first months of life. Permanent neonatal diabetes requires lifelong therapy. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:17855560, ECO:0000269 PubMed:18162506}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Hyperproinsulinemia (HPRI) [MIM:616214]: An autosomal dominant condition characterized by elevated levels of serum proinsulin-like material. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:1601997, ECO:0000269 PubMed:2196279, ECO:0000269 PubMed:3470784, ECO:0000269 PubMed:4019786}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Maturity-onset diabetes of the young 10 (MODY10) [MIM:613370]: A form of diabetes that is characterized by an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, onset in childhood or early adulthood (usually before 25 years of age), a primary defect in insulin secretion and frequent insulin-independence at the beginning of the disease. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:18162506, ECO:0000269 PubMed:18192540, ECO:0000269 PubMed:20226046, ECO:0000269 PubMed:25423173}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Genatlas disease for INS Gene

diabetes,with hyperproinsulinemia,putative susceptibility factor for obesity in association with IgF2 in British population

Relevant External Links for INS

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with INS: view

Publications for INS Gene

  1. Insulin mutation screening in 1,044 patients with diabetes: mutations in the INS gene are a common cause of neonatal diabetes but a rare cause of diabetes diagnosed in childhood or adulthood. (PMID: 18162506) Edghill E.L. … Ellard S. (Diabetes 2008) 3 4 46 64
  2. Insulin gene mutations as a cause of permanent neonatal diabetes. (PMID: 17855560) Stoy J. … Bell G.I. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2007) 3 4 22 64
  3. Susceptibility to insulin dependent diabetes mellitus maps to a 4.1 kb segment of DNA spanning the insulin gene and associated VNTR. (PMID: 8358440) Lucassen A.M. … Bell J.I. (Nat. Genet. 1993) 3 4 46 64
  4. A mutation in the B chain coding region is associated with impaired proinsulin conversion in a family with hyperproinsulinemia. (PMID: 3470784) Chan S.J. … Steiner D.F. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1987) 3 4 46 64
  5. Sequence of the human insulin gene. (PMID: 6243748) Bell G.I. … Goodman H.M. (Nature 1980) 2 3 4 64

Products for INS Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for INS

Sources for INS Gene

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