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Aliases for IK Gene

Aliases for IK Gene

  • IK Cytokine, Down-Regulator Of HLA II 2 3 5
  • Cytokine IK 3 4
  • IK Factor 3 4
  • RED 3 4
  • RER 3 4
  • Chondrosarcoma-Associated Protein 2 3
  • Prer Protein 3
  • Protein Red 3
  • Protein RER 4
  • RD Element 3
  • CSA2 3

External Ids for IK Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for IK Gene

  • GC05P139843
  • GC05P140610
  • GC05P140009
  • GC05P140055
  • GC05P139992
  • GC05P139993
  • GC05P140007
  • GC05P140028
  • GC05P135173
  • GC05P141198
  • GC05P141473
  • GC05P141579
  • GC05P141687
  • GC05P141789
  • GC05P141881

Summaries for IK Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for IK Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene was identified by its RED repeat, a stretch of repeated arginine, glutamic acid and aspartic acid residues. The protein localizes to discrete dots within the nucleus, excluding the nucleolus. Its function is unknown. This gene maps to chromosome 5; however, a pseudogene may exist on chromosome 2. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for IK Gene

IK (IK Cytokine, Down-Regulator Of HLA II) is a Protein Coding gene. GO annotations related to this gene include identical protein binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for IK Gene

  • May bind to chromatin.

Gene Wiki entry for IK Gene

Additional gene information for IK Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for IK Gene

Genomics for IK Gene

Regulatory Elements for IK Gene

Enhancers for IK Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH05H139633 2.1 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 30.8 -993.7 -993693 40.3 MLX ZFP64 YBX1 FEZF1 DMAP1 YY1 ZNF143 SP3 NFYC MEF2D IK APBB3 ANKHD1 TMCO6 TMEM173 LOC101929719 PSD2 DNAJC18 LOC105379194 CXXC5
GH05H140399 1.2 ENCODE 34.3 -245.0 -245030 4.7 ZFP64 DMAP1 YY1 ZNF143 SP3 NFYC ZNF610 ZNF585B GLIS1 NBN PURA HARS2 IK ANKHD1 PCDHB18P APBB3 PCDHGA6 SRA1 VTRNA1-1 CD14
GH05H141563 1.6 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 20.1 +917.4 917355 1.4 FOXA2 PKNOX1 ARNT DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 ZNF143 ZNF207 FOS SP3 HARS2 IK PCDHB8 PCDHB3 PCDHA6 PCDHB9 PCDHB7 ENSG00000272108 PCDHB15 PCDHGC3
GH05H139683 2 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 12.9 -954.2 -954199 18.9 HDGF PKNOX1 FOXA2 ARNT ARID4B DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 ZNF143 ZNF548 ANKHD1 HARS2 WDR55 CXXC5 TMCO6 IK PURA LOC101929719 MATR3 APBB3
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around IK on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for IK Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00000187814 642 1801 HDGF FOXA2 PKNOX1 ARNT SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 ZNF766 ZNF207

Genomic Locations for IK Gene

Genomic Locations for IK Gene
15,423 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for IK Gene

Genes around IK on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
IK Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for IK Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for IK Gene

Proteins for IK Gene

  • Protein details for IK Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Red
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q6IPD8

    Protein attributes for IK Gene

    557 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    65602 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for IK Gene

Post-translational modifications for IK Gene

  • Ubiquitination at posLast=164164, posLast=173173, and posLast=260260
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for IK Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for IK Gene

Domains & Families for IK Gene

Gene Families for IK Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Protein Domains for IK Gene


Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for IK Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the RED family.
  • Belongs to the RED family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with IK: view

Function for IK Gene

Molecular function for IK Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
cytokine IK (19kDa) downregulating HLA class II expression on the cell surface
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
May bind to chromatin.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for IK Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for IK Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 22190034
GO:0042802 identical protein binding IPI 22365833
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with IK: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with IK: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for IK Gene

Inhibitory RNA Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for IK Gene

Localization for IK Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for IK Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for IK gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 5
extracellular 4
cytosol 2

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Nuclear speckles (4)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for IK Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000228 colocalizes_with nuclear chromosome IMP 24252166
GO:0005615 extracellular space TAS --
GO:0005634 nucleus IEA --
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm IDA 24252166
GO:0016607 nuclear speck IDA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with IK: view

Pathways & Interactions for IK Gene

No Data Available

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for IK Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000278 mitotic cell cycle IMP 24252166
GO:0006955 immune response TAS --
GO:0007094 mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint IMP 22351768
GO:0007267 cell-cell signaling TAS --
GO:0034501 protein localization to kinetochore IMP 22351768
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with IK: view

No data available for Pathways by source and SIGNOR curated interactions for IK Gene

Drugs & Compounds for IK Gene

No Compound Related Data Available

Transcripts for IK Gene

Unigene Clusters for IK Gene

IK cytokine, down-regulator of HLA II:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for IK Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for IK Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for IK Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for IK Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for IK Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Adrenal (14.1), Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (13.0), and Blymphocyte (6.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for IK Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for IK Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of IK Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for IK Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for IK Gene:

Tissue specificity: Ubiquitous.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for IK Gene

  • Lung(4.7)
  • Nervous system(4.7)
  • Liver(4.5)
  • Skin(3.4)
  • Eye(2.9)
  • Intestine(2.5)
  • Heart(2.4)
  • Muscle(2.4)
  • Spleen(2.4)
  • Blood(2.2)
  • Kidney(2.2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with IK: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for IK Gene

Orthologs for IK Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for IK Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia IK 33
  • 99.76 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia IK 34
  • 92 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia IK 33 34
  • 91.83 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia IK 33
  • 91.65 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ik 16 34 33
  • 90.84 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ik 33
  • 90.31 (n)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves IK 33 34
  • 83.91 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia IK 34
  • 51 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia Str.11062 33
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.24451 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ik 33 34
  • 75.56 (n)
wufb54c03 33
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.755 33
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP004738 33
  • 58.55 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta beag 33
  • 57.77 (n)
CG18005 34 35
  • 46 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea smu-2 34
  • 35 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.10369 34
  • 52 (a)
Species where no ortholog for IK was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for IK Gene

Gene Tree for IK (if available)
Gene Tree for IK (if available)

Paralogs for IK Gene

No data available for Paralogs for IK Gene

Variants for IK Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for IK Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 05 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs757982865 Pathogenic 140,647,330(+) CCTTC(G/T)TCAGC nc-transcript-variant, upstream-variant-2KB, reference, missense, utr-variant-3-prime
rs778593 Likely benign 140,647,631(+) AGTGC(C/T)CCGGT nc-transcript-variant, downstream-variant-500B, upstream-variant-2KB, utr-variant-5-prime
rs778594 Likely benign 140,647,719(+) AAAAG(C/T)ATTGT nc-transcript-variant, downstream-variant-500B, upstream-variant-2KB, utr-variant-5-prime
rs1057518631 Uncertain significance 140,647,265(-) TCTGG(-/G)CCCGC nc-transcript-variant, upstream-variant-2KB, reference, utr-variant-3-prime, frameshift-variant
rs143857164 Uncertain significance 140,647,633(+) TGCTC(C/T)GGTCT nc-transcript-variant, downstream-variant-500B, upstream-variant-2KB, utr-variant-5-prime

Variation tolerance for IK Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 29% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.33; 26.31% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for IK Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for IK Gene

Disorders for IK Gene

Relevant External Links for IK

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:

No disorders were found for IK Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for IK Gene

Publications for IK Gene

  1. A new cytokine (IK) down-regulating HLA class II: monoclonal antibodies, cloning and chromosome localization. (PMID: 7970704) Krief P … Azzarone B (Oncogene 1994) 2 3 4 22 60
  2. An approach based on a genome-wide association study reveals candidate loci for narcolepsy. (PMID: 20677014) Shimada M … Tokunaga K (Human genetics 2010) 3 45 60
  3. Fine mapping of the CELIAC2 locus on chromosome 5q31-q33 in the Finnish and Hungarian populations. (PMID: 19845895) Koskinen LL … Saavalainen P (Tissue antigens 2009) 3 45 60
  4. Isolation, sequencing and expression of RED, a novel human gene encoding an acidic-basic dipeptide repeat. (PMID: 10216252) Assier E … Rich T (Gene 1999) 3 4 60
  5. Implication of a new molecule IK in CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation. (PMID: 9160666) Cao LX … Krief P (Blood 1997) 3 22 60

Products for IK Gene

Sources for IK Gene

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